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/" 

A BE-RX 

LIBRARY i 

UNIVERSITY OF 



V 





THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



. AGRICULTURE 
BEQUEST 

OF 
ANITA D. S. BLAKE 



tlsa^^sal* 



- 














IDA SAXTON McKINLEY. 



A COMPREHENSIVE CYCLOPEDIA OF INFORMATION 

FOR THE HOME 



CONTAINING 



COOKING, TOILET AND HOUSEHOLD RECIPES, MENUS, DINNER-GIVING, TABLE 

ETIQUETTE, CARE OF THE SICK, HEALTH SUGGESTIONS, 

FACTS WORTH KNOWING, ETC. 



BY 

HUGO ZIEMANN AND MRS. F. L GILLETTE 

STEWARD OF THE WHITE HOUSE 




THE SAALFIELD PUBLISHING CO. 

NEW YORK AKRON, OHIO CHICAGO 

1901 



COPYRIGHT, 1887, BY F. L. GILLETTE. 



COPYRIGHT, 1894, BY THE WERNER COMPANY. 



COPYRIGHT, 1899, BY THE WERNER COMPANY. 



COPYRIGHT, 1900, BY THE SAALFIELD PUBLISHING CO. 



AGRICULTURE 
GIFT 




1 4 04 

A 



TO THE 

WIVES OF OUR PRESIDENTS, 
THOSE NOBLE WOMEN WHO HAVE GRACED THE 

WHITE HOUSE, 

AND WHOSE NAMES AND MEMORIES ARE 
DEAR TO ALL AMERICANS, 

THIS VOLUME 

Is AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 
BY THE AUTHOR. 



113 

(i) 




^S^g^^^^g^^3^^^1^* 



PUBLISHERS' PREFACE 



a^s^o? 

IN presenting to the public the "WHITE HOUSE COOK BOOK," the pub- 
lishers believe they can justly claim that it more fully represents the 
progress and present perfection of the culinary art than any previous 
work. In point of authorship, it stands preeminent. Hugo Ziemann 
was at one time caterer for that Prince Napoleon who was killed while 
fighting the Zulus in Africa. He was afterwards steward of the famous 
Hotel Splendide in Paris. Later he conducted the celebrated Brunswick 
Cafe in New York, and still later he gave to the Hotel Richelieu, in Chi- 
cago, a cuisine which won the applause of even the gourmets of foreign 
lands. It was here that he laid the famous "spread" to which the chiefs 
of the warring factions of the Republican Convention sat down in June, 
1888, and from which they arose with asperities softened, differences har- 
monized and victory organized. 

Mrs. F. L. Gillette is no less proficient and capable, having made a life- 
long and thorough study of cookery and housekeeping, especially as 
adapted to the practical wants of average American homes. 

The book has been prepared with great care. Every recipe has been 
tried and tested, and can be relied upon as one of the best of its kind. It 
is comprehensive, filling completely, it is believed, the requirements of 
housekeepers of all classes. It embodies several original and commend- 
able features, among which may be mentioned the menus for the holidays 
and for one week in each month in the year, thus covering all varieties of 
seasonable foods ; the convenient classification and arrangement of topics ; 
the simplified method of explanation in preparing an article, in the order 
of manipulation, thereby enabling the most inexperienced to clearly com- 
prehend it. 

The subject of carving has been given a prominent place, not only be- 
cause of its special importance in a work of this kind, but particularly 

(iii) 



iv PUBLISHERS' PEE FACE. 

because it contains entirely new and original designs, and is so far a de- 
parture from the usual mode of treating the subject. 

Interesting information is given concerning the White House; how its 
hospitality is conducted, the menus served on special occasions, views of 
the interior, portraits of all the ladies of the White House, etc. 

Convenience has been studied in the make-up of the book. The type is 
large and plain ; it is sewed by patent flexible process, so that when 
opened it will not close of itself, and it is bound in enameled cloth, 

adapted for use in the kitchen. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 




CONTENTS. 



* * * 

PAGE 

ARTICLES REQUIRED FOR THE KITCHEN, 560 

BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC., . . . 237 

BREAD, . 226 

BUTTER AND CHEESE, 208 

CAKES, '. . . 268 

CANNED FRUITS, , 417 

CARVING, 7 

CATSUPS, 168 

COFFEE, TEA AND BEVERAGES, 437 

COLORING FOR FRUIT, ETC., 423 

CONFECTIONERY, 425 

CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS, 326 

DINNER GIVING, 571 

DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS, 362 

DYEING OR COLORING, 563 

EGGS AND OMELETS, 213 

FACTS WORTH KNOWING, . 539 

FILLINGS FOR LAYER CAKES, 273 

FISH, 48 

FOR THE SICK, 488 

FRENCH WORDS IN COOKING, 559 

FROSTING OR ICING, 270 

HEALTH SUGGESTIONS, 498 

HOUSEKEEPERS' TIME-TABLE, 517 

ICE-CREAM AND ICES, .... 357 

MACARONI, 206 

MANAGEMENT OF STATE DINNERS AT WHITE HOUSE, 485 

MEASURES AND WEIGHTS IN ORDINARY USE, 575 

MEATS, 103 

MENUS, 456 

MISCELLANEOUS 559 

(v) 



vi CONTENTS. 

PASS 

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES, 518 

MODES OF FRYING, , -47 

MUTTON AND LAMB, 130 

PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS, 303 

PICKLES, 171 

PORK, 138 

POULTRY AND GAME, 78 

PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC., 403 

SALADS, 161 

SANDWICHES, 224 

SAUCES AND DRESSING, 149 

SAUCES FOR PUDDING, 397 

SHELL FISH, 64 

SM.LL POINTS ON TABLE ETIQUETTE 567 

SOUPS, 27 

SOUPS WITHOUT MEATS, 41 

SPECIAL MENUS, 481 

TOAST, 263 

TOILET RECIPES AND ITEMS, 549 

VARIETIES OF SEASONABLE FOOD, 451 

VEGETABLES, 182 





FRANCES FOLSOM CLEVELAND. 



WHITE HOUSE COOK BOOK 

* * * 

CARVING 

CARVING is one important acquisition in the routine of daily liv- 
ing, and all should try to attain a knowledge or ability to do it 
well, and withal gracefully. 

When carving use a chair slightly higher than the ordinary 
size, as it gives a better purchase on the meat, and appears more graceful 
than when standing, as is often quite necessary when carving a turkey, or 
a very large joint. More depends on skill than strength. The platter 
should be placed opposite, and sufficiently near to give perfect command 
of the article to be carved, the knife of medium size, sharp with a keen 
edge. Commence by cutting the slices thin, laying them carefully to one 
side of the platter, then afterwards placing the desired amount on each 
guest's plate, to be served in turn by the servant. 

In carving fish, care should be taken to help it in perfect flakes; for if 
these are broken the beauty of the fish is lost. The carver should acquaint 
himself with the choicest parts and morsels; and to give each guest an 
equal share of those tidbits should be his maxim. Steel knives and forks 
should on no account be used in helping fish, as these are are liable to 
impart a very disagreeable flavor. A fish-trowel of silver or plated silver 
is the proper article to use. 

Gravies should be sent to the table very hot, and in helping one to 
gravy or melted butter, place it on a vacant side of the plate, not pour it 
over their meat, fish or fowl, that they may use only as much as they like. 

When serving fowls, or meats, accompanied with stuffing, the guests 
should be asked if they would have a portion, as it is not every one to 
whom the flavor of stuffing is agreeable; in filling their plates, avoid heap- 
ing one thing upon another, as it makes a bad appearance. 

A word about the care of carving knives: a fine steel knife should not 
come in contact with intense heat, because it destroys its temper, and 

(7) 



8 



BEEF. 



therefore impairs its cutting qualities. Table carving knives should not 
be used in the kitchen, either around the stove, or for cutting bread, meats, 
vegetables, etc.; a fine whetstone should be kept for sharpening, and the 
knife cleaned carefully to avoid dulling its edge, all of which is quite 
essential to successful carving. 




No. 1. 

No. 2. 
No. 3. 
No. 4. 

No. 5. 
No. 6. 
No. 7. 

No. 8. 
No. 9. 



BEEF. 

HIND-QUARTER. 

Used for choice roasts, the porter-house and sirloin steaks. 
Rump, used for steaks, stews and corned beef. 
Aitch-bone, used for boiling-pieces, stews and pot roasts. 
Buttock or round, used for steaks, pot roasts, beef a la mode; also a 

prime boiling-piece. 

Mouse-round, used for boiling and stewing. 
Shin or leg, used for soups, hashes, etc. 
Thick flank, cut with under fat, is a prime boiling-piece, good for 

stews and corned beef, pressed beef. 
Veiny piece, used for corned beef, dried beef. 
Thin flank, used for corned beef and boiling-pieces. 



FORE-QUARTER. 

No. 10. Five ribs called the fore-rib. This is considered the primest piece 

for roasting; also makes the finest steaks. 
No. 11. Four ribs, called the middle ribs, used for roasting. 
No. 12. Chuck ribs, used for second quality of roasts and steaks. 



BEEF. 



9 



No. 13. Brisket, used for corned beef, stews, soups and spiced beef. 

No. 14. Shoulder-piece, used for stews, soups, pot-roasts, mince-meat and 

hashes. 
Nos. 15, 16. Neck, clod or sticking-piece, used for stocks,/ gravies, soups, 

mince-pie meat, hashes, bologna sausages, etc. 
No. 17. Shin or shank, used mostly for soups and stewing. 
No. 18. Cheek. 

The following is a classification of the qualities of meat, according to 
the several joints of beef, when cut up. 

First Class. Includes the sirloin with the kidney suet (1), the rump 
steak piece (2), the fore-rib (11). 

Second Class. The buttock or round (4), the thick flank (7), the middle 
ribs (11). 

Third Class. The aitch-bone (3), the mouse-round (5), the thin flank 
(8, 9), the chuck (12), the shoulder-piece (14), the brisket (13). 

Fourth Class. The clod, neck and sticking-piece (15, 16). 

Fifth Class. Shin or shank (17). 




VEAL. 




VEAL. 

HIND-QUARTER. 

No. 1. Loin, the choicest cuts used for roasts and chops. 

No. 2. Fillet, used for roasts and cutlets. 

No. 3. Loin, chump-end used for roasts and chops. 

No. 4. The hind-knuckle or hock, used for stews, pot-pies, meat-pies. 

FORE-QUARTER. 

No. 5. Neck, best end used for roasts, stews and chops. 
No. 6. Breast, best end used for roasting, stews and chops. 
No. 7. Blade-bone, used for pot-roasts and baked dishes. 
No. 8. Fore-knuckle, used for soups and stews. 
No. 9. Breast, brisket-end used for baking, stews and pot-pies. 
No. 10. Neck, scrag-end used for stews, broth, meat-pies, etc. 

In cutting up veal, generally, the hind-quarter is divided into loin 
and leg, and the fore-quarter into breast, neck and shoulder. 

The Several Parts of a Moderately -si zed, Well-fed Calf, about eight weeks 
old, are nearly of the following weights: Loin and chump, 18 Ibs.; fillet, 
12| Ibs.; hind-knuckle, 5-J Ibs.; shoulder, 11 Ibs.; neck, 11 Ibs.; breast, 9 Ibs., 
and fore-knuckle, 5 Ibs. ; making a total of 144 Ibs. weight. 



MUTTON. 



U 




No. 1. Leg, used for roasts and for boiling. 
No. 2. Shoulder, used for baked dishes and roasts. 
No. 3. Loin, best end used for roasts, chops. 
No. 4. Loin, chump-end used for roasts and chops. 

No. 5. Back, or rib chops, used for French chops, rib chops, either for fry- 
ing or broiling; also used for choice stews. 
No. 6. Breast, used for roast, baked dishes, stews, chops. 
No. 7. Neck or scrag-end, used for cutlets, stews and meat-pies. 

NOTE: A saddle of mutton or double loin is two loins cut off before the 
carcass is split open down the back. French chops are a small rib chop, 
the end of the bone trimmed off and the meat and fat cut away from the 
thin end, leaving the round piece of meat attached to the larger end, 
which leaves the small rib-bone bare. Very tender and sweet. 

Mutton is prime when cut from a carcass which has been fed out of 
doors, and allowed to run upon the hillside; they are best when about 
three years old. The fat will then be abundant, white and hard, the flesh 
juicy and firm, and of a clear red color. 

For mutton roasts, choose the shoulder, the saddle, or the loin or 
haunch. The leg should be boiled. Almost any part will do for broth. 

Lamb born in the middle of the winter, reared under shelter, and fed in 
a great measure upon milk, then killed in the spring, is considered a great 
delicacy, though lamb is good at a year old. Like all young animals, lamb 
ought to be thoroughly cooked, or it is most unwholesome. 



12 



PORK. 




PORK. 

No. 1. Leg, used for smoked hams, roasts and corned pork. 

No. 2. Hind-loin, used for roasts, chops and baked dishes. 

No. 3. Fore-loin or ribs, used for roasts, baked dishes or chops. 

No. 4. Spare-rib, used for roasts, chops, stews. 

No. 5. Shoulder, used for smoked shoulder, roasts and corned pork. 

No. 6. Brisket and flank, used for pickling in salt and smoked bacon. 

The cheek is used for pickling in salt, also the shank or shin. The feet 
are usually used for souse and jelly. 

For family use, the leg is the most economical, that is when fresh, and 
the loin the richest. The best pork is from carcasses weighing from fifty 
to about one hundred and twenty-five pounds. Pork is a white and close 
meat, and it is almost impossible to over-roast or cook it too much; when 
underdone it is exceedingly unwholesome. 



VENISON. 



13 




VENISON. 

No. 1. Shoulder, used for roasting; it may be boned and stuffed, then 

afterwards baked or roasted. 
No. 2. Fore-loin, used for roasts and steaks. 
No. 3. Haunch or loin, used for roasts, steaks, stews. The ribs cut close 

may be used for soups. Good for pickling and making into 

smoked venison. 

No. 4. Breast, used for baking dishes, stewing. 
No. 5. Scrag or neck, used for soups. 

The choice of venison should be judged by the fat, which, when the 
venison is young, should be thick, clear and close, and the meat a very 
dark red. The flesh of a female deer about four years old, is the sweetest 
and best of venison. 

Buck venison, which is in season from June to the end of September, is 
finer than doe venison, which is in season from October to December. 
Neither should be dressed at any other time of year, and no meat requires 
so much care as venison in killing, preserving and dressing. 



14 



SIKLOIN OF BEEF. 




SIRLOIN OF BEEF. 

THIS choice roasting-piece should be cut with one good firm stroke 
from end to end of the joint, at the upper part, in thin, long, even slices in 
the direction of the line from 1 to 2, cutting across the grain, serving each 
guest with some of the fat with the lean; this may be done by cutting a 
small, thin slice from underneath the bone from 5 to 6, through the ten- 
derloin. 

Another way of carving this piece, and which will be of great assist- 
ance in doing it well, is to insert the knife just above the bone at the bot- 
tom, and run sharply along, dividing the meat from the bone at the 
bottom and end, thus leaving it perfectly flat; then carve in long, thin 
slices the usual way. When the bone has been removed and the sirloin 
rolled before it is cooked, it is laid upon the platter on one end, and an 
even, thin slice is carved across the grain of the upper surface. 

Roast ribs should be carved in thin, even slices from the thick end 
towards the thin in the same manner as the sirloin; this can be more 
easily and cleanly done if the carving knife is first run along between the 
meat and the end and rib-bones, thus leaving it free from bone to be cut 
into slices. 

Tongue. To carve this it should be cut crosswise, the middle being 
the best; cut in very thin slices, thereby improving its delicacy, making it 
more tempting; as is the case of all well-carved meats. The root of the 
tongue is usually left on the platter. 



BREAST OF VEAL. 



15 




BREAST OF VEAL. 

THIS piece is quite similar to a fore-quarter of lamb after the shoulder 
has been taken off. A breast of veal consists of two parts, the rib-bones 
and the gristly brisket. These parts may be separated by sharply passing 
the carving knife in the direction of the line from 1 to 2; and when they 
are entirely divided, the rib-bones should be carved in the direction of the 
line from 5 1^*6, and the brisket can be helped by cutting slices from 
3 to 4. 

The carver should ask the guests whether they have a preference for 
the brisket or ribs; and if there be a sweetbread served with the dish, as is 
frequently with this roast of veal, each person should receive a piece. 

Though veal and lamb contain less nutrition than beef and mutton, in 
proportion to their weight, they are often preferred to these latter meats 
on account of their delicacy of texture and flavor. A whole breast of veal 
weighs from nine to twelve pounds. 



16 



A FILLET OF VEAL. 




A FILLET OF VEAL. 

A FILLET of veal is one of the prime roasts of veal; it is taken from the 
leg above the knuckle; a piece weighing from ten to twelve pounds is a 
good size and requires about four hours for roasting. Before roasting, it is 
dressed with a force meat or stuffing placed in the cavity from where the 
bone was taken out and the flap tightly secured together with skewers; 
many bind it together with tape. 

To carve it, cut in even thin slices off from the whole of the upper part 
or top, in the same manner as from a rolled roast of beef, as in the direc- 
tion of the figs. 1 and 2; this gives the person served some of the dress- 
ing with each slice of meat. 

Veal is very unwholesome unless it is cooked thoroughly, and when 
roasted should be of a rich brown color. Bacon, fried pork, sausage-balls, 
with greens, are among the accompaniments of roasted veal, also a cut 
lemon. 



NECK OF VEAL. 



17 




NECK OF VEAL. 

THE best end of a neck of veal makes a very good roasting-piece; it, 
however, is composed of bone and ribs that make it quite difficult to carve, 
unless it is done properly. To attempt to carve each chop and serve it, 
you would not only place too large a piece upon the plate of the person you 
intend to serve, but you would waste much time, and should the vertebrae 
have not been removed by the butcher, you would be compelled to exer- 
cise such a degree of strength that would make one's appearance very 
ungraceful, and possibly, too, throwing gravy over your neighbor sitting 
next to you. The correct way to carve this roast is to cut diagonally from 
fig. 1 to 2, and help in slices of moderate thickness; then it may be cut 
from 3 to 4, in order to separate the small bones; divide and serve them, 
having first inquired if they are desired. 

This joint is usually sent to the table accompanied by bacon, ham, 
tongue, or pickled pork, on a separate dish and with a cut lemon on a 
plate. There are also a number of sauces that are suitable with this roast. 



18 



LEG OF MUTTON. 




LEG OF MUTTON. 

THE best mutton, and that from which most nourishment is obtained, 
is that of sheep from three to six years old, and which have been fed on 
dry, sweet pastures; then mutton is in its prime, the flesh being firm, juicy, 
dark colored and full of the richest gravy. When mutton is two years 
old, the meat is flabby, pale and savorless. 

In carving a roasted leg, the best slices are found by cutting quite 
down to the bone, in the direction from 1 to 2, and slices may be taken 
from either side. 

Some very good cuts are taken from the broad end from 5 to 6, and the 
fat on this ridge is very much liked by many. The cramp-bone is a deli- 
cacy, and is obtained by cutting down to the bone at 4, and running the 
knife under it in a semicircular direction to 3. The nearer the knuckle 
the drier the meat, but the under side contains the most finely grained 
meat, from which slices may be cut lengthwise. When sent to the table 
a frill of paper around the knuckle will improve its appearance. 



FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB. 



19 




FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB. 

THE first cut to be made in carving a fore-quarter of lamb is to sepa- 
rate the shoulder from the breast and ribs; this is done by passing a sharp 
carving knife lightly around the dotted line as shown by the figs. 3, 4, and 
5, so as to cut through the skin, and then, by raising with a little force the 
shoulder, into which the fork should be firmly fixed, it will easily separate 
with just a little more cutting with the knife; care should be taken not to 
cut away too much of the meat from the breast when dividing the shoul- 
der from it, as that would mar its appearance. The shoulder may be 
placed upon a separate dish for convenience. The next process is to 
divide the ribs from the brisket by cutting through the meat in the line 
from 1 to 2; then the ribs may be carved in the direction of the line 
6 to 7, and the brisket from 8 to 9. The carver should always ascertain 
whether the guest prefers ribs, brisket, or a piece of the shoulder. 



20 HAM. 




HAM, 

THE carver in cutting a ham must be guided according as he desires to 
practice economy, or have at once fine slices out of the prime part. 
Under the first supposition, he will commence at the knuckle end, and cut 
off thin slices towards the thick and upper part of the ham. 

To reach the choicer portion of the ham, the knife, which must be very 
sharp and thin, should be carried quite down to the bone through the 
thick fat in the direction of the line from 1 to 2. The slices should be 
even and thin, cutting both lean and fat together, always cutting down to 
the bone. Some cut a circular hole in the middle of a ham gradually 
enlarging it outwardly. Then again many carve a ham by first cutting 
from 1 to 2, then across the other way from 3 to 4. Remove the skin 
after the ham is cooked and send to the table with dots of dry pepper or 
dry mustard on the top, a tuft of fringed paper twisted about the knuckle, 
and plenty of fresh parsley around the dish. This will always insure an 
inviting appearance. 

Roast Pig. The modern way of serving a pig is not to send it to the 
table whole, but have it carved partially by the cook; first, by dividing the 
shoulder from the body; then the leg in the same manner; also separating 
the ribs into convenient portions. The head may be divided and placed 
on the same platter. To be served as hot as possible. 

A Spare Rib of Pork is carved by cutting slices from the fleshy part,, 
after which the bones should be disjointed and separated. 

A leg of pork may be carved in the same manner as a ham. 



HAUNCH OF VENISON. 



21 




HAUNCH OF VENISON. 

A HAUNCH of venison is the prime joint, and is carved very similar to 
almost any roasted or boiled leg ; it should be first cut crosswise down to 
the bone following the line from 1 to 2 ; then tarn the platter with the 
knuckle farthest from you, put in the point of the knife, and cut down as 
far as you can, in the directions shown by the dotted lines from 3 to 4; 
then there can be taken out as many slices as is required on the right and 
left of this. Slices of venison should be cut thin, and gravy given with 
them, but as there is a special sauce made with red wine and currant jelly 
to accompany this meat, do not serve gravy before asking the guest if he 
pleases to have any. 

The fat of this meat is like mutton, apt to cool soon, and become hard 
and disagreeable to the palate ; it should, therefore, be served always on 
warm plates, and the platter kept over a hot-water dish, or spirit lamp. 
Many cooks dish it up with a white paper frill pinned around the knuckle 
bone. 

A haunch of mutton is carved the same as a haunch of venison. 



22 



TURKEY. 




TURKEY. 

A TURKEY having been relieved from strings and skewers used in truss- 
ing should be placed on the table with the head or neck at the carver's 
right hand. An expert carver places the fork in the turkey, and does not 
remove it until the whole' is divided. First insert the fork firmly in the 
lower part of the breast, just forward of fig. 2, then sever the legs and 
wings on both sides, if the whole is to be carved, cutting neatly through 
the joint next to the body, letting these parts lie on the platter. Next, 
cut downward from the breast from 2 to 3, as many even slices of the 
white meat as may be desired, placing the pieces neatly on one side of the 
platter. Now unjoint the legs and wings at the middle joint, which can 
be done very skillfully by a little practice. Make an opening into the 
cavity of the turkey for dipping out the inside dressing, by cutting a piece 
from the rear part 1, 1, called the apron. Consult the tastes of the guests 
as to which part is preferred ; if no choice is expressed, serve a portion of 
both light and dark meat. One of the most delicate parts of the turkey 
are two little muscles, lying in small dish-like cavities on each side of the 
back, a little behind the leg attachments ; the next most delicate meat 
fills the cavities in the neck bone, and next to this, that on the second 
joints. The lower part of the leg (or drumstick, as it is called) being 
hard, tough and stringy, is rarely ever helped to any one, but allowed to 
remain on the dish. 



ROAST GOOSE FOWLS. 



23 





ROAST GOOSE. 

To CARVE a goose, first begin by separating the leg from the body, by 
putting the fork into the small end of the limb, pressing it closely to the 
body, then passing the knife under at 2, and turning the leg back as you 
cut through the joint. To take off the wing, insert the fork in the small 
end of the pinion, and press it close to the body ; put the knife in at fig. 
1, and divide the joint. When the legs and wings are off, the breast may 
be carved in long, even slices, as represented in the lines from 1 to 2. The 
back and lower side bones, as well as the two lower side bones by the 
wing, may be cut off ; but the best pieces of the goose are the breast and 
thighs, after being separated from the drumsticks. Serve a little of the 
dressing from the inside, by making a circular slice in the apron at fig. 3. 
A goose should never be over a year old ; a tough goose is very difficult to 
carve, and certainly most difficult to eat. 

FOWLS. 

FIRST insert the knife between the leg and the body, and cut to the 
bone ; then turn the leg back with the fork, and if the fowl is tender the 
joint will give away easily. The wing is broken off the same way, only 
dividing the joint with the knife, in the direction from 1 to 2. The four 
quarters having been removed in this way, take off the merry-thought and 
the neck-bones ; these last are to be removed by putting the knife in at 
figs. 3 and 4, pressing it hard, when they will break off from the part that 
sticks to the breast. To separate the breast from the body of the fowl, 
cut through the tender ribs close to the breast, quite down to the tail. 
Now turn the fowl over, back upwards ; put the knife into the bone mid- 
way between the neck and the rump, and on raising the lower end it will 
separate readily. Turn now the rump from you, and take off very neatly 
the two side bones, and the fowl is carved. In separating the thigh from 
the drumstick, the knife must be inserted exactly at the joint, for if not 
accurately hit, some difficulty will be experienced to get them apart ; this 
is easily acquired by practice. There is no difference in carving roast and 



24 



ROAST DUCK PARTRIDGES. 



boiled fowls if full grown ; but in very young fowls the breast is usually 
served whole ; the wings and breast are considered the best parts, but, in 
young ones the legs are the most juicy. In the case of a capon or large 
fowl, slices may be cut off at the breast, the same as carving a pheasant. 





ROAST DUCK. 

A YOUNG duckling may be carved in the same manner as a fowl, the 
legs and wings being taken off first on either side. When the duck is full 
size, carve it like a goose ; first cutting it in slices from the breast, begin- 
ning close to the wing and proceeding upward towards the breast bone, as 
is represented by the lines 1 to 2. An opening may be made by cutting 
out a circular slice, as shown by the dotted lines at number 3. 

Some are fond of the feet, and when dressing the duck, these should be 
neatly skinned and never removed. Wild duck is highly esteemed by epi- 
cures ; it is trussed like a tame duck, and carved in the same manner, the 
breast being the choicest part. 

PARTRIDGES. 

PARTRIDGES are generally cleaned and trussed the same way as a pheas- 
ant, but the custom of cooking them with the heads on is going into dis- 
use somewhat. The usual way of carving them is similar to a pigeon, 
dividing it into two equal parts. Another method is to cut it into three 
pieces, by severing a wing and leg on either side from the body, by follow- 
ing the lines 1 to 2, thus making two servings of those parts, leaving the 
breast for a third plate. The third method is to thrust back the body 
from the legs, and cut through the middle of the breast, thus making four 
portions that may be served. Grouse and prairie-chicken are carved from 
the breast when they are large, and quartered or halved when of medium 
size. 



PHEASANTS PIGEONS. 25 




PHEASANT. 

PLACE your fork firmly in the centre of the breast of this large game- 
bird and cut deep slices to the bone at figs. 1 and 2; then take off the leg 
in the line from 3 and 4, and the wing 3 and 5, severing both sides the 
same. In taking off the wings, be careful not to cut too near the neck; if 
you do you will hit upon the neck-bone, from which the wing must be sepa- 
rated. Pass the knife through the line 6, and under the merry-thought 
towards the neck, which will detach it. Cut the other parts as in a fowl. 
The breast, wings and merry-thought of a pheasant are the most highly 
prized, although the legs are considered very finely flavored. Pheasants 
are frequently roasted with the head left on; in that case, when dressing 
them, bring the head round under the wing, and fix it on the point of a 

skewer. 

PIGEONS. 

A VERY good way of carving these birds is to insert the knife at fig. 1, 
and cut both ways to 2 and 3, when each portion may be divided into two 
pieces, then served. Pigeons, if not too large, may be cut in halves, either 
across or down the middle, cutting them into two equal parts; if young 
and small they may be served entirely whole. 

Tame pigeons should be cooked as soon as possible after they are killed, 
as they very quickly lose their flavor. Wild pigeons, on the contrary, 
should hang a day or two in a cool place before they are dressed. Oranges 
cut into halves are used as a garnish for dishes of small birds, such as 
pigeons, quail, woodcock, squabs, snipe, etc. These small birds are either 
served whole or split down the back, making two servings. 



26 



MACKEREL BOILED SALMON. 





MACKEREL. 

THE mackerel is one of the most beautiful of fish, being known by its 
silvery whiteness. It sometimes attains to the length of twenty inches, 
but usually, when fully grown, is about fourteen or sixteen inches long, 
and about two pounds in weight. To carve a baked mackerel, first remove 
the head and tail by cutting downward at 1 and 2; then split them down 
the back, so as to serve each person a part of each side piece. The roe 
should be divided in small pieces and served with each piece of fish. 
Other whole fish may be carved in the same manner. The fish is laid upon 
a little sauce or folded napkin, on a hot dish, and garnished with parsley. 

BOILED SALMON. 

THIS fish is seldom sent to the table whole, being too large for any 
ordinary sized family; the middle cut is considered the choicest to boil. 
To carve it, first run the knife down and along the upper side of the fish 
from 1 to 2, then again on the lower side from 3 to 4. Serve the thick 
part, cutting it lengthwise in slices in the direction of the line from 1 to 2, 
and the thin part breadthwise, or in the direction from 5 to 6. A slice of 
the thick with one of the thin, where lies the fat, should be served to each 
guest. Care should be taken when carving not to break the flakes of the 
fish, as that impairs its appearance. The flesh of the salmon is rich and 
delicious in flavor. Salmon is in season from the first of February to the 
end of August. 



SOUPS. 

* * * 

CONSOMME, or Stock, forms the basis of all meat soups, and also of all 
principal sauces. It is, therefore, essential to the success of 
these culinary operations to know the most complete and eco- 
nomical method of extracting from a certain quantity of meat 
the best possible stock or broth. Fresh, uncooked beef makes the best 
stock, with the addition of cracked bones, as the glutinous matter con- 
tained in them renders it important that they should be boiled with the 
meat, which adds to the strength and thickness of the soup. They are 
composed of an earthy substance to which they owe their solidity of 
gelatine, and a fatty fluid, something like marrow. Two ounces of them 
contain as much gelatine as one pound of meat; but in them, this is so 
encased in the earthy substance, that boiling water can dissolve only the 
surface of the whole bones, but by breaking them they can be dissolved 
more. When tiiere is an abundance of it, it causes the stock, when 
cold, to become a jelly. The flesh of old animals contains more flavor 
than the flesh of young ones. Brown meats contain more flavor than 
white. 

Mutton is too strong in flavor for good stock, while veal, although quite 
glutinous, furnishes very little nutriment. 

Some cooks use meat that has once been cooked; this renders little 
nourishment and destroys the flavor. It might answer for ready soup, but 
for stock to keep it is not as good, unless it should be roasted meats. 
Those contain higher fragrant properties; so by putting the remains of 
roast meats in the stock-pot you obtain a better flavor. 

The shin bone is generally used, but the neck or "sticking-piece," as 
the butchers call it, contains more of the substance that you want to 
extract, makes a stronger and more nutritious soup, than any other part 
of the animal. Meats for soup should always be put on to cook in cold 

(27) 



28 SOUPS. 

water, in a covered pot, and allowed to simmer slowly for several hours, in 
order that the essence of the meat may be drawn out thoroughly, an$ 
should be carefully skimmed to prevent it from becoming turbid, never 
allowed to boil fast at any time, and if more water is needed, use boiling 
water from the tea-kettle; cold or lukewarm water spoils the flavor. 
Never salt it before the meat is tender (as that hardens and toughens the 
meat), especially if the meat is to be eaten. Take off every particle of 
scum as it rises, and before the vegetables are put in. 

Allow a little less than a quart of water to a pound of meat and bone, 
and a teaspoonful of salt. When done, strain through a colander. If for 
clear soups, strain again through a hair sieve, or fold a clean towel in a 
colander set over an earthen bowl, or any dish large enough to hold the 
stock. As stated before, stock is not as- good when made entirely from 
cooked meats, but in a family where it requires a large joint roasted every- 
day, the bones and bits and under-done pieces of beef, or the bony struc- 
ture of turkey or chicken that has been left from carving, bones of roasted 
poultry, these all assist in imparting a rich dark color to soup, and would 
be sufficient, if stewed as above, to furnish a family, without buying fresh 
meat for the purpose ; still, with the addition of a little fresh meat it 
would be more nutritious. In cold weather you can gather them up for 
several days and put them to cook in cold water, and when done, strain, 
and put aside until needed. 

Soup will be as good the second day as the first if heated to the boiling 
point. It should never be left in the pot, but should be turned into a dish 
or shallow pan, and set aside to get cold. Never cover it up, as that will 
cause it to turn sour very quickly. 

Before heating a second time, remove all the fat from the top. If this 
be melted in, the flavor of the soup will certainly be spoiled. 

Thickened soups require nearly double the seasoning used for thin 
soups or broth. 

Coloring is used in some brown soups, the chief of which is brown 
burnt sugar, which is known as caramel by French cooks. 

Pounded spinach leaves give a fine green color to soup. Parsley, or 
the green leaves of celery, put in soup, will serve instead of spinach. 

Pound a large handful of spinach in a mortar, then tie it in a cloth, 
and wring out all the juice ; put this in the soup you wish to color green 
five minutes before taking it up. 

Mock turtle, and sometimes veal and lamb soups, should be this; 
color. 



SOUPS. 29 

Okras gives a green color to soup. 

To color soup red, skin six red tomatoes, squeeze out the seeds, and put 
them into the soup with the other vegetables or take the juice only, as 
directed for spinach. 

For white soups, which are of veal, lamb or chicken, none but white 
vegetables are used ; rice, pearl barley, vermicelli, or macaroni, for thick- 
ening. 

Grated carrot gives a fine amber color to soup ; it must be put in as 
soon as the soup is free from scum. 

Hotel and private-house stock is quite different. 

Hotels use meat in such large quantities that there is always more or 
less trimmings and bones of meat to add to fresh meats ; that makes very 
strong stock, which they use in most all soups and gravies and other made 
dishes. 

The meat from which soup has been made is good to serve cold thus : 
Take out all the bones, season with pepper and salt, and catsup, if liked, 
then chop it small, tie it in a cloth, and lay it between two plates, with a 
weight on the upper one ; slice it thin for luncheon or supper ; or make 
sandwiches of it ; or make a hash for breakfast ; or make it into balls, 
with the addition of a little wheat flour and an egg, and serve them fried 
in fat, or boil in the soup. 

An agreeable flavor is sometimes imparted to soup by sticking some 
cloves into the meat used for making stock ; a few slices of onions fried 
very brown in butter are nice ; also flour browned by simply putting it 
into a saucepan over the fire and stirring it constantly until it is a dark 
brown. 

Clear soups must be perfectly transparent, and thickened soups about 
the consistence of cream. When soups and gravies are kept from day to 
day in hot weather, they should be warmed up everyday, and put into 
fresh-scalded pans or tureens, and placed in a cool cellar. In temperate 
weather, every other day may be sufficient. 

HERBS AND VEGETABLES USED IN SOUPS. 

OF vegetables the principal ones are carrots, tomatoes, asparagus, green 
peas, okra, macaroni, green corn, beans, rice, vermicelli, Scotch barley, 
pearl barley, wheat flour, mushroom or mushroom catsup, parsnips, beet- 
root, turnips, leeks, garlic, shallots and onions; sliced onions fried with 
butter and flour until they are browned, then rubbed through a sieve, are 



30 SOUPS. 

excellent to heighten the color and flavor of brown sauces and soups. The 
herbs usually used in soups are parsley, common thyme, summer savory, 
knotted marjoram, and other seasonings, such as bay-leaves, tarragon, all- 
spice, cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, mace, black and white pepper, red pep- 
per, lemon peel and juice, orange peel and juice. The latter imparts a 
finer flavor and the acid much milder. These materials, with wine, and 
the various catsups, combined in various proportions, are, with other 
ingredients, made into almost an endless variety of excellent soups and 
gravies. Soups that are intended for the principal part of a meal certainly 
ought not to be flavored like sauces, which are only intended to give relish 
to some particular dish. 

STOCK. 

Six pounds of shin of beef, or six pounds of knuckle of veal; any 
bones, trimmings of poultry, or fresh meat; one-quarter pound of lean bacon 
or ham, two ounces of butter, two large onions, each stuck with cloves; 
one turnip, three carrots, one head of celery, two ounces of salt, one-half 
teaspoonful of whole pepper, one large blade of mace, one bunch of savory 
herbs except sage, four quarts and one-half-pint of cold water. 

Cut up the meat and bacon, or ham, into pieces of about three inches 
square; break the bones into small pieces, rub the butter on the bottom of 
the stewpan; put in one-half a pint of water, the broken bones, then meat 
and all other ingredients. Cover the stewpan, and place it on a sharp fire, 
occasionally stirring its contents. When the bottom of the pan becomes 
covered with a pale, jelly-like substance, add the four quarts of cold water, 
and simmer very gently for five or six hours. As we have said before, do 
not let it boil quickly. When nearly cooked, throw in a tablespoonful of 
salt to assist the scum to rise. Kemove every particle of scum whilst it is 
doing, and strain it through a fine hair sieve; when cool remove all grease. 
This stock will keep for many days in cold weather. 

Stock is the basis of many of the soups afterwards mentioned, and this 
will be found quite strong enough for ordinary purposes. Keep it in small 
jars, in a cool place. It makes a good gravy for hash meats; one table- 
spoonful of it is sufficient to impart a fine flavor to a dish of macaroni and 
various other dishes. Good soups of various kinds are made from it at 
short notice; slice off a portion of the jelly, add water, and whatever vege- 
tables and thickening preferred. It is best to partly cook the vegetables 
before adding to the, stock, as much boiling injures the flavoring of the 
soup. Season and boil a few moments and serve hot. 



SOUPS. 31 

WHITE STOCK. 

WHITE stock is used in the preparation of white soups, and is made by 
boiling six pounds of a knuckle of veal, cut up in small pieces, poultry 
trimmings, and four slices of lean ham. Proceed according to directions 
given in STOCK, on opposite page. 

TO CLARIFY STOCK. 

PLACE the stock in a clean saucepan, set it over a brisk fire. When 
boiling, add the white of one egg to each quart of stock, preceding as fol- 
lows: beat the whites of the eggs up well in a little water; then add a lit- 
tle hot stock; beat to a froth, and pour gradually into the pot; then beat 
the whole hard and long; allow it to boil up once, and immediately re- 
move and strain through a thin flannel cloth. 

BEEF SOUP. 

SELECT a small shin of beef of moderate size, crack the bone in small 
pieces, wash and place it in a kettle to boil, with five or six quarts of cold 
water. Let it boil about two hours, or until it begins to get tender, then 
season it with a tablespoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful of pepper; boil it 
one hour longer, then add to it one carrot, two turnips, two tablespoonfuls 
of rice or pearl barley, one head of celery, and a teaspoonful of summer 
savory powdered fine; the vegetables to be minced up in small pieces like 
dice. After these ingredients have boiled a quarter of an hour, put in two 
potatoes cut up in small pieces; let it boil half an hour longer; take the 
meat from the soup, and if intended to be served with it, take out the 
bones and lay it closely and neatly on a dish, and garnish with sprigs of 
parsley. 

Serve made mustard and catsup with it. It is very "nice pressed and 
eaten cold with mustard and vinegar, or catsup. Four hours are required 
for making this soup. Should any remain over the first day, it may be 
heated, with the addition of a little boiling water, and served again. Some 
fancy a glass of brown sherry added just before being served. Serve very 
hot. 

VEAL SOUP. (ExceUent.) 

PUT a knuckle of veal into three quarts of cold water, with a small 
quantity of salt, and one small tablespoonful of uncooked rice. Boil 
slowly, hardly above simmering, four hours, when the liquor should be 
reduced to half the usual quantity; remove from the fire. Into the tureen 
put the yolk of one egg, and stir well into it a teacupful of cream, or, in 



32 SOUPS. 

hot weather, new milk; add a piece of butter the size of a hickory nut; on 
this strain the soup, boiling hot, stirring all the time. Just at the last, 
beat it well for a minute. 

SCOTCH MUTTON BROTH. 

Six pounds neck of mutton, three quarts water, five carrots, five tur- 
nips, two onions, four tablespoonfuls barley, a little salt. Soak mutton in 
water for an hour, cut off scrag, and put it in stewpan with three quarts 
of water. As soon as it boils, skim well, and then simmer for one and 
one-half hours. Cut best end of mutton into cutlets, dividing it with two 
bones in each ; take off nearly all fat before you put it into broth ; skim 
the moment the meat boils, and every ten minutes afterwards ; add car- 
rots, turnips and onions, all cut into two or three pieces, then put them 
into soup soon enough to be thoroughly done ; stir in barley ; add salt to 
taste ; let all stew together for three and one-half hours ; about one-half 
hour before sending it to table, put in little chopped parsley and serve. 

Cut the meat off the scrag into small pieces, and send it to table in the 
tureen with the soup. The other half of the mutton should be served on 
a separate dish, with whole turnips boiled and laid round it. Many per- 
sons are fond of mutton that has been boiled in soup. 

You may thicken the soup with rice or barley that has first been soaked 
in cold water, or with green peas, or with young corn, cut down from the 
cob, or with tomatoes, scalded, peeled and cut into pieces. 

GAME SOUP. 

Two GROUSE or partridges, or, if you have neither, use a pair of rabbits ; 
half a pound of lean ham ; two medium-sized onions ; one pound of lean 
beef ; fried bread ; butter for frying ; pepper, salt, and two stalks of white 
celery cut into inch lengths ; three quarts of water. 

Joint your game neatly ; cut the ham and onions into small pieces, and 
fry all in butter to a light brown. Put into a soup-pot with the beef, cut 
into strips, and a little pepper. Pour on the water ; heat slowly, and stew 
gently two hours. Take out the pieces of bird, and cover in a bowl ; cook 
the soup an hour longer ; strain ; cool ; drop in the celery, and simmer ten 
minutes. Pour upon fried bread in the tureen. 

Venison soup made the same, with the addition of a tablespoonful of 
brown flour wet into, a paste with cold water, adding a tablespoonful of 
catsup, Worcestershire, or other pungent sauce, and a glass of Madeira or 
brown sherry. 



SOUPS. 33 

CONSOMME SOUP. 

TAKE good strong stock (see pages 27 and 30), remove all fat from the 
surface, and for each quart of the stock allow the white and shell of one 
egg and a tablespoonful of water, well whipped together. Pour this mix- 
ture into a saucepan containing the stock; place it over the fire and heat 
the contents gradually, stirring often to prevent the egg from sticking to 
the bottom of the saucepan. Allow it to boil gently until the stock looks 
perfectly clear under the egg, which will rise and float upon the surface in 
the form of a thick white scum. Now remove it and pour it into a folded 
towel laid in a colander set over an earthen bowl, allowing it to run 
through without moving or squeezing it. Season with more salt if needed, 
and quickly serve very hot. This should be a clear amber color. 

JULIENNE SOUP. 

CUT carrots and turnips into quarter-inch pieces the shape of dice; also 
celery into thin slices. Cover them with boiling water; add a teaspoonful 
of salt, half a teaspoonful pepper, and cook until soft. In another sauce- 
pan have two quarts of boiling stock (see pages 27 and 30), to which add 
the cooked vegetables, the water and more seasoning if necessary. Serve 
hot. 

In the spring and summer season use asparagus, peas and string beans 
aJJ cut into small uniform thickness. 

CREAM OF SPINACH. 

PICK, wash and boil enough spinach to measure a pint, when cooked, 
chopped and pounded into a soft paste. Put it into a stewpan with four 
ounces of fresh butter, a little grated nutmeg, a teaspoonful of salt. Cook 
and stir it about ten minutes. Add to this two quarts of strong stock (see 
pages 27 and 30); let boil up, then rub it through a strainer. Set it over 
the fire again, and, when on the point of boiling, mix with it a tablespoon- 
ful of butter, and a teaspoonful of granulated sugar. 

CHICKEN CREAM SOUP. 

AN old chicken for soup is much the best. Cut it up into quarters, put 
it into a soup kettle with half a pound of corned ham, and an onion; add 
four quarts of cold water. Bring slowly to a gentle boil, and keep this up 
until the Jiquid has diminished one-third, and the meat drops from the 
bones; then add half a cup of rice. Season with salt, pepper and a bunch 
of chopped parsley. 

3 



84 SOUPS. 

Cook slowly until the rice is tender, then the meat should be taken out. 
Now stir in two cups of k rich milk thickened with a little flour. The 
chicken could be fried in a spoonful of butter and a gravy made, reserving 
some of the white part of the meat, chopping it and adding it to the soup. 

PLAIN ECONOMICAL SOUP. 

TAKE a cold roast-beef bone, pieces of beefsteak, the rack of a cold 
turkey or chicken. Put them into a pot with three or four quarts of 
water, two carrots, three turnips, one onion, a few cloves, pepper and salt. 
Boil the whole gently four hours; then strain it through a colander, mash- 
ing the vegetables so that they will all pass through. Skim off the fat, 
and return uie soup to the pot. Mix one tablespoonful of flour with two 
of water, stir it into the soup and boil the whole ten minutes. Serve this 
soup with sippits of toast. 

Sippits are bits of dry toast cut into a triangular form. 

A seasonable dish about the holidays. 

OX-TAIL SOUP. 

Two ox-tails, two slices of ham, one ounce of butter, two carrots, two 
turnips, three onions, one leek, one head of celery, one bunch of savory 
herbs, pepper, a tablespoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls of catsup, one- 
half glass of port wine, three quarts of water. 

Cut up the tails, separating them at the joints; wash them, and put 
them in a stevvpan with the butter. Cut the vegetables in slices and add 
them with the herbs. Put in one-half pint of water, and stir it over a 
quick fire till the juices are drawn. Fill up the stewpan with water, and, 
when boiling, add the salt. Skim well, and simmer very gently for four 
hours, or until the tails are tender. Take them out, skim and strain the 
soup, thicken with 'flour, and flavor with the catsup and port wine. Put 
back the tails, simmer for five minutes and serve. 

Another way to make an appetizing ox-tail soup. You should begin 
to make it the day before you wish to eat the soup. Take two tails, wash 
clean, and put in a kettle with nearly a gallon of cold water; add a small 
handful of salt: when the meat. is well cooked, take out the bones. Let 
this stand in a cool room, covered, and next day, about an hour and a half 
before dinner, skim off the crust or cake of fat which has risen to the top. 
Add a little onion, carrot, or any vegetables you choose, chopping them 
fine first; summer savory may also be added. 



SOUPS. 35 

CORN SOUP. 

CUT the corn from the cob, and boil the cobs in water for at least an 
hour, then add the grains, and boil until they are thoroughly done; put 
one dozen ears of corn to a gallon of water, which will be reduced to three 
quarts by the time the soup is done; then pour on a pint of new milk, two 
we)l-beaten eggs, salt and pepper to your taste; continue the boiling a 
while longer, and stir in, to season and thicken it a little, a tablespoonful 
of good butter rubbed up with two tablespoon fuls of flour. Corn soup 
may a 'HO be made niceJy with water in which a pair of grown fowls have 
been boiled 01 parboiled, instead of having plain water for the founda- 
tion. 

SPLIT PEA SOTJP. Do. 1. 

WASH well a pint of split peas and cover them well with cold water, 
adding a third of a teaspoonful of soda; let them remain in it over 
night to swell. In the morning put them in a kettle with a close fit- 
ting cover. Pour over them three quarts of cold water, adding half a 
pound of lean ham or bacon cut into slices or pieces ; also a tea- 
spoonful of salt and a little pepper, and some celery chopped fine. 
When the soup begins to boil, skim the froth from the surface. Cook 
slowly from three to four hours, stirring occasionally till the peas are 
all dissolved, adding a little more boiling water to keep up the quan- 
tity as it boils away. Strain through a colander, and leave out the meat. 
It should be quite thick. Serve with small squares of toasted bread, 
cut up and added. If not rich enough, add a small piece of butter. 

CREAM OF ASPARAGUS. 

FOR making two quarts of soup, use two bundles of fresn asparagus. 
Cut the tops from one of the bunches and cook them twenty minutes 
in salted water, enough to cover them, Cook the remainder of the aspar- 
agus about twenty minutes in a quart of stock or water. Cut an onion 
into thin slices and fry in three tablespoonfuls of butter ten minutes, 
being carefii' not to scorch it : then add the asparagus that has been 
boiled in the stock ; cook this five minutes, stirring constantly ; then add 
three tablespoonfuls of dissolved flour, cook five minutes longer. Turn 
this mixture into the boiling stock and boil twenty minutes. Rub through 
a sieve - add the milk and cream and the asparagus heads. If water is 
used in place of stock, use all cream. 



36 SOUPS. 

GREEN PEA SOTJP. 

WASH a small quarter of lamb in cold water, and put it in-to a 
soup-pot with six quarts of cold water; add to it two tablespoonfuls 
of salt, and set it over a moderate fire let it boil gently for two 
hours, then skim it clear; add a quart of shelled peas, and a teaspoon- 
ful of pepper; cover it, and let it boil for half an hour; then having 
scraped the skins from a quart of small young potatoes, add them 
to the soup ; cover the pot and let it boil for half an hour longer ; 
work quarter of a pound of butter and a dessert-spoonful of flour to- 
gether, and add them to the soup ten or twelve minutes before taking 
it off the fire. 

Serve the meat on a disn with parsley sauce over it, and the soup in 
a tureen. 

DRIED BEAN SOUP. 

PUT two quarts of dried white beans to soak the night before you 
make the soup, which should be put on as early in the day as possible. 

Take two pounds of the lean of fresh beef the course pieces will 
do. Cut them up and put them into your soup-pot with the bones 
belonging to them (which should be broken in pieces), and a pound 
of lean bacon, cut very small. If you have the remains of a piece of beef 
that has been roasted the day before, and so much under-done that the 
juices remain in it, you may put it into the pot and its bones along 
with it. Season the meat with pepper only, and pour on it six quarts 
of water. As soon as it boils, take off the scum, and put in the beans 
(having first drained them) and a head of celery cut small, or a table- 
spoonful of pounded celery seed. Boil it slowly till the meat is done to 
shreds, and the beans all dissolved. Then strain it through a colander 
into the tureen, and put into it small squares of toasted bread with the 
crust cut off. 

TURTLE SOUP FROM BEANS. 

SOAK over night one quart of black beans ; next day boil them in 
the proper quantity of water, say a gallon, then dip the beans out of 
the pot and strain them through a colander. Then return the flour of 
the beans, thus pressed, into the pot in which they were boiled. Tie up 
in a thin cloth some thyme, a teaspoonful of summer savory and pars- 
ley, and let it boil in the mixture. Add a tablespoonful of cold butter, 
salt and pepper. Have ready four hard-boiled yolks of eggs quartered, 



SOUPS. 37 

and a few force meat balls ; add this to the soup with a sliced lemon, 
and half a glass of wine just before serving the soup. 

This approaches so near in flavor to the real turtle soup that few 
are able to distinguish the difference. 

PHILADELPHIA PEPPER POT. 

PUT two pounds of tripe and four calves' feet into the soup-pot and 
cover them with cold water ; add a red pepper, and boil closely until the 
calves' feet are boiled very tender; take out the meat, skim the liquid, 
stir it, cut the tripe into small pieces, and put it back into the liquid; 
if there is not enough liquid, add boiling water; add half a teaspoonful 
of sweet marjoram, sweet basil, and thyme, two sliced onions, sliced 
potatoes, salt. When the vegetables have boiled until almost tender, 
add a piece of butter rolled in flour, drop in some egg balls, and boil 
fifteen minutes more. Take up and serve hot. 

SaUIRREL SOUP. 

WASH and quarter three or four good sized squirrels; put them on, 
with a small tablespoonful of salt, directly after breakfast, in a gallon 
of cold water. Cover the pot close, and set it on the back part of the stove 
to simmer gently, not boil. Add vegetables just the same as you do in case 
of other meat soups in the summer season, but especially good will you 
find corn, Irish potatoes, tomatoes and Lima beans. Strain the soup 
through a coarse colander when the meat has boiled to shreds, so as to get 
rid of the squirrels' troublesome little bones. Then return to the pot, and 
after boiling a while longer, thicken with a piece of butter rubbed in flour. 
Celery and parsley leaves chopped up are also considered an improvement 
by many. Toast two slices of bread, cut them into dice one-half inch 
square, fry them in butter, put them into the bottom of your tureen, and 
then pour the soup boiling hot upon them. Very good. 

TOMATO SOUP. No. 1. 

PLACE in a kettle four pounds of beef. Pour over it one gallon of cold 
water. Let the meat and water boil slowly for three hours, or until 
the liquid is reduced to about one-half. Remove the meat and put into 
the broth a quart of tomatoes, and one chopped onion ; salt and pepper to 
taste. A teaspoonful of flour should be dissolved and stirred in, then 



38 SOUPS. 

allowed to boil half an hour longer. Strain and serve hot. Canned toma- 
toes in place of fresh ones may be used. 



TOMATO SOTJP. No. 2. 

PLACE over the fire a quart of peeled tomatoes, stew them soft with a 
pinch of soda. Strain it so that no seeds remain, set it over the fire 
again, and add a quart of hot boiled milk ; season with salt and pepper, a 
piece of butter the size of an egg, add three tablespoonf uls of rolled cracker, 
and serve hot. Canned tomatoes may be used in place of fresh ones. 

TOMATO SOTJP. No. 3. 

PEEL two quarts of tomatoes, boil them in a saucepan with an onion, 
and other soup vegetables ; strain and add a level tablespoonful of flour 
dissolved in a third of a cup of melted butter ; add pepper and salt. Serve 
very hot over little squares of bread fried brown and crisp in butter. 

An excellent addition to a cold meat lunch. 

MTJLLAGATAWNY SOUP. (As made in India.) 

CUT four onions, one carrot, two turnips, and one head of celery into 
three quarts of liquor, in which one or two fowls have been boiled; 
keep it over a brisk fire till it boils, then place it on a corner of the fire, 
and let it simmer twenty minutes ; add one tablespoonful of currie pow- 
der, and one tablespoonful of flour ; mix the whole well together, and let 
it boil three minutes ; pass it through a colander ; serve with pieces of 
roast chicken in it ; add boiled rice in a separate dish. It must be of good 
yellow color, and not too thick. If you find it too thick, add a little boil- 
ing water and a teaspoonful of sugar. Half veal and half chicken answers 
as well. 

A dish of rice, to be served separately with this soup, must be thus pre- 
pared: put three pints of water in a saucepan and one tablespoonful of 
salt; let this boil. Wash well, in three waters, half a pound of rice; strain 
it, and put it into the boiling water in saucepan. After it has come to the 
boil which it will do in about two minutes let it boil twenty minutes; 
strain it through a colander, and pour over it two quarts of cold water. 
This will separate the grains of rice. Put it back in the saucepan, and 
place it near the fire until hot enough to send to the table. This is also 
the proper way to boil rice for curries. If these directions are strictly car- 
ried out every grain of the rice will separate, and be thoroughly cooked. 



SOUPS. 39 

MOCK TURTLE SOUP, OF CALFS HEAD. 

SCALD a well-cleansed calf's head, remove the brain, tie it up in a cloth, 
and boil an hour, or until the meat will easily slip from the bone; take 
out, save the broth; cut it in small square pieces, and throw them into 
cold water; when cool, put it in a stewpan, and cover with some of the 
broth; let it boil until quite tender, and set aside. 

In another stewpan melt some butter, and in it put a quarter of a 
pound of lean ham, cut small, with fine herbs to taste; also parsley and one 
onion; add about a pint of the broth; let it simmer for two hours, and then 
dredge in a small quantity of flour; now add the remainder of the broth, 
and a quarter bottle of Madeira or sherry; let all stew quietly for ten 
minutes and rub it through a medium sieve; add the calf's head, season 
with a very little cayenne pepper, a little salt, the juice of one lemon, 
and, if desired, a quarter teaspoonful pounded mace and a dessert-spoon 
sugar. 

Having previously prepared force meat balls, add them to the soup, and 
five minutes after serve hot. 

GREEN TURTLE SOUP. 

ONE turtle, two onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, juice of one lemon, five 
quarts of water, a glass of Madeira. 

After removing the entrails, cut up the coarser parts of the turtle meat 
and bones. Add four quarts of water, and stew four hours with the herbs, 
onions, pepper and salt. Stew very slowly, do not let it cease boiling 
during this time. At the end of four hours strain the soup, and add the 
finer parts of the turtle and the green fat, which has been simmered 
one hour in two quarts of water. Thicken with brown flour; return to the 
soup-pot, and simmer gently for an hour longer. If there are eggs in the 
turtle, boil them in a separate vessel for four hours, and throw into the 
soup before taking up. If not, put in force meat balls; then the juice of 
the lemon, and the wine; beat up at once and pour out. 

Some cooks add the finer meat before straining, boiling all together 
five hours; then strain, thicken and put in the green fat, cut into lumps 
an inch long. This makes a handsomer soup than if the meat is left in. 

Green turtle can now be purchased preserved in air-tight cans. 

Force Meat Balls for the Above. Six tablespoonfuls of turtle meat 
chopped very fine. Rub to a paste, with the yolk of two hard-boiled 
eggs, a tablespoonful of butter, and, if convenient, a little oyster liquor. 



40 SOUPS. 

Season with cayenne, mace, half a teaspoonful of white sugar and a 
pinch of salt. Bind all with a well-beaten egg; shape into small balls; dip 
in egg, then powdered cracker; fry in butter, and drop into the soup when 
it is served. 

MACARONI SOUP. 

To a rich beef or other soup, in which there is no seasoning other than 
pepper or salt, take half a pound of small pipe macaroni, boil it in clear 
water until it is tender, then drain it and cut it in pieces of an inch length; 
boil it for fifteen minutes in the soup and serve. 

TURKEY SOUP. 

TAKE the turkey bones and boil three-quarters of an hour in water 
enough to cover them; add a little summer savory and celery chopped 
fine. Just before serving, thicken with a little flour (browned), and sea- 
son with pepper, salt and a small piece of butter. This is a cheap but 
good soup, using the remains of cold turkey which might otherwise be 
thrown away. 

GUMBO OR OKRA SOUP. 

FRY out the fat of a slice of bacon or fat ham, drain it off, and in it fry 
the slices of a large onion brown; scald, peel and cut up two quarts fresh 
tomatoes, when in season (use canned tomatoes otherwise), and cut thin 
one quart okra; put them, together with a little chopped parsley, in a 
stew-kettle with about three quarts of hot broth of any kind; cook slowly 
for three hours, season with salt and pepper. Serve hot. 

In chicken broth the same quantity of okra pods, used for thickening 
instead of tomatoes, forms a chicken gumbo soup. 

TAPIOCA CREAM SOUP. 

ONE quart of white stock; one pint of cream or milk; one onion; two 
stalks celery; one-third of a cupful of tapioca; two cupfuls of cold water; 
one tablespoonful of butter; a small piece of mace; salt, pepper. Wash the 
tapioca and soak over night in cold water. Cook it and the stock together 
very gently for one hour. Cut the onion and celery into small pieces, and 
put on to cook for twenty minutes with the milk and mace. Strain on the 
tapioca and stock. Season with salt and pepper, add butter and serve. 




THE WHITE HOUSE KITCHEN. 



SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT. 41 

SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT. 

ONION SOUP. 

ONE quart of milk, six large onions, yolks of four eggs, three tablespoon- 
fuls of butter, a large one of flour, one cupful of cream, salt, pepper. Put 
the butter in a frying pan. Cut the onions into thin slices and drop in the 
butter. Stir until they begin to cook; then cover tight and set back where 
they will simmer, but not burn, for half an hour. Now put the milk on to 
boil, and then add the dry flour to the onions and stir constantly for three 
minutes over the fire; then turn the mixture into the milk and cook fifteen 
minutes. Rub the soup through a strainer, return to the fire, season with 
salt and pepper. Beat the yolks of the eggs well, add the cream to them 
and stir into the soup. Cook three minutes, stirring constantly. If you 
have no cream, use milk, in which case add a tablespoonful of butter at 
the same time. Pour over fried croutons in a soup tureen. 

This is a refreshing dish when one is fatigued. 

WINTER VEGETABLE SOUP. 

SCEAPE and slice three turnips and three carrots and peel three onions, 
and fry all with a little butter until a light yellow; add a bunch of celery 
and three or four leeks cut in pieces; stir and fry all the ingredients for six 
minutes; when fried, add one clove of garlic, two stalks of parsley, two 
cloves, salt, pepper and a little grated nutmeg; cover with three quarts of 
water and simmer for three hours, taking off the scum carefully. Strain 
and use. Croutons, vermicelli, Italian pastes, or rice may be added. 

VERMICELLI SOUP. 

SWELL quarter of a pound of vermicelli in a quart of warm water, then 
add it to a good beef, veal, lamb, or chicken soup or broth, with quarter of 
a pound of sweet butter ; let the soup boil for fifteen minutes after it is 
added. 

SWISS WHITE SOUP. 

A SUFFICIENT quantity of broth for six people ; boil it ; beat up three 
eggs well, two spoonfuls of flour, one cup milk ; pour these gradually 
through a sieve into the boiling soup ; salt and pepper. 



42 SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT. 

SPRING VEGETABLE SOUP. 

HALF pint green peas, two shredded lettuces, one onion, a small bunch 
of parsley, two ounces butter, the yolks of three eggs, one pint of water, 
one and a half quarts of soup stock. Put in a stewpan the lettuce, onion, 
parsley and butter, with one pint of water, and let them simmer till ten- 
der. Season with salt and pepper. When done strain off the vegetables, 
and put two-thirds of the liquor with the stock. Beat up the yolks of the 
eggs with the other third, toss it over the fire, and at the moment of serv- 
ing add this with the vegetables to the strained-off soup 

CELERY SOTJP. 

CELERY soup may be made with white stock. Cut down the white of 
half a dozen heads of celery into little pieces and boil it in four pints of 
white stock, with a quarter of a pound of lean ham and two ounces of but- 
ter. Simmer gently for a full hour, then strain through a sieve, return 
the liquor to the pan, and stir in a few spoonfuls of cream with great care. 
Serve with toasted bread, and, if liked, thicken with a little flour. Season 
to taste. 

IRISH POTATO SOUP. 

PEEL and boil eight medium-sized potatoes with a large onion sliced, 
some herbs, salt and pepper ; press all through a colander ; then thin it 
with rich milk and add a lump of butter, more seasoning, if necessary ; let 
it heat well and serve hot. 

PEA SOTJP. 

PUT a quart of dried peas into five quarts of water; boil for four hours; 
then add three or four large onions, two heads of celery, a carrot, two tur- 
nips, all cut up rather fine. Season with pepper and salt. Boil two hours 
longer, and if the soup becomes too thick add more water. Strain 
through a colander and stir in a tablespoonful of cold butter. Serve hot, 
with small pieces of toasted bread placed in the bottom of the tureen. 

NOODLES FOR SOUP 

BEAT up one egg light, add a pinch of salt, and flour enough to make a 
very stiff dough; roll out very thin, like thin pie crust, dredge with flour to 
keep from sticking. Let it remain on the bread board to dry for an hour 
or more; then roll it up into a tight scroll, like a sheet of music. Begin at 
the end and slice it into slips as thin as straws. After all are cut, mix 
them lightly together, and to prevent them sticking, keep them floured a 



SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT. 43 

little until you are ready to drop them into your soup, which should be 
done shortly before dinner, for if boiled too long they will go to pieces. 

FORCE MEAT BALLS FOR SOUP. 

ONE cupful of cooked veal or fowl meat, minced; mix with this a hand- 
ful of fine bread crumbs, the yolks of four hard-boiled eggs rubbed smooth 
together with a tablespoon of milk; season with pepper and salt; add a 
half teaspoon of flour, and bind all together with two beaten eggs; the 
hands to be well floured, and the mixture to be made into little balls the 
size of a nutmeg; drop into the soup about twenty minutes before serving. 

EGG BALLS FOR SOUP. 

TAKE the yolks of six hard-boiled eggs and half a tablespoonful of 
wheat flour, rub them smooth with the yolks of two raw eggs and a tea- 
spoonful of salt; mix all well together; make it in balls, and drop them 
into the boiling soup a few minutes before taking it up. 

Used in green turtle soup. 

EGG DUMPLINGS FOR SOUP. 

To HALF a pint of milk put two well-beaten eggs, and as much wheat 
flour as will make a smooth, rather thick batter free from lumps; drop this 
batter, a tablespoonful at a time, into boiling soup. 

Another Mode. One cupful of sour cream and one cupful of sour milk, 
three eggs, well beaten, whites and yolks separately; one teaspoonful of 
salt, one level teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a spoonful of water, and 
enough flour added to make a very stiff batter. To be dropped by spoon- 
fuls into the broth and boiled twenty minutes, or until no raw dough 
shows on the outside. 

SUET DUMPLINGS FOR SOUP. 

THREE cups of sifted flour in which three teaspoonfuls of baking powder 
have been sifted; one cup of finely chopped suet, well rubbed into the 
flour, with a teaspoonful of salt. Wet all with sweet milk to make a 
dough as stiff as biscuit. Make into small balls as large as peaches; well 
floured. Drop into the soup three-quarters of an hour before being served. 
This requires steady boiling, being closely covered, and the cover not to be 
removed until taken up to serve. A very good form of pot-pie. 



44 SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT. 

SOYER'S RECIPE FOR FORCE MEATS. 

TAKE 1 Iks. of lean veal from the fillet, and cut it in long thin slices ; 
scrape with a knife till nothing but the fibre remains ; put it in a mortar, 
pound it 10 minutes or until in a puree ; pass it through a wire sieve (use 
the remainder in stock) ; then take 1 Ib. of good fresh beef suet, which skin, 
shred and chop very fine ; put it in a mortar and pound it, then add 6 oz. 
of panada (that is, bread soaked in milk, and boiled till nearly dry) with 
the suet ; pound them well together, and add the veal, season with 1 tea- 
spoonful of salt, J teaspoonful of pepper, that of nutmeg ; work all well 
together ; then add four eggs by degrees, continually pounding the contents 
of the mortar. When well mixed, take a small piece in a spoon, and poach 
it in some boiling water, and if it is delicate, firm, and of a good flavor, it 
is ready for use. 

CROUTONS FOR SOUP. 

IN a frying pan have the depth of an inch of boiling fat: also have pre- 
pared slices of stale bread cut up into little half-inch squar3s; drop into 
the frying pan enough of these bits of bread to cover the surface of the 
fat. When browned, remove with a skimmer and drain; add to the hot 
soup and serve. 

Some prefer them prepared in this manner: 

Take very thin slices of bread, butter them well; cut them up into little 
squares three-fourths of an inch thick, place them in a baking pan, but- 
tered side up, and brown in a quick oven. 

FISH STOCK. 

PLACE a saucepan over the fire with a good-sized piece of sweet butter 
and a sliced onion ; put into that some sliced tomatoes, then add as many 
different kinds of small fish as you can get oysters, clams, smelts, pawns, 
crabs, shrimps and all kinds of pan-fish ; cook all together until the 
onions are well browned ; then add a bunch of sweet herbs, salt and pep- 
per, and sufficient water to make the required amount of stock. After 
this has cooked for half an hour pound it with a, wooden pestle, then 
strain and cook again until it jellies. 

FISH SOUP. 

SELECT a large, fine fish, clean it thoroughly, put it over the fire with a 
sufficient quantity of water, allowing for each pound of fish one quart of 
water ; add an onion cut fine and a bunch of sweet herbs. When the fish 



SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT. 45 

is cooked, and is quite tasteless, strain all through a colander, return to 
the fire, add some butter, salt and pepper to taste. A small tablespoonful 
of Worcestershire sauce may be added if liked. Served with small squares 
of fried bread and thin slices of lemon. 

LOBSTER SOUP, OE BISQUE. 

HAVE ready a good broth made of three pounds of veal boiled slowly in 
as much water as will cover it, till the meat is reduced to shreds. It must 
then be well strained. 

Having boiled one fine middle-sized lobster, extract all the meat from 
the body and claws. Bruise part of the coral in a mortar, and also an 
equal quantity of the meat. Mix them well together. Add mace, cay- 
enne, salt and pepper, and make them up into force meat balls, binding the 
mixture with the yolk of an egg slightly beaten. 

Take three quarts of the veal broth and put into it the meat of the 
lobster cut into mouthf uls. Boil it together about twenty minutes. Then 
thicken it with the remaining coral (which you must first rub through a 
sieve), and add the force meat balls and a little butter rolled in flour. 
Simmer it gently for ten minutes, but do not let it come to a boil, as that 
will injure the color. Serve with small dice of bread fried brown in butter. 

OYSTEE SOUP. No. 1. 

Two QUARTS of oysters, one quart of milk, two tablespoonfuls of butter, 
one teacupful of hot water ; pepper, salt. 

Strain all the liquor from the oysters; add the water, and heat. When 
near the boil, add the seasoning, then the oysters. Cook about five min- 
utes from the time they begin to simmer, until they " ruffle." Stir in the 
butter, cock one minute, and pour into the tureen. Stir in the boiling 
milk and send to table. Some prefer all water in place of milk. 

OYSTEE SOUP. No. 2. 

SCALD one gallon of oysters in their own liquor. Add one quart of rich 
milk to the liquor, and when it comes to a boil, skim out the oysters and 
set aside. Add the yelks of four eggs, two good tablespoonfuls of butter, 
and one of flour, all mixed well together, but in this order first, the milk, 
then, after beating the eggs, add a little of the hot liquor to them grad- 
ually, and stir them rapidly into the soup. Lastly, add the butter and 
whatever seasoning you fancy besides plain pepper and salt, which must 



46 SOUPS WITHOUT MEAT. 

both be put in to taste with caution. Celery salt most persons like ex- 
tremely; others would prefer a little marjoram and thyme; others, again, 
mace and a bit of onion. Use your own discretion in this regard. 

CLAM SOUP. (French Style.) 

MINCE two dozen hard shell clams very fine. Fry half a minced onion 
in an ounce of butter ; add to it a pint of hot water, a pinch of mace, four 
cloves, one allspice and six whole pepper corns. Boil fifteen minutes and 
strain into a saucepan; add the chopped clams and a pint of clam- juice or 
hot water; simmer slowly two hours; strain and rub the pulp through a 
sieve into the liquid. Keturn it to the saucepan and keep it lukewarm. 
Boil three half-pints of milk in a saucepan (previously wet with cold 
water, which prevents burning) and whisk it into the soup. Dissolve a 
teaspoonful of flour in cold milk, add it to the soup, taste for seasoning; 
heat it gently to Dear the boiling point; pour it into a tureen previously 
heated with hot water, and serve with or without pieces of fried bread 
called croutons in kitchen French. 

CLAM SOUP. 

TWENTY-FIVE clams chopped fine. Put over the fire the liquor that was 
drained from them, and a cup of water; add the chopped clams and boil 
half an hour; then season to taste with pepper and salt and a piece of but- 
ter as large as an egg; boil up again and add one quart of milk boiling 
hot, stir in a tablespoon of flour made to a cream with a little cold milk, 
or two crackers rolled fine. Some like a little mace and lemon juice in 
the seasoning. 




MODES OF FRYING. 



THE usual custom among professional cooks is to entirely im- 
merse the article to be cooked in boiling fat, but from in- 
convenience most households use the half-frying method of 
frying in a small amount of fat in a frying pan. For the 
first method a shallow iron frying kettle, large at the top and small 
at the bottom, is best to use. The fat should half fill the kettle, or 
an amount sufficient to float whatever is to be fried; the heat of the 
fat should get to such a degree that, when a piece of bread or a tea- 
spoonful of the batter is dropped in it, it will become brown almost 
instantly, but should not be so hot as to burn the fat. Some cooks 
say that the fat should be smoking, but my experience is, that is a 
mistake, as that soon ruins the fat. As soon as it begins to smoke it 
should be removed a little to one side, and still be kept at the boiling 
point. If fritters, crullers, croquettes, etc., are dropped into fat that 
is too hot, it crusts over the outside before the inside has fully risen, 
making a heavy, hard article, and also ruining the fat, giving it a burnt 
flavor. 

Many French cooks prefer beef fat or suet to lard for frying purposes, 
considering it more wholesome and digestible, does not impart as rnudi 
flavor, or adhere or soak into the article cooked as pork fat. 

In families of any size, where there is much cooking required, there 
are enough drippings and fat remnants from roasts of beef, skimmings 
from the soup-kettle, with the addition of occasionally a pound of suet 
from the market, to amply supply the need. All such remnants and 
skimmings should be clarified about twice a week, by boiling them all 
together in water. When the fat is all melted, it should be strained 
with the water and set aside to cool. After the fat on i tie top has 
hardened, lift the cake from the water on which it lies, scrape off all 

(47) 



48 FISH 

the dark particles from the bottom, then melt over again the fat; while 
hot strain into a small clean stone jar or bright tin pail, and then it is 
ready for use. Always after frying anything, the fat should stand until it 
settles and has cooled somewhat ; then turn off carefully so as to leave it 
clear from the sediment that settles at the bottom. 

Refined cotton-seed oil is now being adopted by most professional 
cooks in hotels, restaurants and many private households for culinary pur- 
poses, and will doubtless in future supersede animal fats, especially for 
frying, it being quite as delicate a medium as frying with olive oil. It is 
now sold by leading grocers, put up in packages of two and four quarts. 

The second mode of frying, using a frying pan with a small quantity of 
fat or grease, to be done properly, should, in the first place, have the frying 
pan hot over the fire, and the fat in it actually boiling before the article to 
be cooked is placed in it, the intense heat quickly searing up the pores of 
the article and forming a brown crust on the lower side, then turning over 
and browning the other the same way. 

Still, there is another mode of frying ; the process is somewhat similar 
to broiling, the hot frying pan or spider replacing the hot fire. To do this 
correctly, a thick bottomed frying pan should be used. Place it over the 
fire, and when it is so hot that it will siss, oil over the bottom of the pan 
with a piece of suet, that is if the meat is all lean ; if not, it is not neces- 
sary to grease the bottom of the pan. Lay in the meat quite flat, and 
brown it quickly, first on one side, then on the other ; when sufficiently 
cooked, dish on a hot platter and season the same as broiled meats. 



FISH. 

IN selecting fish, choose those only in which the eye is full and promi- 
nent, the flesh thick and firm, the scales bright and fins stiff. They should 
be thoroughly cleaned before cooking. 

The usual modes of cooking fish are boiled, baked, broiled, fried and 
occasionally stewed. Steaming fish is much superior to boiling, but the 
ordinary conveniences in private houses do not admit of the possibility of 
enjoying this delicate way of cooking it. Large fish are generally boiled, 
medium-sized ones baked or boiled, the smaller kinds fried or broiled. 
Very large fish, such as cod, halibut, etc., are cut in steaks or slices for 
frying or broiling. The heads of some fish, as the cod, halibut, etc., are 
considered tidbits by many. Small fish, or pan-fish, as they are usually 



FISH. 49 

called, are served without the heads, with the exception of brook-trout 
and smelts ; these are usually cooked whole, with the heads on. Bake fish 
slowly, basting often with butter and water. Salmon is considered the 
most nutritious of all fish. When boiling fish, by adding a little vinegar 
and salt to the water, it seasons and prevents the nutriment from being 
drawn out ; the vinegar acting on the water hardens the water. 

Fill the fish with a nicely prepared stuffing of rolled cracker or stale 
bread crumbs, seasoned with butter, pepper, salt, sage and any other 
aromatic herbs fancied; sew up; wrap in a well-floured cloth, tied closely 
with twine, and boil or steam. The garnishes for boiled fish are: for tur- 
bot, fried smelts; for other boiled fish, parsley, sliced beets, lemon or 
sliced boiled egg. Do not use the knives, spoons, etc., that are used in 
cooking fish, for other food, or they will be apt to impart a fishy flavor. 

Fish to be boiled should be put into cold water and set on the fire to 
cook very gently, or the outside will break before the inner part is done. 
Unless the fish are small, they should never be put into warm water; nor 
should water, either hot or cold, be poured on to the fish, as it is liable to 
break the skin; if it should be necessary to add a little water while 
the fish is cooking, it ought to be poured in gently at the side of the 
vessel. 

Fish to be broiled should lie, after they are dressed, for two or three 
hours, with their inside well sprinkled with salt and pepper. 

Salt fish should be soaked in water before boiling, according to the 
time it has been in salt. When it is hard and dry, it will require thirty- 
six hours soaking before it is dressed, and the water must be changed 
three or four times. When fish is not very salt, twenty-four hours, or 
even one night, will suffice. 

When frying fish the fire must be hot enough to bring the fat to such a 
degree of heat as to sear the surface and make it impervious to the fat, 
and at the same time seal up the rich juices. As soon as the fish is 
browned by this sudden application of heat, the pan may be moved to a 
cooler place on the stove, that the process may be finished more slowly. 

Fat in which fish has been fried is just as good to use again for the 
same purpose, but it should be kept by itself and not be put to any other 
use. 

TO FRY FISH. 

MOST of the smaller fish (generally termed pan-fish) are usually fried. 
Clean well, cut off the head, and, if quite large, cut out the backbone, and 



50 FISH. 

slice the body crosswise into five or six pieces; season with salt and pepper. 
Dip in Indian meal or wheat flour, or in beaten egg, and roll in bread or 
fine cracker crumbs trout and perch should not be dipped in meal; put 
into a thick bottomed iron frying pan, the flesh side down, with hot lard 
or drippings; fry slowly, turning when lightly browned. The following 
method may be deemed preferable: Dredge the pieces with flour; brush 
them over with beaten egg; roll in bread crumbs, and fry in hot lard or 
drippings sufficient to cover, the same as frying crullers. If the fat is very 
hot, the fish will fry without absorbing it, and it will be palatably cooked. 
When browned on one side, turn it over in the fat and brown the other, 
draining when done. This is a particularly good way to fry slices of large 
fish. Serve with tomato sauce; garnish with slices of lemon. 

PAN-FISH. 

PLACE them in a thick bottomed frying pan with heads all one way. Fill 
the spaces with smaller fish. When they are fried quite brown and ready 
to turn, put a dinner plate over them, drain off the fat; then invert the 
pan, and they will be left unbroken on the plate. Put the lard back into 
the pan, and when hot slip back the fish. When the other side is brown, 
drain, turn on a plate as before, and slip them on a warm platter, to be 
sent to the table. Leaving the heads on and the fish a crispy-brown, in 
perfect shape, improves the appearance if not the flavor. Garnish with 
slices of lemon. 

Hotel Lafayette, Philadelphia. 
BAKED PICKEREL. 

CAREFULLY clean and wipe the fish, and lay in a dripping-pan with 
enough hot water to prevent scorching. A perforated sheet of tin, fitting 
loosely, or several muffin rings may be used to keep it off the bottom. Lay 
it in a circle on its belly, head and tail touching, and tied, or as directed in 
note on fish; bake slowly, basting often with butter and water. When 
done, have ready a cup of sweet cream or rich milk to which a few spoons 
of hot water has been added; stir in two large spoons of melted butter and 
a little chopped parsley; heat all by setting the cup in boiling water; add 
the gravy from the dripping-pan, and let it boil up once; place the fish in 
a hot dish and pour over it the sauce. Or an egg sauce may be made with 
drawn butter; stir in the yolk of an egg quickly, and then a teaspoon of 
chopped parsley. It can be stuffed or not, just as you please. 



FISH. 51 

BOILED SALMON. 

/ 

THE middle slice of salmon is the best. Sew up neatly in a mosquito- 
net bag, and boil a quarter of an hour to the pound in hot salted water. 
When done, unwrap with care, and lay upon a hot dish, taking care not to 
break it. Have ready a large cupful of drawn butter, very rich, in which 
has been stirred a tablespoonful of minced parsley and the juice of a 
lemon. Pour half upon the salmon and serve the rest in a boat. Garnish 
with parsley and sliced eggs. 

BROILED SALMON. 

CUT slices from an inch to an inch and a half thick, dry them in a 
cloth, season with salt and pepper, dredge them in sifted flour, and broil 
on a gridiron rubbed with suet. 

Another Mode. Cut the slices one inch thick, and season them with 
pepper and salt ; butter a sheet of white paper, lay each slice on a sepa- 
rate piece, envelop them in it with their ends twisted ; broil gently 
over a clear fire, and serve with anchovy or caper sauce. When higher 
seasoning is required, add a few chopped herbs and a little spice. 

FRESH SALMON FRIED. 

CUT the slices three-quarters of an inch thick, dredge them with flour, 
or dip them in egg and crumbs ; fry a light brown. This mode answers 
for all fish cut into steaks. Season well with salt and pepper. 

SALMON AND CAPER SAUCE. 

Two SLICES of salmon, one-quarter pound butter, one-half teaspoonful 
of chopped parsley, one shalot ; salt and pepper to taste. 

Lay the salmon in a baking dish, place pieces of butter over it, and add 
the other ingredients, rubbing a little of the seasoning into the fish ; place 
it in the oven and baste it frequently ; when done, take it out and 
drain for a minute or two ; lay it in a dish, pour caper sauce over it and 
serve. Salmon dressed in this way, with tomato sauce, is very delicious. 

BROILED SALT SALMON OR OTHER SALT FISH. 

SOAK salmon in tepid or cold water twenty-four hours, changing water 
several times, or let stand under faucet of running water. If in a hurry, 
or desiring a very salt relish, it may do to soak a short time, having water 
warm, and changing, parboiling slightly. At the hour wanted, broil 



52 FISH. 

sharply. Season to suit taste, covering with butter. This recipe will 
answer for all kinds of salt fish. t 

PICKLED SALMON. 

TAKE a fine, fresh salmon, and, having cleaned it, cut it into large 
pieces, and boil it in salted water as if for eating. Then drain it, wrap it 
in a dry cloth, and set it in a cold place till next day. Then make the 
pickle, which must be in proportion to the quantity of fish. To one quart 
of the water in which the salmon was boiled, allow two quarts of the best 
vinegar, one ounce of whole black pepper, one nutmeg grated and a dozen 
blades of mace. Boil all these together in a kettle closely covered to pre- 
vent the flavor from evaporating. When the vinegar thus prepared is 
quite cold, pour it over the salmon, and put on the top a tablespoonful of 
sweet oil, which will make it keep the longer. 

Cover it closely, put it in a dry, cool place, and it will be good for many 
months. This is the nicest way of preserving salmon, and is approved by 
all who have tried it. 

SMOKED SALMON. 

SMOKED salmon to be broiled should be put upon the gridiron first, with 
the flesh side to the fire. 

Smoked salmon is very nice when shaved like smoked beef, and served 
with coffee or tea. 

FRICASSEE SALMON. 

THIS way of cooking fresh salmon is a pleasant change from the ordi- 
nary modes of cooking it. Cut one and one-half pounds of salmon into 
pieces one inch square; put the pieces in a stewpan with half a cupful of 
water, a little salt,' a little white pepper, one clove, one blade of mace, 
three pieces of sugar, one shalot and a heaping teaspoonful of mustard 
mixed smoothly with half a teacupful of vinegar. Let this boil up once 
and add six tomatoes peeled and cut into tiny pieces, a few sprigs of pars- 
ley finely minced, and one wineglassf ul of sherry. Let all simmer gently 
for three-quarters of an hour. Serve very hot, and garnish with dry toast 
cut in triangular pieces. This dish is good, very cold, for luncheon or 
breakfast. 

SALMON PATTIES. 

CUT cold, cooked salmon into dice. Heat about a pint of the dice in 
half a pint of cream. Season to taste with cayenne pepper and salt. Fill 



FISH. 53 

the shells and serve. Cold, cooked fish of any kind may be made into pat- 
ties in this way. Use any fish sauce you choose all are equally good. 

FISH AND OYSTER PIE. 

ANY remains of cold fish, such as cod or haddock, 2 dozen oysters, pep- 
per and salt to taste, bread crumbs, sufficient for the quantity of fish; \ 
teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of finely chopped parsley. 

Clear the fish from the bones, and put a layer of it in a pie-dish, which 
sprinkle with pepper and sait; then a layer of bread crumbs, oysters, nut- 
meg and chopped parsley. Repeat this till the dish is quite full. You 
may form a covering either of bread crumbs, which should be browned, or 
puff-paste, which should be cut off into long strips, and laid in cross-bars 
over the fish, with a line of the paste first laid round the edge. Before 
putting on the top, pour in some made melted butter, or a little thin white 
sauce, and the oyster-liquor, and bake. 

Time. If of cooked fish, J hour; if made of fresh fish and puff-paste, 

hour. 

STEAMED FISH. 

SECURE the tail of the fish in its mouth, the body in a circle; pour over 
it half a pint 01 vinegar, seasoned with pepper and salt; let it stand an 
hour in a cool place; pour off the vinegar, and put it in a steamer over 
boiling water, and steam twenty minutes, or longer for large fish. When 
the meat easily separates from the bone it is done. Drain well and serve 
on a very clean white napkin, neatly folded and placed on the platter; 
decorate the napkin around the fish with sprigs of curled parsley, or with 
fanciful beet cuttings, or alternately with both. 

TO BROIL A SHAD. 

SPLIT and wash the shad and afterwards dry it in a cloth. Season it 
with salt and pepper. Have ready a bed of clear, bright coals. Grease 
your gridiron well, and as soon as it is hot, lay the shad upon it, the flesh 
side down; cover with a dripping-pan and broil it for about a quarter of 
an hour, or more, according to the thickness. Butter it well and send it 
to the table. Covering it while broiling gives it a more delicious flavor. 

BAKED SHAD. 

MANY people are of the opinion that the very best method of cooking a 
shad is to bake it. Stuff it with bread crumbs, salt, pepper, butter and 



64 FISH. 

parsley, and mix this up with the beaten yolk of egg; fill the fish with it, 
and sew it up or fasten a string around it. Pour over it a little water and 
some butter, and bake as you would a fowl. A shad will require from' an 
hour to an hour and a quarter to bake. Garnish with slices of lemon, 
water cress, etc. 

Dressing for Baked Shad. Boil up the gravy in which the shad was 
baked, put in a large tablespoonful of catsup, a tablespoonful of brown 
flour which has been wet with cold water, the juice of a lemon, and a 
glass of sherry or Madeira wine. Serve in a sauce boat. 

TO COOK A SHAD ROE. 

DROP into boiling water and cook gently for twenty minutes; then take 
from the fire and drain. Butter a tin plate and lay the drained roe upon 
it. Dredge well with salt and pepper and spread soft butter over it; then 
dredge thickly with flour. Cook in the oven for half an hour, basting fre- 
quently with salt, pepper, flour, butter and water. 

TO COOK SHAD ROE. (Another Way.) 

FIRST partly boil them in a small covered pan, take out and season 
them with salt, a littie pepper, dredge with flour and fry as any fish. 

BOILED BASS. 

AFTER thoroughly cleaning it place in a saucepan with enough water to 
cover it; add two tablespoonfuls of salt; set the saucepan over the fire, and 
when it has boiled about five minutes try to pull out one of the fins; if it 
loosens easily from the body carefully take the fish out of the water, lay it 
on a platter, surround it with half a dozen hard-boiled eggs, and serve it 

with a sauce. 

BOILED BLTTEFISH. 

BOILED the same as BASS. 

BAKED BLTTEFISH. 
BAKED the same as BAKED SHAD see page 53. 

FRIED EELS. 

AFTER cleaning the eels well, cut them in pieces two inches long; wash 
them and wipe them dry; roll them in wheat flour or rolled cracker, and 
fry, as directed for other fish, in hot lard or beef dripping, salted. They 
should be browned all over and thoroughly done. 



FISH. 55 

Eels are sometimes dipped in batter and then fried, or into egg and 
bread crumbs. Serve with crisped parsley. 

SHEEPSHEAD WITH DRAWN BUTTER. 

SELECT a medium-sized fish, clean it thoroughly, and rub a little salt 
over it; wrap it in a cloth and put it in a steamer; place this over a pot of 
fast-boiling water and steam one hour; then lay it whole upon a hot side- 
dish, garnish with tufts of parsley and slices of lemon, and serve with 
drawn butter, prepared as follows: Take two ounces of butter and roll it 
into small balls, dredge these with flour; put one-fourth of them in a sauce- 
pan, and as they begin to melt, whisk them; add the remainder, one at a 
time, until thoroughly smooth; while stirring, add a tablespoonful of lemon 
juice, half a tablespoonful of chopped parsley; pour into a hot sauce boat 
and serve. 

BAKED WHITE FISH. 

THOROUGHLY clean the fish ; cut off the head or not, as preferred ; cut 
out the backbone from the head to within two inches of the tail, and stuff 
with the following : Soak stale bread in water, squeeze dry ; cut in pieces 
a large onion, fry in butter, chop fine ; add the bread, two ounces of but- 
ter, salt, pepper and a little parsley or sage ; heat through, and when 
taken off the fire, add the yolks of two well-beaten eggs ; stuff the fish 
rather full, sew up with fine twine, and wrap with several coils of white 
tape. Rub the fish over slightly with butter ; just cover the bottom of a 
baking pan with hot water, and place the fish in it, standing back upward, 
and bent in the form of an S. Serve with the following dressing : Re- 
duce the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs to a smooth paste with two table- 
spoonfuls good salad oil ; stir in half a teaspoon English mustard, and 
add pepper and vinegar to taste. 

HALIBUT BOILED. 

THE cut next to the tail piece is the best to boil. Rub a little salt over 
it, soak it for fifteen minutes in vinegar and cold water, then wash it and 
scrape it until quite clean ; tie it in a cloth and boil slowly over a moder- 
ate fire, allowing seven minutes' boiling to each pound of fish ; when it is 
half-cooked, turn it over in the pot ; serve with drawn butter or egg sauce. 

Boiled halibut minced with boiled potatoes and a little butter and milk 
makes an excellent breakfast dish. 



56 FISH. 

STEAMED HALIBUT. 

SELECT a three-pound piece of white halibut, cover it with a cloth and 
place it in a steamer ; set the steamer over a pot of fast-boiling water and 
steam two hours ; place it on a hot dish surrounded with a border of pars- 
ley and serve with egg sauce. 

FRIED HALIBUT. No. 1. 

SELECT choice, firm slices from this large and delicate looking fish, and, 
after carefully washing and drying with a soft towel, with a sharp knife 
take off the skin. Beat up two eggs and roll out some brittle crackers 
upon the kneading board until they are as fine as dust. Dip each slice 
into the beaten egg, then into the cracker crumbs (after you have salted 
and peppered the fish), and place them in a hot frying pan half full of 
boiling lard, in which a little butter has been added to make the fish 
brown nicely ; turn and brown both sides, remove from the frying pan 
and drain. Serve hot. 

FRIED HALIBUT. No. 2. 

FIRST fry a few thin slices of salt pork until brown in an iron frying 
pan ; then take it up on a hot platter and keep it warm until the halibut 
is fried. Alter washing and drying two pounds of sliced halibut, sprinkle 
it with salt and pepper, dredge it well with flour, put it into the hot pork- 
drippings and fry brown on both sides ; then serve the pork with the fish. 

Halibut broiled in slices is a very good way of cooking it, broiled the 
same as Spanish mackerel. 

BAKED HALIBUT. 

TAKE a nice piece of halibut weighing five or six pounds and lay it in 
salt water for two hours. Wipe it dry and score the outer skin. Set it in 
a dripping-pan in a moderately hot oven and bake an hour, basting often 
with butter and water heated together in a saucepan or tin cup. When a 
fork will penetrate it easily, it is done. It should be a fine, brown color. 
Take the gravy in the dripping-pan, add a little boiling water, should 
there not be enough, stir in a tablespoonful of walnut catsup, a teaspoon- 
ful of Worcestershire sauce, the juice of a lemon, and thicken with brown 
flour, previously wet with cold water. Boil up once and put in a sauce 
boat. 



FISH. 57 

HALIBUT BROILED. 

BROIL the same as other fish, upon a buttered gridiron, over a clear fire, 
first seasoning with salt and pepper, placed on a hot dish when done, but- 
tered well and covered closely. 

FRIED BROOK TROUT. 

THESE delicate fish are usually fried, and form a delightful breakfast 
or supper dish. Clean, wash and dry the fish, split them to the tail, salt 
and pepper them, and flour them nicely. If you use lard instead of the fat 
of fried salt pork, put in a piece of butter to prevent their sticking, and 
which causes them to brown nicely. Let the fat be hot ; fry quickly to a 
delicate brown. They should be sufficiently browned on one side before 
turning on the other. They are nice served with slices of fried pork, fried 
crisp. Lay them side by side on a heated platter, garnish and send hot to 
the table. They are often cooked and served with their heads on. 

FRIED SMELTS. 

FRIED with their heads on the same as brook trout. Many think that 
they make a much better appearance as a dish when cooked whole with 
the heads on, and nicely garnished for the table. 

BOILED WHITE FISH. 

Taken from Mr. A . W. Ferry's Cook Book, Mackinac, 1824. 

THE most delicate mode of cooking white fish. Prepare the fish as for 
broiling, laying it open; put it into a dripping-pan with the back down; 
nearly cover with water; to one fish two tablespoonfuls of salt; cover 
tightly and simmer (not boil) one-half hour. Dress with gravy, a little 
butter and pepper, and garnish with hard-boiled eggs. 

BAKED WHITE FISH. (Bordeaux Sauce.) 

CLEAN and stuff the fish. Put it in a baking-pan and add a liberal 
quantity of butter, previously rolled in flour, to the fish. Put in the pan 
half a pint of claret, and bake for an hour and a quarter. Remove the fish 
and strain the gravy; add to the latter a gill more of claret, a teaspoonful 
of brown flour and a pinch of cayenne, and serve with the fish. 

Plankington House, Milwaukee. 



58 FISH. 

BAKED SALMON TROUT. 

THIS deliciously flavored game-fish is baked precisely as shad or white 
fish, but should be accompanied with cream gravy to make it perfect. It 
should be baked slowly, basting often with butter and water. When done 
have ready in a saucepan a cup of cream, diluted with a few spoonfuls of 
hot water, for fear it might clot in heating, in which have been stirred 
cautiously two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, a scant tablespoonful of 
flour, and a little chopped parsley. Heat this in a vessel set within 
another of boiling water, add the gravy from the dripping-pan, boil up 
once to thicken, and when the trout is laid on a suitable hot dish, pour this 
sauce around it. Garnish with sprigs of parsley. 

This same fish boiled, served with the same cream gravy (with the 
exception of the fish gravy), is the proper way to cook it. 

TO BAKE SMELTS. 

WASH and dry them thoroughly in a cloth, and arrange them nicely in 
a flat baking-dish; the pan should be buttered, also the fish; season with 
salt and pepper, and cover with bread or cracker crumbs. Place a piece 
of butter over each. Bake for fifteen or twenty minutes. Garnish with 
fried parsley and cut lemon. 

BROILED SPANISH MACKEREL. 

SPLIT the fish down the back, take out the backbone, wash it in cold 
water, dry it with a clean, dry cloth, sprinkle it lightly with salt and lay it 
on a buttered gridiron, over a clear fire, with the flesh side downward, 
until it begins to brown; then turn the other side. Have ready a mixture 
of two tablespoonfuls of butter melted, a tablespoonful of lemon juice, a 
teaspoonful of salt, some pepper. Dish up the fish hot from the gridiron 
on a hot dish, turn over the mixture and serve it while hot. 

Broiled Spanish mackerel is excellent with other fish sauces. Boiled 
Spanish mackerel is also very fine with most of the fish sauces, more 
especially " Matre d'Hotel Sauce." 

BOILED SALT MACKEREL. 

WASH and clean off all the brine and salt; put it to soak with the meat 
side down, in cold water over night; in the morning rinse it in one or two 
waters. Wrap each up in a cloth and put it into a kettle with consider- 
able, water, which should be cold; cook about thirty minutes. Take it care- 
fully from the cloth, take out the backbones and pour over a little melted 



FISH. 50 

butter and cream; add a light sprinkle of pepper. Or make a cream sauce 
like the following: 

Heat a small cup of milk to scalding. Stir into it a teaspoonful of 
cornstarch wet up with a little water. When this thickens, add two 
tablespoonfuls of butter, pepper, salt and chopped parsley, to taste. Beat 
an egg light, pour the sauce gradually over it, put the mixture again over 
the fire, and stir one minute, not more. Pour upon the fish, and serve it 
with some slices of lemon, or a few sprigs of parsley or water-cress, on the 

dish as a garnish. 

BAKED SALT MACKEREL. 

WHEN the mackerel have soaked over night, put them in a pan and 
pour on boiling water enough to cover. Let them stand a couple of min- 
utes, then drain them off, and put them in the pan with a few lumps of 
butter; pour on a half teacupful of sweet cream, or rich milk, and a little 
pepper; set in the oven and let it bake a little until brown. 

FRIED SALT MACKEREL. 

SELECT as many salt mackerel as required; wash and cleanse them 
well, then put them to soak all day in cold water, changing them every 
two hours; then put them into fresh water just before retiring. In the 
morning drain off the water, wipe them dry, roll them in flour, and fry in 
a little butter on a hot, thick-bottomed frying pan. Serve with a little 
melted butter poured over, and garnish with a little parsley. 

BOILED FRESH MACKEREL. 

FRESH mackerel are cooked in water salted, and a little vinegar added; 
with this exception they can be served in the same way as the salt mack- 
erel. Broiled ones are very nice with the same cream sauce, or you can 

substitute egg sauce. 

POTTED FRESH FISH. 

AFTER the fish has laid in salt water six hours, take it out, and to 
every six pounds of fish take one-quarter cupful each of salt, black pepper 
and cinnamon, one eighth cupful of allspice, and one teaspoonful of cloves. 

Cut the fish in pieces and put into a half gallon stone baking- jar, first a 
layer of fish, then the spices, flour, and then spread a thin layer of butter 
on, and continue so until the dish is full. Fill the jar with equal parts of 
vinegar and water, cover with tightly fitting lid, so that the steam cannot 
escape; bake five hours, remove from the oven, and when it is cold, it is to 
be cut in slices and served. This is a tea or lunch dish. 



60 FISH. 

SCALLOPED CRABS. 

PUT the crabs into a kettle of boiling water, and throw in a handful of 
salt. Boil from twenty minutes to half an hour. Take them from the 
water when done and pick out all the meat; be careful not to break the 
shell. To a pint of meat put a little salt and pepper; taste, and if not 
enough add more, a little at a time, till suited. Grate in a very little nut- 
meg and add one spoonful of cracker or bread crumbs, two eggs well 
beaten, and two tablespoonfuls of butter (even full); stir all well together; 
wash the shells clean, and fill each shell full of the mixture; sprinkle 
crumbs over the top and moisten with the liquor; set in the oven till of a 
nice brown; a few minutes will do it. Send to the table hot, arranged on 
large dishes. They are eaten at breakfast or supper. 

FISH IN WHITE SAUCE. 

FLAKE up cold boiled halibut and set the plate into the steamer, that 
the fish may heat without drying. Boil the bones and skin of the fish 
with a slice of onion and a very small piece of red pepper ; a bit of this 
the size of a kernel of coffee will make the sauce quite as hot as most per- 
sons like it. Boil this stock down to half a pint ; thicken with one tea- 
spoonful of butter and one teaspoonful of flour, mixed together. Add one 
drop of extract of almond. Pour this sauce over your halibut and stick 
bits of parsley over it. 

FRESH STURGEON STEAK MARINADE. 

TAKE one slice of sturgeon two inches thick ; let it stand in hot water 
five minutes ; drain, put it in a bowl and add a gill of vinegar, two table- 
spoonfuls of melted butter, half a teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoonful of 
black pepper and the juice of half a lemon ; let it stand six hours, turning 
it occasionally ; drain and dry on a napkin ; dip it in egg ; roll in bread 
crumbs and fry, or rather boil, in very hot fat. Beat up the yolks of two 
raw eggs, add a teaspoonful of French mustard, and, by degrees, half of 
the marinade, to make a smooth sauce, which serve with the fish. 

POTTED FISH. 

TAKE out the backbone of the fish ; for one weighing two pounds take 
a tablespoonful of allspice and cloves mixed ; these spices should be put 
into little bags of not too thick muslin ; put sufficient salt directly upon 
each fish ; then roll in a cloth, over which sprinkle a little cayenne pep- 
per ; put alternate layers of fish, spice and sage in an earthen jar ; cover 



FISH. 61 

with the best cider vinegar ; cover the jar closely with a plate, and over 
this put a covering of dough, rolled out to twice the thickness of pie crust. 
Make the edges of paste, to adhere closely to the sides of the jar, so as to 
make it air tight. Put the jar into a pot of cold water and let it boil from 
three to five hours, according to quantity. Ready when cold. 

MAYONNAISE FISH. 

TAKE a pound or so of cold boiled fish (halibut, rock, or cod), not chop, 
but cut, into pieces an inch in length. Mix in a bowl a dressing as follows: 
The yolks of four boiled eggs rubbed to a smooth paste with salad oil or 
butter; add to these salt, pepper, mustard, two teaspoonfuls of white sugar, 
and, lastly, six tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Beat the mixture until light, 
and just before pouring it over the fish, stir in lightly the frothed white of 
a raw egg. Serve the fish in a glass dish, with half the dressing stirred in 
with it. Spread the remainder over the top, and lay lettuce leaves (from 
the core of the head of lettuce) around the edges, to be eaten with it. 

FISH CHOWDER. (Rhode Island.) 

FRY five or six slices of fat pork crisp in the bottom of the pot you are 
to make your chowder in; take them out and chop them into small pieces, 
put them back into the bottom of the pot with their own gravy. (This is 
much better than having the slices whole.) 

Cut four pounds of fresh cod or sea-bass into pieces two inches 
square, and lay enough of these on the pork to cover it. Follow with a 
layer of chopped onions, a little parsley, summer savory and pepper, either 
black or cayenne. Then a layer of split Boston, or butter, or whole cream 
crackers, which have been soaked in warm water until moistened through, 
but not ready to break. Above this put a layer of pork and repeat the 
order given above onions, seasoning (not too much), crackers and pork, 
until your materials are exhausted. Let the topmost layer be buttered 
crackers well soaked. Pour in enough cold water to barely cover all. 
Cover the pot, stew gently for an hour, watching that the water does not 
sink too low. Should it leave the upper layer exposed, replenish cau- 
tiously from the boiling tea-kettle. When the chowder is thoroughly 
done, take out with a perforated skimmer and put into a tureen. Thicken 
the gravy with a tablespoonful of flour and about the same quantity of 
butter; boil up and pour over the chowder. Serve sliced lemon, pickles 
and stewed tomatoes with it, that the guests may add if they like. 



62 FISH. 

CODFISH BALLS. 

TAKE a pint bowl of codfish picked very fine, two pint bowls of whole 
raw peeled potatoes, sliced thickly; put them together in plenty of cold 
water and boil until the potatoes are thoroughly cooked; remove from the 
fire and drain off all the water. Mash them with the potato masher, add a 
piece of butter the size of an egg, one well-beaten egg, and three spoon- 
fuls of cream or rich milk. Flour your hands and make into balls or 
cakes. Put an ounce each of butter and lard into a frying pan; when hot, 
put in the balls and fry a nice brown. Do not freshen the fish before boil- 
ing with the potatoes. Many cooks fry them in a quantity of lard similar 
to boiled doughnuts. 

STEWED CODFISH. (Salt.) 

TAKE a thick, white piece of salt codfish, lay it in cold water for a few 
minutes to soften it a little, enough to render it more easily to be picked 
up. Shred it in very small bits, put it over the fire in a stewpan with cold 
water ; let it come to a boil, turn off this water carefully, and add a pint 
of milk to the fish, or more according to quantity. Set it over the fire 
again and let it boil slowly about three minutes, now add a good-sized 
piece of butter, a shake of pepper and a thickening of a tablespoonful of 
flour in enough cold milk to make a cream. Stew five minutes longer, and 
just before serving stir in two well-beaten eggs. The eggs are an addition 
that could be dispensed with, however, as it is very good without them. 
An excellent breakfast dish. 

CODFISH A LA MODE. 

PICK up a teacupful of salt codfish very fine and freshen the desiccated 
is nice to use ; two cups mashed potatoes, one pint cream or milk, two well- 
beaten eggs, half a cup butter, salt and pepper ; mix ; bake in an earthen 
baking dish from twenty to twenty-five minutes ; serve in the same dish, 
placed on a small platter, covered with a fine napkin. 

BOILED FRESH COD. 

SEW up the piece of fish in thin cloth, fitted to shape ; boil in salted 
water (boiling from the first), allowing about fifteen minutes to the pound. 
Carefully unwrap and pour over it warm oyster sauce. A whole one 

boiled the Same. Hotel Brighton. 

SCALLOPED FISH. 

PICK any cold fresh fish, or salt codfish, left from the dinner, into fine 
j carefully removing all the bones. 



FISH. 63 

Take a pint of milk in a suitable dish and place it in a saucepan of 
boiling water ; put into it a few slices of onion cut very fine, a sprig of 
parsley minced fine, add a piece of butter as large as an egg, a pinch of 
salt, a sprinkle of white pepper, then stir in two tablespoonfuls of corn- 
starch, or flour, rubbed in a little cold milk ; let all boil up and remove 
from the fire. Take a dish you wish to serve it in, butter the sides and 
bottom. Put first a layer of the minced fish, then a layer of the cream, 
then sprinkle over that some cracker or bread crumbs, then a layer of fish 
again, and so on until the dish is full ; spread cracker or bread crumbs last 
on the top to prevent the milk from scorching. 

This is a very good way to use up cold fish, making a nice breakfast 
dish, or a side dish for dinner. 

FISH FRITTERS. 

TAKE a piece of salt codfish, pick it up very fine, put it into a sauce- 
pan, with plenty of cold water; bring it to a boil, turn off the water, and 
add another of cold water; let this boil with the fish about fifteen minutes, 
very slowly; strain off this water, making the fish quite dry, and set 
aside to cool. In the meantime, stir up a batter of a pint of milk, four 
eggs, a pinch of salt, one large teaspoonful of baking powder in flour, 
enough to make thicker than batter cakes. Stir in the fish and fry like 
any fritters. Very fine accompaniment to a good breakfast. 

BOILED SALT CODFISH. (New England Style.) 

CUT the fish into square pieces, cover with cold water, set on the back 
part of the stove; when hot, pour off water and cover again with cold 
water; let it stand about four hours and simmer, not boil; put the fish on 
a platter, then cover with a drawn-butter gravy and serve. Many cooks 
prefer soaking the fish over night. 

BOILED CODFISH AND OYSTER SATTCE. 

LAY the fish in cold, salted water half an hour before it is time to cook 
it, then roll it in a clean cloth dredged with flour; sew up the edges in such 
a manner as to envelop the fish entirely, yet have but one thickness of 
cloth over any part. Put the fish into boiling water slightly salted; add 
a few whole cloves and peppers and a bit of lemon peel; pull gently on the 
fins, and when they come out easily the fish is done. Arrange neatly on a 
folded napkin, garnish and serve with oyster sauce. Take six oysters to 
every pound of fish and scald (blanch) them in a half-pint of hot oyster 



64 SHELL-FISH. 

liquor; take out the oysters and add to the liquor, salt, pepper, a bit of 
mace and an ounce of butter; whip into it a gill of milk containing half 
of a teaspoonful of flour. Simmer a moment; add the oysters, and send 
to table in a sauce boat. Egg sauce is good with this fish. 

BAKED CODFISH. 

IF SALT fish, soak, boil and pick the fish, the same as for fish-balls. Add 
an equal quantity of mashed potatoes, or cold, boiled, chopped potatoes, a 
large piece of butter, and warm milk enough to make it quite soft. Put it 
into a buttered dish, rub butter over the top, shake over a little sifted 
flour, and bake about thirty minutes, and until a rich brown. Make a 
sauce of drawn butter, with two hard-boiled eggs sliced, served in a gravy 

boat. 

CODFISH STEAK. (New England Style.) 

SELECT a medium-sized fresh codfish, cut it in steaks cross-wise of the 
fish, about an inch and a half thick; sprinkle a little salt over them, and 
let them stand two hours. Cut into dice a pound of salt fat pork, fry out 
all the fat from them and remove the crisp bits of pork; put the codfish 
steaks in a pan of corn meal, dredge them with it, and when the pork fat 
is smoking hot, fry the steaks in it to a dark brown color on both sides. 
Squeeze over them a little lemon juice, add a dash of freshly ground pep- 
per, and serve with hot, old-fashioned, well-buttered Johnny Cake. 

SALMON CEOaTJETTES. 

ONE pound of cooked salmon (about one and a half pints when chopped), 
one cup of cream, two tablespoonfuls of butter, one tablespoonful of flour, 
three eggs, one pint of crumbs, pepper and salt; chop the salmon fine, mix 
the flour and butter together, let the cream come to a boil, and stir in the 
flour and butter, salmon and seasoning; boil one minute; stir in one well- 
beaten egg, and remove from the fire; when cold make into croquettes; dip 
in beaten egg, roll in crumbs and fry. Canned salmon can be used. 



SHELL-FISH. 

STEWED WATER TURTLES, OR TERRAPINS. 

SELECT the largest, thickest and fattest, the females being the best; 
they should be alive when brought from market. Wash and put them 
alive into boiling water, add a little salt, and boil them until thoroughly 



SHELL-FISH. 65 

done, or from ten to fifteen minutes, after which take off the shell, extract 
the meat, and remove carefully the sand-bag and gall; also all the entrails; 
they are unfit to eat, and are no longer used in cooking terrapins for the 
best tables. Cut the meat into pieces, and put it into a stewpan with its 
eggs, and sufficient fresh butter to stew it well. Let it stew till quite 
hot throughout, keeping the pan carefully covered, that none of the flavor 
may escape, but shake it over the fire while stewing. In another pan 
make a sauce of beaten yolk of egg, highly flavored with Madeira or 
sherry, and powdered nutmeg and mace, a gill of currant jelly, a pinch of 
cayenne pepper, and salt to taste, enriched with a large lump of fresh 
butter. Stir this sauce well over the fire, and when it has almost come to 
a boil, take it off. Send the terrapins to the table hot in a covered dish, 
and the sauce separately in a sauce tureen, to be used by those who like it, 
and omitted by those who prefer the genuine flavor of the terrapins when 
simply stewed with butter. This is now the usual mode of dressing terra- 
pins in Maryland, Virginia, and many other parts of the South, and will be 
found superior to any other. If there are no eggs in the terrapin, " egg 
balls " may be substituted. (See recipe.) 

STEWED TERRAPIN, WITH CREAM. 

PLACE in a saucepan, two heaping tablespoonfuls of butter and one of 
dry flour; stir it over the fire until it bubbles; then gradually stir in a pint 
of cream, a teaspoonful of salt, a quarter of a teaspoonf ul of white pepper, 
the same of grated nutmeg, and a very small pinch of cayenne. Next, put 
in a pint of terrapin meat and stir all until it is scalding hot. Move the 
saucepan to the back part of the stove or range, where the contents will 
keep hot but not boil; then stir in four well-beaten yolks of eggs; do not 
allow the terrapin to boil after adding the eggs, but pour it immediately 
into a tureen containing a gill of good Madeira and a tablespoonful of 
lemon juice. Serve hot. 

STEWED TERRAPIN. 

PLUNGE the terrapins alive into boiling water, and let them remain 
until the sides and lower shell begin to crack this will take less than an 
hour; then remove them and let them get cold; take off the shell and 
outer skin, being careful to save all the blood possible in opening them. 
If there are eggs in them put them aside in a dish; take all the inside out, 
and be very careful not to break the gall, which must be immediately re- 
moved or it will make the rest bitter. It lies within the liver. Then cut 

5 



up the liver and all the rest of the terrapin into small pieces, adding 
the blood and juice that have flowed out in cutting up; add half a pint of 
water; sprinkle a little flour over them as you place them in the stewpan; 
let them stew slowly ten minutes, adding salt, black and cayenne pepper, 
and a very small blade of mace; then add a gill of the best brandy and 
half a pint of the very best sherry wine; let it simmer over a slow fire very 
gently. About ten minutes or so, before you are ready to dish them, add 
half a pint of rich cream, and half a pound of sweet butter, with flour, to 
prevent boiling; two or three minutes before taking them off the fire, peel 
the eggs carefully and throw them in whole. If there should be no eggs 
use the yolks of hens' eggs, hard boiled. This recipe is for four terrapins. 

Rennert's Hotel, Baltimore. 
BOILED LOBSTER. 

PUT a handful of salt into a large kettle or pot of boiling water. When 
the water boils very hard put in the lobster, having first brushed it and 
tied the claws together with a bit of twine. Keep it boiling from twenty 
minutes to half an hour, in proportion to its size. If boiled too long the 
meat will be hard and stringy. When it is done take it out, lay it on its 
claws to drain, and then wipe it dry. 

It is scarcely necessary to mention that the head of a lobster and what 
are called the lady fingers are not to be eaten. 

Very large lobsters are not the best, the meat being coarse and tough. 
The male is best for boiling ; the flesh is firmer and the shell a brighter 
red. It may readily be distinguished from the female ; the tail is nar- 
rower, and the two uppermost fins within the tail are stiff and hard. 
Those of the hen lobster are not so, and the tail is broader. 

Hen lobsters are preferred for sauce or salad, on account of their coral. 
The head and small claws are never used. 

They should be alive and freshly caught when put into the boiling 
kettle. After being cooked and cooled, split open the body and tail and 
crack the claws, to extract the meat. The sand pouch found near the 
throat should be removed. Care should be exercised that none of the 
feathery, tough, gill-like particles found under the body shell get mixed 
with the meat, as they are indigestible and have caused much trouble. 
They are supposed to be the cause of so-called poisoning from eating 
lobster. 

Serve on a platter. Lettuce and other concomitants of a salad should 
also be placed on the table or plattev. 



SHELL-FISH. W 

SCALLOPED LOBSTER. 

BUTTEE a deep dish and cover the bottom with fine br.ead crumbs ; put 
on this a layer of chopped lobster, with pepper and salt ; so on, alternately, 
until the dish is filled, having crumbs on top. Put on bits of butter, 
moisten with milk and bake about twenty minutes. 

DEVILED LOBSTER. 

TAKE out all the meat from a boiled lobster, reserving the coral ; 
season highly with mustard, cayenne, salt and some kind of table sauce ; 
stew until well mixed and put it in a covered saucepan, with just enough 
hot water to keep from burning ; rub the coral smooth, moistening with 
vinegar until it is thin enough to pour easily, then stir it into the sauce- 
pan. The dressing should be prepared before the meat is put on the fire, 
and which ought to boil but once before the coral is put in ; stir in a 
heaping teaspoonful of butter, and when it boils again it is done and 
should be taken up at once, as too much cooking toughens the meat. 

LOBSTER CROQUETTES. 

TAKE any of the lobster remaining from table and pound it until the 
dark, light meat and coral are well mixed; put with it not quite as much 
fine bread crumbs; season with pepper, salt and a very little cayenne 
pepper; add a little melted butter, about two tablespoonfuls if the bread is 
rather dry; form into egg-shaped or round balls; roll them in egg, then in 
fine crumbs, and fry in boiling lard. 

LOBSTER PATTIES. 

CUT some boiled lobster in small pieces; then take the small claws and 
the spawn, put them in a suitable dish, and jam them to a paste with a 
potato masher. Now add to them a ladleful of gravy or both, with a few 
bread crumbs; set it over the fire and boil; strain it through a strainer, or 
sieve, to the thickness of a cream, and put half of it to your lobsters, and 
save the other half to sauce them with after they are baked. Put to the 
lobster the bigness of an egg of butter, a little pepper and salt; squeeze in 
a lemon, and warm these over the fire enough to melt the butter, set it to 
cool, and sheet your patty pan or a plate or dish with good puff paste, then 
put in your lobster, and cover it with a paste; bake it within turee-quar- 
ters of an hour before you want it; when it is baked, cut up your cover, 
and warm up the other half of your sauce above mentioned, with a little 
butter, to the thickness of cream, and pour it over your patty, with a little 



68 SHELL-FISH. 

squeezed lemon; cut your cover in two, and lay it on the top, two inches 
distant, so that what is under may be seen. You may bake crawfish, 
shrimps or prawns the same way; and they are all proper for plates or little 
dishes for a second course. 

LOBSTER A LA NEWBURG. 

TAKE one whole lobster, cut up in pieces about as large as a hickory 
nut. Put in the same pan with a piece of butter size of a walnut, season 
with salt and pepper to taste, and thicken with heavy cream sauce; add 
the yolk of one egg and two oz. of sherry wine. 

Cream sauce for above is made as follows: 1 oz. butter, melted in 
saucepan; 2 oz. flour, mixed with butter; thin down to proper consistency 
with boiling cream. 

Rector's Oyster House, Chicago. 
BAKED CRABS. 

Mix with the contents of a can of crabs, bread crumbs or pounded 
crackers. Pepper and salt the whole to taste; mince some cold ham; have 
the baking pan well buttered, place therein first a layer of the crab meat, 
prepared as above, then a layer of the minced ham, and so on, alternating 
until the pan is filled. Cover the top with bread crumbs and bits of but- 
ter, and bake. 

DEVILED CRABS. 

HALF a dozen fresh crabs, boiled and minced, two ounces of butter, one 
small teaspoonful of mustard powder; cayenne pepper and salt to taste. 
Put the meat into a bowl and mix carefully with it an equal quantity of 
fine bread crumbs. Work the butter to a light cream, mix the mustard 
well with it, then stir in very carefully, a handful at a time, the mixed 
crabs, a tablespoonf ul of cream, and crumbs. Season to taste with cayenne 
pepper and salt; fill the crab shells with the mixture, sprinkle bread 
crumbs over the tops, put three small pieces of butter upon the top of 
each, and brown them quickly in a hot oven. They will puff in baking 
and will be found very nice. Half the quantity can be made. A crab 
shell will hold the meat of two crabs. 

CRAB CROdUETTES. 

PICK the meat of boiled crabs and chop it fine. Season to taste with 
pepper, salt and melted butter. Moisten it well with rich milk or cream, 
then stiffen it slightly with bread or cracker crumbs. Add two or three 
well-beaten eggs to bind the mixture. Form the croquettes, egg and 



SHELL-FISH. 69 

bread crumb them and fry them delicately in boiling lard. It is better to 
use a wire frying basket for croquettes of all kinds. 

TO MAKE A CRAB PIE. 

PROCURE the crabs alive, and put them in boiling water, along with 
some salt. Boil them for a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes, accord- 
ing to the size. When cold pick the meat from the claws and body. Chop 
all together, and mix it with crumbs of bread, pepper and salt, and a little 
butter. Put all this into the shell and brown in a hot oven. A crab shell 
will hold the meat of two crabs. 

CRABS. (Soft Shell.) 

CRABS may be boiled as lobsters. They make a fine dish when stewed. 
Take out the meat from the shell, put it into a saucepan with butter, pep- 
per, salt, a pinch of mace and a very little water ; dredge with flour and 
let simmer five minutes over a slow fire. Serve hot ; garnish the dish 
with the claws laid around it. 

The usual way of cooking them is frying them in plenty of butter and 
lard mixed ; prepare them the same as frying fish. The spongy substance 
from the sides should be taken off, also the sand bag. Fry a nice brown 
and garnish with parsley. 

OYSTERS. 

OYSTERS must be fresh and fat to be good. They are in season from 
September to May. 

The small ones, such as are sold by the quart, are good for pies, fritters, 
or stews ; the largest of this sort are nice for frying or pickling for family 
use. 

FRIED OYSTERS. 

TAKE large oysters from their own liquor into a thickly folded napkin 
to dry them ; then make hot an ounce each of butter and lard in a thick- 
bottomed frying pan. Season the oysters with pepper and salt, then dip 
each one into egg and cracker crumbs rolled fine, until it will take up no 
more. Place them in the hot grease and fry them a delicate brown, turn- 
ing them on botji sides by sliding a broad-bladed knife under them. Serve 
them crisp and hot. 

Boston Oyster House. 

Some prefer to roll oysters in corn meal and others use flour, but they 
are much more crisp with egg and cracker crumbs. 



70 SHELL-FISH. 

OYSTERS FRIED IN BATTER. 

Ingredients. One-half pint of oysters, two eggs, one-half pint of milk, 
sufficient flour to make the batter ; pepper and salt to taste ; when liked, 
a little nutmeg ; hot lard. 

Scald the oysters in their own liquor, beard them, and lay them on a 
cloth to drain thoroughly. Break the eggs into a basin, mix the flour with 
them, add the milk gradually, with nutmeg and seasoning, and put the 
oysters in a batter. Make some lard hot in a deep frying pan ; put in the 
oysters one at a time ; when done, take them up with a sharp pointed 
skewer and dish them on a napkin. Fried oysters are frequently used for 
garnishing boiled fish, and then a few bread crumbs should be added to 
the flour. 

STEWED OYSTERS. (In Milk or Cream.) 

DRAIN the liquor from two quarts of oysters ; mix with it a small tea- 
cupful of hot water, add a little salt and pepper and set it over the fire in 
a saucepan. Let it boil up once, put in the oysters, let them come to a 
boil, and when they "ruffle" add two tablespoonfuls of butter. The 
instant it is melted and well stirred in, put in a pint of boiling milk and 
take the saucepan from the fire. Serve with oyster or cream crackers. 
Serve while hot. 

If thickening is preferred, stir in a little flour or two tablespoonfuls of 

cracker crumbs. 

PLAIN OYSTER STEW. 

SAME as milk or cream stew, using only oyster liquor and water instead 
of milk or cream, adding more butter after taking up. 

OYSTER SOUP. 

FOR oyster soup, see SOUPS. 

DRY OYSTER STEW. 

TAKE six to twelve large oysters and cook them in half a pint of their 
own liquor ; season with butter and white pepper ; cook for five minutes, 
stirring constantly. Serve in hot soup plates or bowls. 

Fulton Market, New York. 
BOSTON FRY. 

PREPARE the oysters in egg batter and fine cracker meal ; fry in butter 
over a slow fire for about ten minutes ; cover the hollow of a hot platter 
with tomato sauce ; place the oysters in it, but not covering ; garnished 
with chopped parsley sprinkled over the oysters. Boston Oyster House. 



SHELL-FISH. 71 

BROILED OYSTERS. 

DRY a quart of oysters in a cloth, dip each in melted butter well pep- 
pered ; then in beaten egg, or not, then in bread or cracker crumbs, also 
peppered. Broil on a wire broiler over live coals three to five minutes. 
Dip over each a little melted butter. Serve hot. 

ROAST OYSTERS IN THE SHELL. No. 1. 

SELECT the large ones, those usually termed " Saddle Rocks," formerly 
known as a distinct variety, but which are now but the large oysters 
selected from any beds ; wash and wipe them, and place with the upper or 
deep shell down, to catch the juice, over or on live coals. When they 
open their shells remove the shallow one, being careful to save all the 
juice in the other ; place them, shells and all, on a hot platter, and send to 
table hot, to be seasoned by each person with butter and pepper to taste. 
If the oysters are fine, and they are just cooked enough and served all hot, 
this is, par excellence, the style. 

OYSTER ROAST. No. 2. 

PUT one quart of oysters in a basin with their own liquor and let them 
boil three or four minutes; season with a little salt, pepper and a heaping 
spoonful of butter. Serve on buttered toast. 

STEAMED OYSTERS. 

WASH and drain a quart of counts or select oysters; put them in a 
shallow pan and place in a steamer over boiling water; cover and steam 
till they are plump, with the edges ruffled, but no longer. Place in a 
heated dish, with butter, pepper and salt, and serve. 

Baltimore Style. 
STEAMED OYSTERS IN THE SHELL. 

WASH and place them in an air-tight vessel, laying them the upper shell 
downward, so that the liquor will not run out when they open. Place this 
dish or vessel over a pot of boiling water where they will get the steam. 
Boil them rapidly until the shells open, about fifteen to twenty minutes. 
Serve at once while hot, seasoned with butter, salt and pepper. 

PAN OYSTERS. No. 1. 

CUT some stale bread in thin slices, taking off all the crust; round the 
slices to fit patty-pans; toast, butter, place them in the pans and moisten 
with three or four teaspoonfuls of oyster liquor; place on the toast a 



72 SHELL-FISH. 

layer of oysters, sprinkle with pepper, and put a small piece of butter on 
top of each pan; place all the pans in a baking-pan, and place in the oven, 
covering tightly. They will cook in seven or eight minutes if the oven is 
hot; or, cook till the beards are ruffled; remove the cover, sprinkle 
lightly with salt, replace, and cook one minute longer. Serve in patty- 
pans. They are delicious. 

New York Style. 
PAN OYSTERS. No. 2. 

LAY in a thin pie tin or dripping-pan half a pint of large oysters, or 
more if required; have the pan large enough so that each oyster will lie 
flat on the bottom; put in over them a little oyster liquor, but not enough 
to float; place them carefully in a hot oven and just heat them through 
thoroughly do not bake them which will be in three to five minutes, 
according to fire; take them up and place on toast; first moistened with 
the hot juice from the pan. Are a very good substitute for oysters roasted 
in the shell, the slow cooking bringing out the flavor. 

French Restaurant, New Orleans, La. 
OYSTER FRITTERS. 

SELECT plump, good-sized oysters; drain off the juice, and to a cup of 
this j uice add a cup of milk, a little salt, four well-beaten eggs, and flour 
enough to make batter like griddle-cakes. 

Envelop an oyster in a spoonful of this batter (some cut them in halves 
or chop them fine), then fry in butter and lard, mixed in a frying pan the 
same as we fry eggs, turning to fry brown on both sides. Send to the table 

Very hot. Delmonico. 

Most cooks fry oyster fritters the same as crullers, in a quantity of hot 
lard, but this is not always convenient; either way they are excellent. 

OYSTER PATTIES. 

LINE patty-pans with thin pastry, pressing it well to the tin. Put a 
piece of bread or a ball of paper in each. Cover them with paste and 
brush them over with the white of an egg. Cut an inch square of thin 
pastry, place on the centre of each, glaze this also with egg, and bake in a 
quick oven fifteen to twenty minutes. Remove the bread or paper when 
half cold. 

Scald as many oysters as you require (allowing two for each patty, 
three if small) in their own liquor. Cut each in four and strain the liquor. 
Put two tablespoonfuls of butter and two of flour into a thick saucepan; 



SHELL-FISH. 73 

stir them together over the fire till the flour smells cooked, and then pour 
half a pint of oyster liquor and half a pint of milk into the flour and but- 
ter. (If you have cream, use it instead of milk.) Stir till it is a thick, 
smooth sauce. Put the oysters into it and let them boil once. Beat the 
yolks of two eggs. Remove the oysters for one minute from the fire, then 
stir the eggs into them till the sauce looks like thick custard. 

Fill the patties with this oyster fricassee, taking care to make it hot by 
standing in boiling water before dinner on the day required, and to make 
the patty cases hot before you fill them. 

FTJLTON MARKET ROAST. 

IT is still known in New York from the place at which it was and is 
still served. Take nine large oysters in the shell; wash, dry and roast over 
a charcoal fire, on a broiler. Two minutes after the shells open they will 
be done. Take them up quickly, saving the juice in a small, shallow, tin 
pan; keep hot until all are done; butter them and sprinkle with pepper. 

This is served for one person when calling for a roast of this kind. It 
is often poured over a slice of toast. 

SCALLOPED OYSTERS. 

HAVE ready about a pint bowl of fine cracker crumos. Butter a deep 
earthen dish; put a layer of the cracker crumbs on the bottom; wet this 
with some of the oyster liquor; next have a layer of oysters; sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, and lay small bits of butter upon them; then another layer 
of cracker crumbs and oyster juice; then oysters, pepper, salt and butter, 
and so on, until tue dish is full; the top layer to be cracker crumbs. Beat 
up an egg in a cup of milk and turn over all. Cover the dish and set it in 
the oven for thirty or forty-five minutes. When baked through, uncover 
the top, set on the upper grate and brown. 

OYSTER POT-PIE. 

SCALD a quart can of oysters in their own liquor; when it boils, skim 
out the oysters and set aside in a warm place. To the liquor add a pint of 
hot water; season well with salt and pepper, a generous piece of butter, 
thicken with flour and cold milk. Have ready nice light biscuit dough, 
rolled twice as thick as pie crust; cut out into inch squares, drop them 
into the boiling stew, cover closely, and cook forty minutes. When taken 
up, stir the oysters into the juice and serve all together in one dish. A 
nice side entree. Prince's Bay, s. I. 



74 SHELL-FISH. 

BOSTON OYSTER PIE. 

HAVING buttered the inside of a deep pie plate, line it with puff paste, or 
common pie crust, and prepare another sheet of paste for the lid; put a 
clean towel into the dish (folded so as to support the lid), set it into the 
oven and bake the paste well; when done, remove the lid and take out the 
towel. While the paste is baking prepare the oysters. Having picked off 
carefully every bit of shell that may be found about them, drain off the 
liquor into a pan and put the oysters into a stewpan with barely enough 
of the liquor to keep them from burning; season them with pepper, salt 
and butter; add a little sweet cream or milk, and one or two crackers rolled 
fine; let the oysters simmer, but not boil, as that will shrivel them. Re- 
move the upper crust of pastry and fill the dish with the oysters and 
gravy; replace the cover and serve hot. 

Some prefer baking the upper crust on a pie plate, the same size as the 
pie, then slipping it off on top of the pie after the same is filled with the 
oysters. 

MOCK OYSTEES. 

GRATE the corn, while green and tender, with a coarse grater, into a 
deep dish. To two ears of corn, allow one egg; beat the whites and yolks 
separately, and add them to the corn, with one tablespoonful of wheat 
flour and one of butter, a teaspoonful of salt and pepper to taste. Drop 
spoonfuls of this batter into a frying pan with hot butter and lard mixed, 
and fry a light brown on both sides. 

In taste, they have a singular resemblance to fried oysters. The corn 
must be young. 

FRICASSEED OYSTERS. 

TAKE a slice of raw ham, which has been pickled, but not smoked, and 
soak in boiling water for half an hour; cut it in quite small pieces, and put 
in a saucepan with two-thirds of a pint of veal or chicken broth, well 
strained; the liquor from a quart of oysters, one small onion, minced fine, 
and a little chopped parsley, sweet marjoram, and pepper; let them sim- 
mer for twenty minutes, and then boil rapidly for two or three minutes; 
skim well and add one scant tablespoonful of corn -starch, mixed smoothly 
in_qnejbhird cup of milk; stir constantly, and when it boils add the oysters 
and one ounce of butter; after which, just let it come to a boil, and remove 
the oysters to a deep dish; beat one egg, and add to it gradually some of 
the hot broth, and, when cooked, stir it into the pan; season with salt, 



SHELL-FISH. 75 

pour the whole over the oysters. When placed upon the table, squeeze the 
juice of a lemon over it. 

SMALL OYSTER PIES. 

FOE each pie take a tin plate half the size of an ordinary dinner plate; 
butter it, and cover the bottom with a puff paste, as for pies; lay on it five 
or six select oysters, or enough to cover the bottom; butter them and 
season with a little salt and plenty of pepper; spread over this on egg bat- 
ter, and cover with a crust of the paste, making small openings in it with 
a fork. Bake in a hot oven fifteen to twenty minutes, or until the top is 
nicely browned. 

Boston Oyster House. 
STEWED CLAMS. 

WASH clean as many round clams as required ; pile them in a large 
iron pot, with half a cupful of hot water in the bottom, and put 'over the 
fire ; as soon as the shells open take out the clams, cut off the hard, uneat- 
able " fringe " from each with strong, clean scissors, put them into a stew- 
pan with the broth from the pot, and boil slowly till they are quite tender ; 
pepper well and thicken the gravy with flour stirred into melted butter. 

Or, you may get two dozen freshly opened very small clams. Boil a 
pint of milk, a dash of white pepper and a small pat of butter. Now add 
the clams. Let them come to a boil and serve. Longer boiling will make 
the clams almost indigestible. 

ROAST CLAMS IN THE SHELL. 

ROAST in a pan over a hot fire, or in a hot oven, or, at a " Clam Bake," 
on hot stones ; when they open, empty the juice into a saucepan ; add the 
clams, with butter, pepper and a very little salt. 

Eye Beach. 
CLAM FRITTERS. 

TAKE fifty small or twenty-five large sand clams from their shells ; if 
large, cut each in two, lay them on a thickly-folded napkin ; put a pint 
bowl of wheat flour into a basin, add to it three well-beaten eggs, half a 
pint of sweet milk and nearly as much of their own liquor ; beat the bat- 
ter until it is smooth and perfectly free from lumps, then stir in the clams. 
Put plenty of lard or beef fat into a thick-bottomed frying pan, let it be- 
come boiling hot ; put in the batter by the spoonful ; let them fry gently ; 
when one side is a delicate brown turn the other. 



76 SHELL-FISH. 

CLAM CHOWDER. 

THE materials needed are fifty round clams (quahogs), a large bow.l of 
salt pork cut up fine, the same of onions finely chopped, and the same (or 
more, if you desire) of potatoes cut into eighths or sixteenths of original 
size ; wash the clams very thoroughly and put them in a pot with half a 
pint of water ; when the shells are open they are done ; then take them 
from the shells and chop fine, saving all the clam water for the chowder ; 
fry out the pork very gently, and when the scraps are a good brown take 
them out and put in the chopped onions to fry ; they should be fried in a 
frying pan, and the chowder kettle be made very clean before they are put 
in it, or the chowder will burn. (The chief secret in chowder-making is to 
fry the onions so delicately that they will be missing in the chowder.) 

Add a quart of hot water to the onions; put in the clams, clam -water 
and pork scraps. After it boils, add the potatoes, and when they are 
cooked, the chowder is finished. Just before it is taken up, thicken it with 
a cup of powdered crackers, and add a quart of fresh milk. If too rich, 
add more water. No seasoning is needed but good black pepper. 

With the addition of six sliced tomatoes, or half a can of the canned 
ones, this is the best recipe of this kind, and is served in many of our best 

restaurants. New Bedford Recipe. 

SCALLOPED CLAMS. 

PURCHASE a dozen large soft clams in the shell and three dozen opened 
clams. Ask the dealer to open the first dozen, care being used not to 
injure the shells, which are to be used in cooking the clams. Clean the 
shells well, and put two soft clams on each half shell; add to each a dash 
of white pepper, and half a teaspoonful of minced celery. Cut a slice of 
fat bacon into the smallest dice, add four of these to each shell, strew over 
the top a thin layer of cracker dust; place a piece of table butter on top, 
and bake in the oven until brown. They are delightful when properly 

prepared. 

SCALLOPS. 

IF BOUGHT in the shell boil them and take out the hearts, which is the 
only part used. Dip them in beaten egg and fry in the same manner as 
oysters. 

Some prefer them stewed the same as oysters. 

FEOGS FRIED. 

FROGS are usually fried, and are considered a great delicacy. Only the 
hind-legs and quarters are used. Clean them well, season, and fry in egg 



SHELL-FISH. 



77 



batter, or dipped in beaten egg and fine cracker crumbs, the same as 

oysters. 

FROGS STEWED. 

WASH and skin the quarters, parboil them about three minutes, drain 
them. Now put into a stewpan two ounces of butter. When it is melted, 
lay in the frogs, and fry about two minutes, stirring them to prevent burn- 
ing; shake over them a tablespoonful of sifted flour and stir it into them; 
add a sprig of parsley,' a pinch of powdered summer savory, a bay leaf, 
three slices of onion, salt and pepper, a cup of hot water and one of cream. 
Boil gently until done; remove the legs, strain and mix into the gravy the 
yolks of two eggs, well beaten to a cream; put the legs in a suitable dish, 
pour over the gravy and serve. 




POULTRY AND GAME. 

* * * 

IN CHOOSING poultry, select those that are fresh and fat, and the surest 
way to determine whether they are young is to try the skin under the 
leg or wing. If it is easily broken, it is young ; or, turn the wing 
backwards, if the joint yields readily, it is tender. When poultry is 
young the skin is thin and tender, the legs smooth, the feet moist and 
limber, and the eyes full and bright. The body should be thick and the 
breast fat. Old turkeys have long hairs, and the flesh is purplish where it 
shows under the skin on the legs and back. About March they deteriorate 
in quality. 

Young ducks and geese are plump, with light, semi-transparent fat, 
soft breast bone, tender flesh, leg- joints which will break by the weight of 
the bird, fresh-colored and brittle beaks, and windpipes that break when 
pressed between the thumb and forefinger. They are best in fall and 
winter. 

Young pigeons have light red flesh upon the breast, and full, fresh- 
colored legs ; when the legs are thin and the breast very dark the birds 
are old. 

Fine game birds are always heavy for their size ; the flesh of the 
breast is firm and plump and the skin clear ; and if a few feathers be 
plucked from the inside of the leg and around the vent, the flesh of 
freshly-killed birds will be fat and fresh-colored ; if it is dark and dis- 
colored, the game has been hung a long time. The wings of good ducks, 
geese, pheasants and woodcock are tender to the touch ; the tips of the 
long wing feathers of partridges are pointed in young birds and round in 
old ones. Quail, snipe and small birds should have full, tender breasts. 
Poultry should never be cooked until six or eight hours after it has been 
killed, but it should be picked and drawn as soon as possible. Plunge it 
in a pot of scalding hot water ; then pluck off the feathers, taking care not 
to tear the skin ; when it is picked clean, roll up a piece of white paper, 
set fire to it and singe off all the hairs. The head, neck and feet should be 
cut off, and the ends of the legs skewered to the body, and a string tied 

(78) 



POULTRY AND GAME. 70 

tightly around the body. When roasting a chicken or small fowl there is 
danger of the legs browning or becoming too hard to be eaten. To avoid 
this, take strips of cloth, dip them into a little melted lard, or even just 
rub them over with lard, and wind them around the legs. Remove them 
in time to allow the legs to brown delicately. 

Fowls, and also various kinds of game, when bought at our city mar- 
kets, require a more thorough cleansing than those sold in country places, 
where as a general thing the meat is wholly dressed. In large cities they 
lay for some length of time with the intestines undrawn, until the flavor 
of them diffuses itself all through the meat, rendering it distasteful. In 
this case, it is safe, after taking out the intestines, to rinse out in several 
waters, and in next to the last water, add a teaspoonful of baking soda, 
say to a quart of water. This process neutralizes all sourness, and helps 
to destroy all unpleasant taste in the meat. 

Poultry may be baked so that its wings and legs are soft and tender, by 
being placed in a deep roasting pan with close cover, thereby retaining the 
aroma and essences by absorption while confined. These pans are a recent 
innovation, and are made double with a small opening in the top for 
giving vent to the accumulation of steam and gases when required. 
Roast meats of any kind can also be cooked in the same manner, and it is 
a great improvement on the old plan. 

ROAST TURKEY. 

SELECT a young turkey; remove all the feathers carefully, singe it over 
a burning newspaper on the top of the stove; then "draw" it nicely, being 
very careful not to break any of the internal organs; remove the crop care- 
fully; cut off the head, and tie the neck close to the body by drawing the 
skin over it. Now rinse the inside of the turkey out with several 
waters, and in the next to the last, mix a teaspoonful of baking soda; 
oftentimes the inside of a fowl is very sour, especially if it is not freshly 
killed. Soda, being cleansing, acts as a corrective, and destroys that un- 
pleasant taste which we frequently experience in the dressing when fowls 
have been killed for some time. Now, after washing, wipe the turkey dry, 
inside and out, with a clean cloth, rub the inside with some salt, then stuff 
the breast and body with "Dressing for Fowls." Then sew up the 
turkey with a strong thread, tie the legs and wings to the body, rub it 
over with a little soft butter, sprinkle over some salt and pepper, dredge 
with a little flour; place it in a dripping-pan, pour in a cup of boiling 



80 POULTRY AND GAME. 

water, and set in the oven. Baste the turkey often, turning it around 
occasionally so that every part will be uniformly baked. When pierced 
with a fork and the liquid runs out perfectly clear, the bird is done. If 
any part is likely to scorch, pin over it a piece of buttered white paper. A 
fifteen pound turkey requires between three and four hours to bake. 
Serve with cranberry sauce. 

Gravy for Turkey. When you put the turkey in to roast, put the neck, 
heart, liver and gizzard into a stewpan with a pint of water ; boil until 
they become quite tender ; take them out of the water, chop the heart and 
gizzard, mash the liver and throw away the neck ; return the chopped 
heart, gizzard and liver to the liquor in which they were stewed ; set it to 
one side, and when the turkey is done it should be added to the gravy that 
dripped from the turkey, having first skimmed off the fat from the surface 
of the dripping-pan ; set it all over the fire, boil three minutes and thicken 
with flour. It will not need brown flour to color the gravy. The gar- 
nishes for turkey or chicken are fried oysters, thin slices of ham, slices of 
lemon, fried sausages, or force meat balls, also parsley. 

DRESSING OR STUFFING FOR FOWLS. 

FOE an eight or ten pound turkey, cut the brown crust from slices or 
pieces of stale bread until you have as much as the inside of a pound loaf ; 
put it into a suitable dish and pour tepid water (not warm, for that makes 
it heavy) over it ; let it stand one minute, as it soaks very quickly. Now 
take up a handful at a time and squeeze it hard and dry with both hands, 
placing it, as you go along, in another dish ; this process makes it very 
light. When all is pressed dry, toss it all up lightly through your fingers ; 
now add pepper, salt, about a teaspoonful, also a teaspoonful of pow- 
dered summer savory, the same amount of sage, or the green herb minced 
fine ; add half a cup of melted butter, and a beaten egg, or not. Work 
thoroughly all together, and it is ready for dressing either fowls, fish or 
meats. A little chopped sausage in turkey dressing is considered by some 
an improvement, when well incorporated with the other ingredients. For 
geese and ducks the stuffing may be made the same as for turkey, with the 
addition of a few slices of onion chopped fine. 

OYSTER DRESSING OR STUFFING. 

THIS is made with the same ingredients as the above, with the excep- 
tion of half a can of oysters drained and slightly chopped and added to 



POULTRY AND GAME. 81 

the rest. This is used mostly with boiled turkey and chicken, and the 
remainder of the can of oysters used to make an oyster sauce to be poured 
over the turkey when served ; served generally in a separate dish, to be 
dipped out as a person desires. 

These recipes were obtained from an old colored cook, who was famous 
for his fine dressings for fowls, fish and meats, and his advice was, always 
soak stale bread in cold liquid, either milk or water, when used for stuffing 
or for puddings, as they were much lighter. Hot liquid makes them heavy. 

BOILED TURKEY. 

PREPARE as you would for baking or roasting; fill with an oyster stuf- 
fing, made as the above. Tie the legs and wings close to the body, place 
in salted boiling water with the breast downward; skim it often and boil 
about two hours, but not till the skin breaks. Serve with oys'ter or celery 
sauce. Boil a nicely pickled piece of salt pork, and serve at table a thin 
slice to each plate. Some prefer bacon or ham instead of pork. 

Some roll the turkey in a cloth dipped in flour. If the liquor is to be 
used afterwards for soup, the cloth imparts an unpleasant flavor. The 
liquor can be saved and made into a nice soup for the next day's dinner, 
by adding the same seasonings as for chicken soup. 

TURKEY SCALLOP. 

PICK the meat from the bones of cold turkey and chop it fine. Put a 
layer of bread crumbs on the bottom of a buttered dish, moisten them with 
a little milk, then put in a layer of turkey with some of the filling, and cut 
small pieces of butter over the top; sprinkle with pepper and salt; then 
another layer of bread crumbs, and so on until the dish is nearly full; add 
a little hot water to the gravy left from the turkey and pour over it; then 
take two eggs, two tablespoonfuls of milk, one of melted butter, a little 
salt and cracker crumbs as much as will make it thick enough to spread 
on with a knife; put bits of butter over it, and cover with a plate. Bake 
three-quarters of an hour. Ten minutes before serving, remove the plate 
and let it brown. 

TURKEY HASHED. 

CUT the remnants of turkey from a previous dinner into pieces of equal 
size. Boil the bones in a quart of water, until the quart is reduced to a 
pint; then take out the bones, and to the liquor in which they were boiled 
add turkey gravy, if you have any, or white stock, or a small piece of but- 
ter with salt and pepper; let the liquor thus prepared boil up once; then 



82 PO UL TR Y AND GAME. 

put in the pieces of turkey, dredge in a little flour, give it one boil-up, and 

serve in a hot dish. 

TURKEY WARMED OVER. 

PIECES of cold turkey or chicken may be warmed up with a little butter 
in a frying pan; place it on a warm platter, surround it with pieces of 
small thick slices of bread or biscuit halved, first dipping them in hot 
salted water; then place the platter in a warm oven with the door open. 
Have already made the following gravy to pour over all:- 

Into the frying pan put a large spoonful of butter, one or two cupfuls 
of milk, and any gravy that may be left over. Bring it to a boil; then add 
sufficient flour, wet in a little cold milk or water, to make it the consist- 
ency of cream. Season with salt, pepper and add a little of the dark meat 
chopped very fine. Let the sauce cook a few moments, then pour over the 
"biscuit and fowl. This will be found a really nice dish. 

BONED TURKEY. 

CLEAN the fowl as usual. With a sharp and pointed knife, begin at the 
extremity of the wing, and pass the knife down close to the bone, cutting 
all the flesh from the bone, and preserving the skin whole; run the knife 
down each side of the breast bone and up the legs, keeping close to the 
bone; then split the back half way up, and draw out the bones; fill the 
places whence the bones were taken with a stuffing, restoring the fowl to 
its natural form, and sew up all the incisions made in the skin. Lard with 
two or three rows of slips of fat bacon on the top, basting often with salt 
and water, and a little butter. Some like a glass of port wine in the 
gravy. 

This is a difficult dish to attempt by any but skillful hands. Carve 
across in slices, and serve with tomato sauce. 

ROAST GOOSE. 

THE goose should not be more than eight months old, and the fatter 
the more tender and juicy the meat. Stuff with the following mixture: 
Three pints of bread crumbs, six ounces of butter, or part butter and part 
salt pork, one teaspoonful each of sage, black pepper and salt, one chopped 
onion. Do not stuff very full, and stitch openings firmly together to keep 
flavor in and fat out. Place in a baking pan with a little water, and baste 
frequently with salt and water (some add vinegar); turn often so that the 
sides and back may be nicely browned. Bake two hours or more; when 
done take from the pan, pour off the fat, and to the brown gravy left add 



PO UL TR Y AND GAME. 83 

the chopped giblets which have previously been stewed until tender, 
together with the water they were boiled in; thicken with a little flour 
and butter rubbed together, bring to a boil and serve. English style. 

ROAST CHICKEN. 

PICK and draw them, wash out well in two or three waters, adding a 
little soda to the last but one to sweeten it, if there is doubt as to its being 
fresh. Dry it well with a clean cloth, and fill the crop and body with a 
stuffing the same as "Dressing for Fowls." Lay it in a dripping-pan; put 
a pint of hot water and a piece of butter in the dripping-pan, add to it a 
small tablespoonful of salt, and a small teaspoonful of pepper; baste fre- 
quently, and let it roast quickly, without scorching; when nearly done, 
put a piece of butter the size of a large egg to the water in the pan; when 
it melts, baste with it, dredge a little flour over, baste again, and let it 
finish; half an hour will roast a full-grown chicken, if the fire is right. 
When done, take it up. 

Having stewed the necks, gizzards, livers and hearts in a very little 
water, strain it and mix it hot with the gravy that has dripped from the 
fowls, and which must be first skimmed. Thicken it with a little browned 
flour, add to it the livers, hearts and gizzards chopped small. Or, put the 
giblets in the pan with the chicken and let them roast. Send the fowls to 
the table with the gravy in a boat. Cranberry sauce should accompany 
them, or any tart sauce. 

BOILED CHICKEN. 

CLEAN, wash and stuff, as for roasting. Baste a floured cloth around 
each and put into a pot with enough boiling water to cover them well. 
The hot water cooks the skin at once and prevents the escape of the juice. 
The broth will not be so rich as if the fowls are put on in cold water, but 
this is a proof that the meat will be more nutritious and better flavored. 
Stew very slowly, for the first half hour especially. Boil an hour or more, 
guiding yourself by size and toughness. Serve with egg, bread or oyster 
sauce. (See SAUCES.) 

STEAMED CHICKEN. 

RUB the chicken on the inside with pepper and half a teaspoonful of 
salt ; place in a steamer in a kettle that will keep it as near the water as 
possible, cover and steam an hour and a half ; when done, keep hot while 
dressing is prepared, then cut up, arrange on the platter, and serve with 
the dressing over it. 



84 POULTRY AND GAME. 

The dressing is made as follows : Boil one pint of gravy from tfye 
kettle without the fat, add cayenne pepper and half a teaspoonful of gait ; 
stir a tablespoonful of flour into a quarter of a pint of cream until smooth 
and add to the gravy. Cornstarch may be used instead of the flour, and 
some cooks add nutmeg or celery salt. 

FRICASSEE CHICKEN. 

GUT up two young chickens, put them in a stewpan with just enough 
cold water to cover them. Cover closely and let them heat very slowly ; 
then stew them over an hour, or until tender. If they are old chickens 
they will require long, slow boiling, often from three to four hours. When 
tender, season with salt and pepper, a piece of butter as large as an egg, 
and a little celery, if liked. Stir up two tablespoonfuls of flour in a little 
water or milk and add to the stew, also two well-beaten yolks of eggs ; let 
all boil up one minute ; arrange the chicken on a warm platter, pour some 
of the gravy over it and send the rest to the table in a boat. The egg 
should be added to a little of the cooled gravy before putting with the 
hot gravy. 

STEWED WHOLE SPRING CHICKEN. 

DRESS a full-grown spring chicken the same as for roasting, seasoning 
it with salt and pepper inside and out; then fill the body with oysters; 
place it in a tin pail with a close-fitting cover. Set the pail in a pot of 
fast-boiling water and cook until the chicken is tender. Dish up the 
chicken on a warm dish, then pour the gravy into a saucepan, put into it a 
tablespoonful of butter, half of a cupful of cream or rich milk, three hard- 
boiled eggs chopped fine, some minced herbs and a tablespoonful of flour. 
Let all boil up and then pour it over the chicken. Serve hot. 

PICKLED CHICKEN. 

BOIL four chickens till tender enough for meat to fall from bones; put 
meat in a stone jar and pour over it three pints of cold, good cider vinegar 
and a pint and a half of the water in which the chickens were boiled; add 
spices if preferred, and it will be ready for use in two days. This is a pop- 
ular Sunday evening dish; it is good for luncheon at any time. 

RISSOLES OF CHICKEN. 

MINCE up finely the remains of a cold chicken together with half the 
quantity of lean, cold ham. Mix them well, adding enough white sauce to 



POULTRY AND GAME. 85 

moisten them. Now have light paste rolled out until about a quarter of 
an inch or a little more in thickness. Cut the paste into pieces, one inch 
by two in size, and lay a little of the mixture upon the centres of half of 
the pieces and cover them with the other halves, pressing the edges neatly 
together and forming them into little rolls. Have your frying pan ready 
with plenty of boiling hot lard, or other frying medium, and fry until they 
become a golden-brown color. A minute or two will be sufficient for this. 
Then drain them well and serve immediately on a napkin. 

CHICKEN PATTIES. 

MINCE up fine cold chicken, either roasted or boiled. Season it with 
pepper and salt, and a little minced parsely and onion. Moisten it with 
chicken gravy or cream sauce, fill scalloped shells that are lined with 
pastry with the mixture, and sprinkle bread crumbs over the tops. Put 
two or three tiny pieces of butter over each, and bake brown in a hot 
oven. 

TO BROIL CHICKEN, 

AFTER dressing and washing the chickens as previously directed, split 
them open through the back-bone; frog them by cutting the cords under 
the wings and laying the wings out flat; cut the sinews under the second 
joint of the leg and turn the leg down; press down the breast-bone without 
breaking it. 

Season the chicken with salt and pepper, lay it upon the gridiron with 
the inside first to the fire; put the gridiron over a slow fire, and place a tin 
sheet and weight upon the chicken, to keep it flat; let it broil ten minutes, 
then turn and proceed in the same manner with the other side. 

The chicken should be perfectly cooked, but not scorched. A broiled 
chicken brought to the table with its wings and legs burnt, and its breast 
half cooked, is very disagreeable. To avoid this, the chicken must be 
closely watched while broiling, and the fire must be arranged so that the 
heat shall be equally dispensed. When the fire is too hot under any one 
part of the chicken, put a little ashes on the fire under that part, that the 
heat may be reduced. 

Dish a broiled chicken on a hot plate, putting a large lump of butter 
and a tablespoonful of hot water upon the plate, and turning the 
chicken two or three times that it may absorb as much of the butter as 
possible. Garnish with parsley. Serve with poached eggs on a separate 
dish. It takes from thirty to forty minutes to broil a chicken well. 



86 

CHICKEN PIE. 

PREPARE the chicken as for fricassee. When the chicken is stewed 
tender, seasoned, and the gravy thickened, take it from the fire; take out 
the largest bones, scrape the meat from the neck and back-bone, throw 
the bones away; line the sides of a four or six quart pudding-dish with a 
rich baking powder or soda biscuit dough, a quarter of an inch thick; put 
in part of the chicken, a few lumps of butter, pepper and salt, if needed, 
some cold boiled eggs cut in slices. Add the rest of the chicken and 
season as before; a few new potatoes in their season might be added. Pour 
ctrer the gravy, being sure to have enough to fill the dish, and cover with 
a, crust a quarter of an inch thick, made with a hole in the centre the size 
of a teacup. 

Brush over the top with beaten white of egg and bake for half to three- 
quarters of an hour. Garnish the top with small bright celery leaves, 
neatly arranged in a circle. 

FRIED CHICKEN. 

WASH and cut up a young chicken, wipe it dry, season with salt and 
pepper, dredge it with flour, or dip each piece in beaten egg and then in 
cracker crumbs. Have in a frying pan one ounce each of butter and sweet 
lard made boiling hot. Lay in the chicken and fry brown on both sides. 
Take up, drain it and set aside in a covered dish. Stir into the gravy 
left, if not too much, a large tablespoonful of flour, make it smooth, add a 
cup of cream or milk, season with salt and pepper, boil up and pour over 
the chicken. Some like chopped parsley added to the gravy. Serve hot. 

If the chicken is old, put into a stewpan with a little water and simmer 
gently till tender ; season with salt and pepper, dip in flour or cracker 
crumb and egg, and fry as above. Use the broth the chicken was cooked 
in to make the gravy, instead of the cream or milk, or use an equal quan' 

tity of both. , 

FRIED CHICKEN A LA ITALIENNE. 

MAKE common batter ; mix into it a cupful of chopped tomatoes, one 
onion chopped, some minced parsley, salt and pepper. Cut up young, 
tender chickens, dry them well and dip each piece in the batter ; then fry 
brown in plenty of butter in a thick-bottomed frying pan. Serve with 

tomato sauce. 

CHICKEN CROQUETTES. No, 1. 

PUT a cup of cream or milk in a saucepan, set it over the fire, and when 
it boils add a lump of butter as large as an egg, in which has been mixed 



POULTRY AND GAME. 87 

a tablespoonful of flour. Let it boil up thick ; remove from the fire, and 
when cool mix into it a teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, a 
bit of minced onion or parsley, one cup of fine bread crumbs, and a pint of 
finely-chopped cooked chicken, either roasted or boiled. Lastly, beat up 
two eggs and work in with the whole. Flour your hands and make into 
small, round, flat cakes ; dip in egg and bread crumbs and fry like fish 
cakes in butter and good sweet lard mixed, or like fried cakes in plenty of 
hot lard. Take them up with a skimmer and lay them on brown paper to 
free them from the grease. Serve hot. 

CHICKEN CROQUETTES. No. 2. 

TAKE any kind of fresh meat or fowl, chop very fine, add an equal quan- 
tity of smoothly mashed potatoes, mix, and season with butter, salt, black 
pepper, a little prepared mustard, and a little cayenne pepper; make into 
cakes, dip in egg and bread crumbs and fry a light brown. A nice relish 
for tea. 

TO FRY CROQUETTES. 

BEAT up two eggs in a deep bowl; roll enough crackers until you have a 
cupful of crumbs, or the same of fine stale bread crumbs; spread the 
crumbs on a large plate or pie-tin. Have over the fire a kettle containing 
two or three inches of boiling lard. As fast as the croquettes are formed, 
roll them in the crumbs, then dip them in the beaten egg, then again roll 
them in crumbs; drop them in the smoking hot fat and fry them a light 
golden brown. 

PRESSED CHICKEN. 

CLEAN and cut up your chickens. Stew in just enough water to cover 
them. When nearly cooked, season them well with salt and pepper. Let 
them stew down until the water is nearly all boiled out, and the meat 
drops easily from the bones. Remove the bones and gristle; chop the 
meat rather coarsely, then turn it back into the stew-kettle, where the 
broth was left (after skimming off all fat), and let it heat through again. 
Turn it into a square bread pan, placing a platter on the top, and a heavy 
weight on the platter. This, if properly prepared, will turn out like a 
mold of jelly and may be sliced in smooth, even slices. The success of 
this depends upon not having too much water; it will not jelly if too 
weak, or if the water is allowed to boil away entirely while cooking. A 
good way to cook old fowls. 



88 PO UL TR Y AND GAME. 

CHICKEN LUNCH FOR TRAVELING. 

CUT a young chicken down the back; wash and wipe dry; season with 
salt and pepper; put in a dripping-pan and bake in a moderate oven three- 
quarters of an hour. This is much better for traveling lunch than when 
seasoned with butter. 

All kinds of poultry and meat can be cooked quicker by adding to the 
water in which they are boiled a little vinegar or a piece of lemon. By 
the use of a little acid there will be a considerable saving of fuel, as well 
as shortening of time. Its action is beneficial on old tough meats, render- 
ing them quite tender and easy of digestion. Tainted meats and fowls 
will lose their bad taste and odor if cooked in this way, and if not used too 
freely no taste of it will be acquired. 

POTTED CHICKEN. 

STRIP the meat from the bones of a cold roast fowl ; to every pound of 
meat allow a quarter of a pound of butter, salt and cayenne pepper to 
taste ; one teaspoonful of pounded mace, half a small nutmeg. Cut the 
meat into small pieces, pound it well with the butter, sprinkle in the 
spices gradually and keep pounding until reduced to a perfectly 
smooth paste. Pack it into small jars and cover with clarified butter, 
about a quarter of an inch in thickness. Two or three slices of ham 
minced and pounded with the above will be an improvement. Keep in a 
dry place. A luncheon or breakfast dish. 

Old fowls can be made very tender by putting into them, while boiling, 
a piece of soda as large as a bean. 

SCALLOPED CHICKEN. 

DIVIDE a fowl into joints and boil till the meat leaves the bone readily. 
Take out the bones and chop the meat as small as dice. Thicken the 
water in which the fowl was boiled with flour and season to taste with 
butter and salt. Fill a deep dish with alternate layers of bread crumbs 
and chicken and slices of cooked potatoes, having crumbs on top. Pour 
the gravy over the top and add a few bits of butter and bake till nicely 
browned. There should be gravy enough to moisten the dish. Serve 
with a garnish of parsley. Tiny new potatoes are nice in place of sliced 

ones when in season. 

BREADED CHICKEN. 

PEEPARE young chickens as for fricassee by cutting them into pieces. 
Dip each piece in beaten egg, then in grated bread crumbs or rolled 



PO UL TR Y AND GAME, 89 

cracker ; season them with pepper and salt and a little minced parsley. 
Place them in a baking pan and put on the top of each piece a lump of 
butter, add half of a cupful of hot water ; bake slowly, basting often. 
When sufficiently cooked take up on a warm platter. Into the pan pour a 
cup of cream or rich milk, a cupful of bread crumbs. Stir it well until 
cooked, then pour it over the chicken. Serve while hot. 

BROILED CHICKEN ON TOAST. 

BROIL the usual way and when thoroughly done take it up in a square 
tin or dripping-pan, butter it well, season with pepper and salt and set it 
in the oven for a few minutes. Lay slices of moistened buttered toast on 
a platter ; take the chicken up over it, add to the gravy in the pan part of 
a cupful of cream, if you have it ; if not, use milk. Thicken with a little 
flour and pour over the chicken. 

This is considered most excellent. 

CURRY CHICKEN. 

CUT up a chicken weighing xrom a pound and a half to two pounds, as 
for fricassee, wash it well, and put it into a stewpan with sufficient water 
to cover it; boil it, closely covered, until tender; add a large teaspoonful of 
salt, and cook a few minutes longer; then remove from the fire, take out 
the chicken, pour the liquor into a bowl, and set it one side. Now cut up 
into the stewpan two small onions, and fry them with a piece of butter as 
large as an egg; as soon as the onions are brown, skim them out and put in 
the chicken; fry for three or four minutes; next sprinkle over two tea- 
spoonfuls of Curry Powder. Now pour over the liquor in which the 
chicken was stewed, stir all well together, and stew for five minutes 
longer, then stir into this a tablespoonful of sifted flour made thin with a 
little water; lastly, stir in a beaten yolk of egg, and it is done. 

Serve with hot boiled rice laid around on the edge of a platter, and the 
chicken curry in the centre. 

This makes a handsome side dish, and a fine relish accompanying a full 
dinner of roast beef or any roast. 

All first-class grocers and druggists keep this "India Curry Powder," 
put up in bottles. Beef, veal, mutton, duck, pigeons, partridges, rabbits or 
fresh fish may be substituted for the chicken, if preferred, and sent to the 
table with or without a dish of rice. 

To Boil Rice or Curry. Pick over the rice, a cupful. Wash it thor- 
oughly in two or three cold waters; then leave it about twenty minutes in 



90 POULTRY AND GAME. 

cold water. Put into a stewpan two quarts of water with a teaspoonful of 
salt in it; and when it boils, sprinkle in the rice. Boil it briskly .for 
twenty minutes, keeping the pan covered. Take it from the fire, and drain 
off the water. Afterwards set the saucepan on the back of the stove, with 
the lid off, to allow the rice to dry and the grains to separate. 

Rice, if properly boiled, should be soft and white, and every grain 
stand alone. Serve it hot in a separate dish or served as above, laid 
around the chicken curry. 

CHICKEN POT-PIE. No, 1. 

CUT and joint a large chicken, cover with cold water, and let it boil 
gently until tender. Season with salt and pepper, and thicken the gravy 
with two tablespoonfuls of flour, mixed smooth with a piece of butter the 
size of an egg. Have ready nice light bread-dough, cut with the top of a 
wineglass about a half an inch thick; let them stand half an hour and rise, 
then drop these into the boiling gravy. Put the cover on the pot closely, 
wrap a cloth around it, in order that no steam shall escape; and by no 
means allow the pot to cease boiling. Boil !3iree-quarters of an hour. 

CHICKEN POT-PIE. No. 2. 

THIS style of pot-pie was made more in our grandmother's day than 
now, as most cooks consider that cooking crust so long destroys its spongy 
lightness, and renders it too hard and dry. 

Take a pair of fine fowls, cut them up, wash the pieces, and season with 
pepper only. Make a light biscuit dough, and plenty of it, as it is always 
much liked by the eaters of pot-pie. Roll out the dough not very thin, 
and cut most of it into long squares,, Butter the sides of a pot, and line 
them with dough nearly to the top. Lay slices of cold ham at the bottom 
of the pot, and then the pieces of fowl, interspersed all through with 
squares of dough and potatoes, pared and quartered. Pour in a quart of 
water. Cover the whole with a lid of dough, having a slit in the centre, 
through which the gravy will bubble up. Boil it steadily for two hours. 
Half an hour before you take it up, put in through the hole in the centre 
of the crust some bits of butter rolled in flour, to thicken the gravy. 
When done, put the pie on a large dish, and pour the gravy over it. 

You may intersperse it all through with cold ham. 

A pot-pie may be made of ducks, rabbits, squirrels or venison. Also of 
beefsteak. A beefsteak, or some porksteaks (the lean only), greatly im- 
prove a chicken pot-pie. If you use no ham, season with salt. 



PO UL TE T AND GAME. 91 

CHICKEN STEWED WITH BISCUIT. 

TAKE chickens, and make a fricassee; just before you are ready to dish 
it up, have ready two baking-tins of rich soda or baking-powder biscuits; 
take them from the oven hot, split them apart by breaking them with 
your hands, lay them on a large meat platter, covering it, then pour the 
hot chicken stew over all. Send to the table hot. This is a much better 
way than boiling this kind of biscuit in the stew, as you are more sure of 
its being always light. 

CHICKEN DRESSED AS TERRAPIN. 

SELECT young chickens, clean and cut them into pieces; put them into a 
stewpan with just enough water to cook them. When tender stir into it 
half of a cup of butter and one beaten egg. Season it with salt and pep- 
per, a teaspoonful of powdered thyme; add two hard-boiled eggs coarsely 
minced and a small glass of wine. Boil up once and serve with jelly. 

CHICKEN ROLY-POLY. 

ONE quart of flour, two teaspoonfuls of cream tartar mixed with the 
flour, one teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a teacupf ul of milk ; a teaspoon- 
ful of salt ; do not use shortening of any kind, but roll out the mixture 
half an inch thick, and on it lay minced chicken, veal or mutton. The 
meat must be seasoned with pepper and salt and be free from gristle. 
Roll the crust over and over, and put it on a buttered plate and place in a 
steamer for half an hour. Serve for breakfast or lunch, giving a slice to 
each person with gravy served with it. 

CHICKEN TURNOVERS. 

CHOP cold roast chicken very fine. Put it into a saucepan, place it over 
the fire, moisten it with a little water and gravy, or a piece of butter. 
Season with salt and pepper ; add a small tablespoonful of sifted flour dis- 
solved in a little water ; heat all through and remove from the fire to be- 
come cool. When cooled roll out some plain pie-crust quite thin, cut out 
in rounds as large as a saucer ; wet the edge with cold water and put a 
large spoonful of the minced meat on one-half of the round ; fold the 
other half over and pinch the edges well together, then fry them in hot 
drippings or fat a nice brown. They may also be cooked in a moderate 
oven. 



92 PO ULTRY AND GAME. 

CHICKEN PUDDING. 

CUT up two young chickens into good-sized pieces ; put them i$ a 
saucepan with just enough water to cover them well. When boiled quite 
tender, season with salt and pepper ; let them simmer ten or fifteen min- 
utes longer ; then take the chicken from the broth and remove all the 
large bones. Place the meat in a well-buttered pudding dish, season again, 
if necessary, adding a few bits of butter. Pour over this the following 
batter : 

Eight eggs beaten light and mixed with one quart of milk, three table- 
spoonfuls of melted butter, a teaspoonful of salt and two large teaspoon- 
fuls of baking powder, added to enough sifted flour to make a batter like 
griddle-cakes. 

Bake one hour in a moderate oven. 

Make a gravy of the broth that remained from the cooking of the 
chicken, adding a tablespoonful of flour stirred into a third of a cup of 
melted butter ; let it boil up, putting in more water if necessary. Serve 

in a gravy boat with the pudding. 



CHICKEN AND MACARONI. 

BOIL a chicken until very tender, take out all the bones, and pick up 
the meat quite fine. Boil half a pound of macaroni until tender, first 
breaking it up to pieces an inch long. Butter a deep pudding dish, put on 
the bottom a layer of the cooked macaroni, then a layer of the minced 
chicken, bits of butter, pepper and salt, then some of the chicken liquor, 
over this put another layer of macaroni, and so on, until the dish is filled. 
Pour a cup of cream over the whole, and bake half an hour. Serve on a 
platter. 

ROAST DUCK. (Tame.) 

PICK, draw, clean thoroughly, and wipe dry. Cut the neck close to the 
back, beat the breast-bone flat with a rolling pin, tie the wings and legs 
securely, and stuff with the following: 

Three pints bread crumbs, six ounces butter, or part butter and 
salt pork, two chopped onions and one teaspoonful each of sage, black 
pepper and salt. Do not stuff very full, and sew up the openings firmly to 
keep the flavor in and the fat out. If not fat enough, it should be larded 
with salt pork, or tie a slice upon the breast. Place in a baking pan, with 
a little water, and baste frequently with salt and water some add onion, 
and some vinegar; turn often, so that the sides and back may all be picely 



PO UL TR Y AND GAME. 93 

browned. When nearly done, baste with butter and a little flour. These 
directions will apply to tame geese as well as ducks. Young ducks should 
roast from twenty-five to thirty minutes, and full-grown ones for an hour 
or more, with frequent basting. Some prefer them underdone and served 
very hot; but, as a rule, thorough cooking will prove more palatable. 
Make a gravy out of the necks and gizzards by putting them in a quart of 
cold water, that must be reduced to a pint by boiling. The giblets, when 
done, may be chopped fine and added to the juice. The preferred season- 
ings are one tablespoonful of Madeira or sherry, a blade of mace, one 
small onion, and a little cayenne pepper; strain through a hair sieve; pour 
a little over the ducks and serve the remainder in a boat. Served with 
jellies or any tart sauce. 

BRAISED DUCK. 

PREPARE a pair of fine young ducks, the same as for roasting, place 
them in a stewpan together with two or three slices of bacon, a carrot, an 
onion stuck with two cloves, and a little thyme and parsley. Season with 
pepper, and cover the whole with a broth, adding to the broth a gill of 
white wine. Place the pan over a gentle fire and allow the ducks to sim- 
mer until done, basting them frequently. When done remove them from 
the pan, and place them where they will keep hot. A turnip should then 
be cut up and fried in some butter. When nicely browned, drain the 
pieces and cook them until tender in the liquor in which the ducks were 
braised. Now strain and thicken the gravy, and after dishing up the 
ducks, pour it over them, garnishing with the pieces of turnip. 

Palmer House, Chicago. 
STEWED DUCK. 

PREPARE them by cutting them up the same as chicken for fricassee. 
Lay two or three very thin slices of salt pork upon the bottom of a stew- 
pan; lay the pieces of duck upon the pork. Let them stew slowly for an 
hour, closely covered. Then season with salt and pepper, half a teaspoon- 
ful of powdered sage, or some green sage minced fine; one chopped onion. 
Stew another half hour until the duck is tender. Stir up a large table- 
spoonful of brown flour in a little water and add it to the stew. Let it 
boil up, and serve all together in one dish, accompanied with green peas. 

Palmer House, Chicago. 
DUCK PIE. 

CUT all the meat from cold roast ducks; put the bones and stuffing into 
cold water; cover them and let boil; put the meat into a deep dish; pour 



94 POULTRY AND GAME. 

on enough of the stock made from the bones to moisten; cover with pastry 
slit in the centre with a knife, and bake a light brown. 

WARMED UP DUCK. 

A NICE dish for breakfast, and very relishing, can be made from the 
remains of a roast of duck. Cut the meat from the bones, pick out all the 
little tidbits in the recesses, lay them in a frying pan. and cover with 
water and the cold gravy left from the roast; add a piece of butter; let all 
boil up once and if not quite thick enough, stir in a little dissolved flour. 
Serve hot. 

ROAST WILD DUCK. 

WILD duck should not be dressed too soon after being killed. If ths, 
weather is cold it will be better for being kept several days. Bake in a 
hot oven, letting it remain for five or ten minutes without basting to keep 
in the gravy, then baste frequently with butter and water. If over-done 
it loses flavor, thirty to forty minutes in the right kind of an oven being 
sufficient. Serve on a very-hot dish, and send to table as hot as possible 
with a cut lemon and the following sauce : 

Put in a tiny saucepan a tablespoonful each of Worcestershire sauce 
and mushroom catsup, a little salt and cayenne pepper and the juice of 
half a lemon. Mix well, make it hot, remove from the fire and stir in a 
teaspoonf ul of made mustard. Pour into a hot gravy boat. 

California Style, Lick House. 
WILD DUCKS. 

MOST wild ducks are apt to have the flavor of fish, and when in the 
hands of inexperienced cooks are sometimes unpalatable on this account. 
Before roasting them, parboil them with a small peeled carrot put within 
each duck. This absorbs the unpleasant taste. An onion will have the 
same effect, but unless you use onions in the stuffing the carrot is prefer- 
able. Roast the same as tame duck. Or put into the duck a whole onion 
peeled, plenty of salt and pepper and a glass of claret, bake in a hot oven 
twenty minutes. Serve hot with the gravy it yields in cooking and a dish 
of currant jelly. 

CANVAS-BACK DUCK. 

THE epicurean taste declares that this special kind of bird requires no 
spices or flavors to make it perfect, as the meat partakes of the flavor of 
the food that the bird feeds upon, being mostly wild celery ; and the de- 
licious flavor is best preserved when roasted quickly with a hot fire. After 



PO UL TR T AND GAME. 95 

dressing the duck in the usual way by plucking, singeing, drawing, wipe it 
with a wet towel, truss the head under the wing ; place it in a dripping- 
pan, put it in the oven, basting often, and roast it half an hour. It is gen- 
erally preferred a little underdone. Place it when done on a hot dish, 
season well with salt and pepper, pour over it the gravy it has yielded in 
baking and serve it immediately while hot. 

Delmonico. 
ROAST PIGEONS. 

PIGEONS lose their flavor by being kept more than a day after they are 
killed. They may be prepared and roasted or broiled the same as chickens; 
they will require from twenty to thirty minutes' cooking. Make a gravy 
of the giblets or not, season it with pepper and salt, and add a little flour 
and butter. 

STEWED PIGEONS. 

CLEAN and stuff with onion dressing, thyme, etc., do not sew up; take 
five or more slices of corned pork, let it fry a while in a pot so that the fat 
comes out and it begins to brown a little; then lay the pigeons all around 
in the fat, leaving the pork still in; add hot water enough to partially 
cover them; cover tightly and boil an hour or so until tender; then turn 
off some of the liquid, and keep turning them so they will brown nicely; 
then heat and add the liquor poured off; add extra thyme, pepper, and 
keep turning until the pigeons and gravy are nicely browned. Thicken 
with a little flour, and serve with the gravy poured over them; garnish 
with parsley. 

PIGEON PIE. 

TAKE half a dozen pigeons; stuff each one with a dressing the same as 
for turkey; loosen the joints with a knife, but do not separate them. Put 
them in a stewpan with water enough to cover them, let them cook until 
nearly tender, then season them with salt and pepper and butter. Thicken 
the gravy with flour, remove and cool. Butter a pudding dish, line the 
sides with a rich crust. Have ready some hard-boiled eggs cut in slices. 
Put in a layer of egg and birds and gravy until the dish is full. Cover 
with a crust and bake. 

BROILED PIGEONS OR SQUABS. 

SPLIT them down the back and broil the same as chicken; seasoning 
well with salt, pepper and plenty of butter. Broil slices of salt pork, very 
thin; place a slice over each bird and serve. 



96 PO UL TE Y AND GAME. 

SQUAB POT-PIE. 

CUT into dice three ounces of salt pork; divide six wild squabs into 
pieces at the joints; remove the skin. Cut up four potatoes into small 
squares, and prepare a dozen small dough balls. 

Put into a yellow, deep baking dish the pork, potatoes and squabs, and 
then the balls of dough, season with salt, white pepper, a dash of mace or 
nutmeg; add hot water enough to cover the ingredients, cover with a 
"short" pie-crust and bake in a moderate oven three-quarters of an hour. 

Palmer House, Chicago. 
WOODCOCK, ROASTED. 

SKIN the head and neck of the bird, pluck the feathers, and truss it by 
bringing the beak of the bird under the wing, and fastening the pinion to 
the thigh; twist the legs at the knuckles and press the feet upon the thigh. 
Put a piece of bread under each bird to catch the drippings, baste with 
butter, dredge with flour, and roast fifteen or twenty minutes with a sharp 
fire. When done, cut the bread in diamond shape, each piece large enough 
to stand one bird upon, place them aslant on your dish, and serve with 
gravy enough to moisten the bread; serve some in the dish and some in 
the tureen; garnish with slices of lemon. Roast from twenty to twenty- 
five minutes. 

SNIPE. 

SNIPE are similar to woodcock, and may be served in the same manner; 
they will require less time to roast. 

REED BIRDS. 

PICK and draw them very carefully, salt and dredge with flour, and 
roast with a quick fire ten or fifteen minutes. Serve on toast with butter 
and pepper. You can put in each one an oyster dipped in butter and then 
in bread crumbs before roasting. They are also very nice broiled. 

ROAST QUAIL. 

RINSE well and steam over boiling water until tender, then dredge with 
flour, and smother in butter; season with salt and pepper and roast inside 
the stove; thicken the gravy; serve with green grape jelly, and garnish 
with parsley. 

TO ROAST PARTRIDGES, PHEASANTS, QUAIL OR GROUSE. 

CAREFULLY cut out all the shot, wash thoroughly but quickly, using 
soda in the water; rinse again, and dry with a clean cloth. Stuff them 



POULTRY AND GAME. 97 

and sew them up. Skewer the legs and wings to the body, larder the 
breast with very thin slices of fat salt pork, place them in the oven, and 
baste with butter and water before taking up, having seasoned them with 
salt and pepper; or you can leave out the pork and use only butter, or cook 
them without stuffing. Make a gravy of the drippings thickened with 
browned flour. Boil up and serve in a boat. 

These are all very fine broiled, first splitting down the back, placing on 
the gridiron the inside down, cover with a baking tin, and broil slowly at 
first. Serve with cream gravy. 

GAME PIE. 

CLEAN well, inside and out, a dozen small birds, quail, snipe, woodcock, 
etc., and split them in half; put them in a saucepan with about two quarts 
of water; when it boils, skim off all scum that rises; then add salt and 
pepper, a bunch of minced parsley, one onion chopped fine, and three 
whole cloves. Cut up half a pound of salt pork into dice, and let all boil 
until tender, using care that there be enough water to cover the birds. 
Thicken this with two tablespoonfuls of browned flour -and let it boil up. 
Stir in a piece of butter as large as an egg; remove from the fire and let it 
cool. Have ready a pint of potatoes cut as small as dice, and a rich crust 
made. Line the sides of a buttered pudding dish with the crust; lay in 
the birds, then some of the potatoes, then birds and so on, until the dish 
is full. Pour over the gravy, put on the top crust, with a slit cut 
in the centre, and bake. The top can be ornamented with pastry leaves 
in a wreath about the edge, with any fancy design placed in the centre 
across the slit. 

Rockaioay Beach. 
SNOW BIRDS. 

ONE dozen thoroughly cleaned birds; stuff each with an oyster, put 
them into a yellow dish, and add two ounces of boiled salt pork and three 
raw potatoes cut into slices; add a pint of oyster liquor, an ounce of but- 
ter; salt and pepper; cover the dish with a -crust and bake in moderate 
oven. 

SQUIRREL. 

THEY are cooked similar to rabbits, are excellent when broiled or made 
into a stew, and, in fact, are very good in all the different styles of cooking 
similar to rabbit. 

There are many species common to this country; among them the 

7 



98 POULTRY AND GAME. 

black, red, gray and fox. Gophers and chipmunks may also be classed as 
another but smaller variety. 

BOAST HARE OR RABBIT. 

A VERY close relationship exists between the hare and the rabbit, the 
chief difference being in the smaller size and shorter legs and ears of the 
latter. The manner of dressing and preparing each for the table is, there- 
fore, pretty nearly the same. To prepare them for roasting, first skin, 
wash well in cold water and rinse thoroughly in lukewarm water. If a 
little musty from being emptied before they were hung up, and afterward 
neglected, rub the insides with vinegar and afterward remove all taint of 
the acid by a thorough washing in lukewarm water. After being well 
wiped with a soft cloth put in a dressing as usual, sew the animal up, truss 
it, and roast for half or three-quarters of an hour, until well browned, 
basting it constantly with butter and dredging with flour, just before 
taking up. 

To make a gravy, after the rabbits are roasted, pour nearly all the fat 
out of the pan, but do not pour the bottom or brown part of the drippings; 
put the pan over the fire, stir into it a heaping tablespoonf ul of flour, and 
stir until the flour browns. Then stir in a pint of boiling water. Season 
the gravy with salt and pepper; let it boil for a moment. Send hot to the 
table in a tureen with the hot rabbits. Serve with currant jelly. 

FRICASSEE RABBIT. 

CLEAN two young rabbits, cut into joints, and soak in salt and water 
half an hour. Put into a saucepan with a pint of cold water, a bunch 
of sweet herbs, an onion finely minced, a pinch of mace, half a nutmeg, a 
pinch of pepper and half a pound of salt pork cut in small thin slices. 
Cover and stew until tender. Take out the rabbits and set in a dish where 
they will keep warm. Add to the gravy a cup of cream (or milk), two 
well-beaten eggs, stirred in a little at a time, a tablespoonf ul of butter, and 
a thickening made of a tablespoonful of flour and a little milk. Boil up 
once; remove the saucepan from the fire, squeeze in the juice of a lemon, 
stirring all the while, and pour over the rabbits. Do not cook the head or 
neck. 

FRIED RABBIT. 

AFTER the rabbit has been thoroughly cleaned and washed, put it into 
boiling water, and let it boil ten minutes; drain it, and when cold, cut it 



POULTRY AND GAME. 99 

into joints, dip into beaten egg, and then in fine bread crumbs; season 
with salt and pepper. When all are ready, fry them in butter and sweet 
lard, mix over a moderate fire until brown on both sides. Take them out, 
thicken the gravy with a spoonful of flour, turn in a cup of milk or cream; 
let all boil up, and turn over the rabbits. Serve hot with onion sauce. 
(See SAUCES.) Garnish with sliced lemon. 

RABBIT PIE. 

THIS pie can be made the same as "Game Pie" excepting you scatter 
through it four hard-boiled eggs cut in slices. Cover with puff paste, cut 
a slit in the middle, and bake one hour, laying paper over the top should 
it brown too fast. 

T 

BROILED BABBITS. 

AFTER skinning and cleaning the rabbits, wipe them dry, split them 
down the back lengthwise, pound them flat, then wrap them in letter 
paper well buttered, place them on a buttered gridiron, and broil over a 
clear, brisk fire, turning them often. When sufficiently cooked, remove 
the papers, lay them on a very hot platter, season with salt, pepper and 
plenty of butter, turning them over and over to soak up the butter. Cover 
and keep hot in a warming oven until served. 

SALMI OF GAME. 

THIS is a nice mode of serving the remains of roasted game, but when a 
superlative salmi is desired, the birds must be scarcely more than half 
roasted for it. In either case, carve them very neatly, and strip every 
particle of skin and fat from the legs, wings and breasts; bruise the bodies 
well, and put them with the skin and other trimmings into a very clean 
stewpan. If for a simple and inexpensive dinner, merely add to them two 
sliced onions, a bay-leaf, a small blade of mace and a few peppercorns; 
then pour in a pint or more of good veal gravy, or strong broth, and boil it 
briskly until reduced nearly half; strain the gravy, pressing the bones well 
to obtain all the flavor; skim off the fat, add a little cayenne and lemon 
juice, heat the game very gradually in it, but do not on any account 
allow it to boil; place pieces of fried bread around a dish, arrange the 
birds in good form in the centre, give the sauce a boil, and pour it on 
them. 



100 POULTRY AND GAME. 

ROAST HAUNCH OF VENISON. 

To PREPAEE a haunch of venison for roasting, wash it slightly in tepid 
water and dry it thoroughly by rubbing it with a clean, soft cloth. Lay 
over the fat side a large sheet of thickly-buttered paper, and next a paste 
of flour and water about three-quarters of an inch thick ; cover this again 
with two or three sheets of stout paper, secure the whole well with twine, 
and put down to roast, with a little water, in the dripping-pan. Let the 
fire be clear and strong ; baste the paper immediately with butter or clari- 
fied drippings, and roast the joint from three to four hours, according to 
its weight and quality. Doe venison will require half an hour less time 
than buck venison. About twenty minutes before the joint is done remove 
the paste and paper, baste the meat in every part with butter, and dredge 
it very lightly with flour ; let it take a pale brown color, and serve hot 
with unflavored gravy made with a thickening in a tureen and good cur- 
rant jelly. Venison is much better when the deer has been killed in the 
autumn, when wild berries are plentiful, and it has had abundant oppor- 
tunities to fatten upon this and other fresh food. 

Windsor Hotel, Montreal. 

3ROILED VENISON STEAK. 

VENISON steaks should be broiled over a clear fire, turning often. It 
requires more cooking than beef. When sufficiently done, season with 
salt and pepper, pour over two tablespoonfuls of currant jelly melted with 
a piece of butter. Serve hot on hot plates. 

Delicious steaks, corresponding to the shape of mutton chops, are cut 
from the loin. 

BAKED SADDLE OF VENISON. 

WASH the saddle carefully ; see that no hairs are left dried on to the 
outside. Use a saddle of venison of about ten pounds. Cut some salt pork 
in strips about two inches long and an eighth of an inch thick, with which 
lard the saddle with two rows on each side. In a large dripping-pan cut 
two carrots, one onion and some salt pork in thin slices ; add two bay- 
leaves, two cloves, four kernels of allspice, half a lemon sliced, and season 
with salt and pepper ; place the saddle of venison in the pan, with a quart 
of good stock boiling hot and a small piece of butter, and let it boil about 
fifteen minutes on top of the stove ; then put it in a hot oven and bake, 
basting well every five minutes, until it is medium rare, so that the blood 



PO UL TR Y AND GAME. 101 

runs when cut ; serve with jelly or a wine sauce. If the venison is desired 
well done, cook much longer, and use a cream sauce with it, or stir cream 
into the venison gravy. (For cream sauce see SAUCES.) 

Venison should never be roasted unless very fat. The shoulder is a 
roasting piece and may be done without the paper or paste. 

In ordering the saddle request the butcher to cut the ribs off pretty 
close, as the only part that is of much account is the tenderloin and thick 
meat that lies along the backbone up to the neck. The ribs which extend 
from this have very little meat on them, but are always sold with the sad- 
dle. When neatly cut off they leave the saddle in a better shape, and the 
ribs can be put into your stock-pot to boil for soup. 

Windsor Hotel, Montreal. 

VENISON PIE OE PASTEY. 

THE neck, breast and shoulder are the parts used for a venison pie or 
pastry. Cut the meat into pieces (fat and lean together) and put the bones 
and trimmings into the stewpan with pepper and salt, and water or veal 
broth enough to cover it. Simmer it till you have drawn out a good 
gravy. Then strain it. 

In the meantime make a good rich paste, and roll it rather thick. 
Cover the bottom and sides of a deep dish with one sheet of it, and put in 
your meat, having seasoned it with pepper, salt, nutmeg and mace. Pour 
in the gravy which you have prepared from the trimmings, and a glass of 
port wine. Lay on the top some bits of butter rolled in flour. Cover the 
pie with a thick lid of paste and ornament it handsomely with leaves and 
flowers formed with a tin cutter. Bake two or more hours according to 
the size. Just before it is done, pull it forward in the oven, and brush it 
over with beaten egg; push it back and let it slightly brown. 

Windsor Hotel, Montreal. 

VENISON HASHED. 

CUT the meat in nice small slices, and put the trimmings and bones 
into a saucepan with barely water enough to cover them. Let them stew 
for an hour. Then strain the liquid into a stewpan; add to it some bits of 
butter, rolled in flour, and whatever gravy was left of the venison the day 
before. Stir in some currant jelly, and give it a boil up. Then put in the 
meat, and keep it over the fire just long enough to warm it through; but 
do not allow it to boil, as it has been once cooked already. 



102 



POULTRY AND GAME. 



FRIED VENISON STEAK, 

CUT a breast of venison into steaks; make a quarter of a pound of but- 
ter hot in a pan; rub the steaks over with a mixture of a little salt and 
pepper; dip them in wheat flour, or rolled crackers, and fry a rich brown; 
when both sides are done, take them up on a dish, and put a tin cover 
over; dredge a heaping teaspoonful of flour into the butter in the pan, stir 
it with a spoon until it is brown, without burning; put to it a small tea- 
cupful of boiling water, with a tablespoonful of currant jelly dissolved 
into it; stir it for a few minutes, then strain it over the meat and serve. 
A glass of wine, with a tablespoonful of white sugar dissolved in it, may 
be used for the gravy, instead of the jelly and water. Venison may be 
boiled, and served with boiled vegetables, pickled beets, etc., and sauce. 




MEATS. 

* * * 

IN THE selection of meat it is most essential that we understand 
how to choose it ; in beef it should be a smooth, fine grain, of 
a clear bright red color, the fat white, and will feel tender when 
pinched with the fingers. Will also have abundant kidney fat 
or suet. The most choice pieces for roast are the sirloin, fore and 
middle ribs. 

Veal, to be good, should have the flesh firm and dry, fine grained and of 
a delicate pinkish color, and plenty of kidney fat ; the joints stiff. 

Mutton is good when the flesh is a bright red, firm and juicy and a 
close grain, the fat firm and white. 

Pork, if young, the lean will break on being pinched smooth when 
nipped with the fingers, also the skin will break and dent ; if the rind 
is rough and hard it is old. 

In roasting meat, allow from fifteen to twenty minutes to the 
pound, which will vary according to the thickness of the roast. A 
great deal of the success in roasting depends on the heat and good- 
ness of the fire ; if put into a cool oven it loses its juices, and the 
result is a tough, tasteless roast ; whereas, if the oven is of the proper 
heat, it immediately sears up the pores of the meat and the juices are 
retained. 

The oven should be the hottest when the meat is put into it, in order to 
quickly crisp the surface and close the pores of the meat, thereby confin- 
ing its natural juices. If the oven is too hot to hold the hand in for only 
a moment, then it is right to receive the meat. The roast should 
first be washed in pure water, then wiped dry with a clean dry cloth, 
placed in a baking pan without any seasoning ; some pieces of suet or cold 
drippings laid under it, but no water should be put into the pan, for this 
would have a tendency to soften the outside of the meat. The water can 

(103) 



104 MEATS. 

never get so hot as the hot fat upon the surface of the meat, and the gen- 
erating of the steam prevents its crispness, so desirable in a roast. 

It should be frequently basted with its own drippings, which flow from 
the meat when partly cooked, and well seasoned. Lamb, veal and pork 
should be cooked rather slower than beef, with a more moderate fire, cover- 
ing the fat with a piece of paper, and thoroughly cooked till the flesh parts 
from the bone, and nicely browned, without being burned. An onion 
sliced and put on top of a roast while cooking, especially roast of pork, 
gives a nice flavor. Remove the onion before serving. 

Larding meats is drawing ribbons of fat pork through the upper sur- 
face of the meat, leaving both ends protruding. This is accomplished by 
the use of a larding needle, which may be procured at house-furnishing 
stores. 

Boiling or stewing meat, if fresh, should be put into boiling water, 
closely covered and boiled slowly, allowing twenty minutes to each pound, 
and, when partly cooked, or when it begins to get tender, salted, adding 
spices and vegetables. 

Salt meats should be covered with cold water, and require thirty min- 
utes very slow boiling, from the time the water boils, for each pound ; if it 
is very salt, pour off the first water and put it in another of boiling water, 
or it may be soaked one night in cold water. After meat commences to 
boil the pot should never stop simmering and always be replenished from 
the boiling teakettle. 

Frying may be done in two ways. One method, which is most gener- 
ally used, is by putting one ounce or more (as the case requires) of beef 
drippings, lard or butter into a frying pan, and when at the boiling point 
lay in the meat, cooking both sides a nice brown. The other method 
is to completely immerse the article to be cooked in sufficient hot lard to 
cover it, similar to frying doughnuts. 

Broiled meats should be placed over clear, red coals free from smoke, 
giving out a good heat, but not too brisk, or the meat will be hardened 
and scorched ; but if the fire is dead, the gravy will escape and drop upon 
the coals, creating a blaze, which will blacken and smoke the meat. 
Steaks and chops should be turned often, in order that every part should 
be evenly done never sticking a fork into the lean part, as that lets the 
juices escape ; it should be put into the outer skin or fat. When the meat 
is sufficiently broiled it should be laid on a hot dish and seasoned. The 
best pieces for steak are the porterhouse, sirloin and rump. 



MEATS. 105 

THAWING FROZEN MEAT, ETC. 

IF MEAT, poultry, fish, vegetables, or any other article of food, when 
found frozen, is thawed by putting it into warm water or placing it before 
the fire, it will most certainly spoil by that process, and be rendered unfit 
to eat. The only way to thaw these things is by immersing them in cold 
water. This should be done as soon as they are brought in from market, 
that they may have time to be well thawed before they are cooked. If 
meat that has been frozen is to be boiled, put it on in cold water. If to be 
roasted, begin by setting it at a distance from the fire; for if it should not 
chance to be thoroughly thawed all through to the centre, placing it at 
first too near the fire will cause it to spoil. If it is expedient to thaw the 
meat or poultry the night before cooking, lay it in cold water early in the 
evening, and change the water at bed-time. If found crusted with ice in 
the morning, remove the ice, and put the meat in fresh cold water, letting 
it lie in it till wanted for cooking. 

Potatoes are injured by being frozen. Other vegetables are not the 
worse for it, provided they are always thawed in cold water. 

TO KEEP MEAT FROM FLIES. 

PUT in sacks, with enough straw around it so the flies cannot reach 
through. Three- fourths of a yard of yard- wide muslin is the right size for 
the sack. Put a little straw in the bottom, then put in the ham and lay 
straw in all around it; tie it tightly and hang it in a cool, dry place. Be sure 
the straw is all around the meat, so the flies cannot reach through to 
deposit the eggs. (The sacking must be done early in the season before 
the fly appears.) Muslin lets the air in and is much better than paper. 
Thin muslin is as good as thick, and will last for years if washed when laid 
away when emptied. 

National Stockman. 
ROAST BEEF. 

ONE very essential point in roasting beef is to have the oven well heated 
when the beef is first put in; this causes the pores to close up quickly, and 
prevents the escape of the juices. 

Take a rib piece or loin roast of seven or eight pounds. Wipe it thor- 
oughly all over with a clean wet towel. Lay it in a dripping-pan, and 
baste it well with butter or suet fat. Set it in the oven. Baste it fre- 
quently with its own drippings, which will make it brown and tender. 
When partly done season with salt and pepper, as it hardens any meat to 
salt it when raw, and draws out its juices, then dredge with sifted flour to 



106 . MEATS. 

give it a frothy appearance. It will take a roast of this size about two 
hours' time to be properly done, leaving the inside a little rare or red. 
half an hour less would make the inside quite rare. Remove the beef to a 
heated dish, set where it will keep hot; then skim the drippings from all 
fat, add a tablespoonful of sifted flour, a little pepper and a teacupful of 
boiling water. Boil up once and serve hot in a gravy boat. 

Some prefer the clear gravy without the thickening. Serve with mus- 
tard or grated horse-radish and vinegar. 

YORKSHIRE PUDDING. 

THIS is a very nice accompaniment to a roast of beef; the ingredients 
are, one pint of milk, four eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, one 
teaspoonful of salt, and two teaspoonfuls of baking powder sifted through 
two cups of flour. It should be mixed very smooth, about the consistency 
of cream. Eegulate your time when you put in your roast, so that it will 
be done half an hour or forty minutes before dishing up. Take it from the 
oven, set it where it will keep hot. In the meantime have this pudding 
prepared. Take two common biscuit tins, dip some of the drippings from 
the dripping-pan into these tins, pour half of the pudding into each, set 
them into the hot oven, and keep them in until the dinner is dished up; 
take these puddings out at the last moment and send to the table hot. 
This I consider much better than the old way of baking the pudding under 
the meat. 

BEEFSTEAK. No. 1. 

THE first consideration in broiling is to have a clear, glowing bed of 
coals. The steak should be about three-quarters of an inch in thickness, 
and should be pounded only in extreme cases, i. e., when it is cut too thick 
and is "stringy." Lay it on a buttered gridiron, turning it often, as it 
begins to drip, attempting nothing else while cooking it. Have everything 
else ready for the table; the potatoes and vegetables dished and in the 
warming closet. Do not season it until it is done, which will be in about 
ten to twelve minutes. Remove it to a warm platter, pepper and salt it on 
both sides and spread a liberal lump of butter over it. Serve at once while 
hot. No definite rule can be given as to the time of cooking steak, individ- 
ual tastes differ so widely in regard to it, some only liking it when well 
done, others so rare that the blood runs out of it. The best pieces for 
broiling are the porterhouse and sirloin. 



MEATS. 107 

BEEFSTEAK. No. 2. 

TAKE a smooth, thick-bottomed frying pan, scald it out with hot 
water, and wipe it dry ; set it on the stove or range, and when very hot, rub 
it over the bottom with a rag dipped in butter; then place your steak or 
chops in it, turn often until cooked through, take up on a warm platter, 
and season both sides with salt, pepper and butter. Serve hot. 

Many prefer this manner of cooking steak rather than broiling or fry- 
ing in a quantity of grease 

BEEFSTEAK AND ONIONS. 

PREPARE the steak in the usual way. Have ready in a frying pan a 
dozen onions cut in slices and fried brown in a little beef drippings or but- 
ter. Dish your steak, and lay the onions thickly over the top. Cover and 
let stand five minutes, then send to the table hot. 

BEEFSTEAK AND OYSTERS. 

BROIL the steak the usual way. Put one quart of oysters with very 
little of the liquor into a stewpan upon the fire; when it comes to a boil, 
take off the skum that may rise, stir in three ounces of butter mixed with 
a tablespoonful of sifted flour, let it boil one minute until it thickens, pour 
it over the steak. Serve hot. 

Palace Hotel, San Francisco. 
TO FEY BEEFSTEAKS. 

BEEFSTEAK for frying should be cut much thinner than for broiling. 
Take from the ribs or sirloin and remove the bone. Put some butter or 
nice beef dripping into a frying pan and set it over the fire, and when it 
has boiled and become hot lay in the steaks ; when cooked quite enough, 
season with salt and pepper, turn and brown on both sides. Steaks when 
fried should be thoroughly done. Have ready a hot dish, and when they 
are done take out the steaks and lay them on it, with another dish cover 
the top to keep them hot. The gravy in the pan can be turned over the 
steaks, first adding a few drops of boiling water, or a gravy to be served in 
a separate dish made by putting a large tablespoonful of flour into the hot 
gravy left in the pan, after taking up the steaks. Stir it smooth, then 
pour in a pint of cream or sweet rich milk, salt and pepper, let it boil up 
once until it thickens, pour hot into a gravy dish and send to the table 
with the steaks. 



108 MEATS. 

POT ROAST. (Old Style.) 

THIS is an old-fashioned dish, often cooked in our grandmothers' time. 
Take a piece of fresh beef weighing about five or six pounds. It must not 
be too fat. Wash it and put it into a pot with barely sufficient water to 
cover it. Set it over a slow fire, and after it has stewed an hour salt and 
pepper it. Then stew it slowly until tender, adding a little onion if liked. 
Do not replenish the water at the last, but let all nearly boil away. When 
tender all through take the meat from the pot and pour the gravy in a 
bowl. Put a large lump of butter in the bottom of the pot, then dredge 
the piece of meat with flour and return it to the pot to brown, turning it 
often to prevent its burning. Take the gravy that you have poured from 
the meat into the bowl and skim off all the fat ; pour this gravy in with 
the meat and stir in a large spoonful of flour ; wet with a little water ; let 
it boil up ten or fifteen minutes and pour into a gravy dish. Serve both 
hot, the meat on a platter. Some are very fond of this way of cooking a 
piece of beef which has been previously placed in spiced pickle for two or 
three days. 

SPICED BEEF. (Excellent.) 

FOR a round of beef weighing twenty or twenty-four pounds, take one- 
quarter of a pound of saltpetre, one-quarter of a pound of coarse brown 
sugar, two pounds of salt, one ounce of cloves, one ounce of allspice and 
half an ounce of mace; pulverize these materials, mix them well together, 
and with them rub the beef thoroughly on every part; let the beef lie for 
eight or ten days in the pickle thus made, turning and rubbing it every- 
day; then tie it around with a broad tape, to keep it in shape; make a 
coarse paste of flour and water, lay a little suet finely chopped over and 
under the beef, inclose the beef entirely in the paste, and bake it six hours. 
When you take the beef from the oven, remove the paste, but do not 
remove the tape until you are ready to send it to the table. If you wish 
to eat the beef cold, keep it well covered that it may retain its moisture. 

BEEF A LA MODE. 

Mix together three teaspoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, one of ginger, 
one of mace, one of cinnamon, and two of cloves. Rub this mixture into 
ten pounds of the upper part of a round of beef. Let this beef stand in 
this state over night. In the morning, make a dressing or stuffing of a 
pint of fine bread crumbs, half a pound of fat salt pork cut in dice, a tea- 
spoonful of ground thyme or summer savory, two teaspoonfuls sage, half a 



MEATS, 109 

teaspoonful of pepper, one of nutmeg, a little cloves, an onion minced fine, 
moisten with a Mttle milk or water. Stuff this mixture into the place 
from whence you took out the bone. With a long skewer fasten the two 
ends of the beef together, so that its form will be circular, and bind it 
around with tape to prevent the skewers giving way. Make incisions in 
the beef with a sharp knife; fill these incisions very closely with the stuf- 
fing, and dredge the whole with flour. 

Put it into a dripping-pan and pour over it a pint of hot water; turn a 
large pan over it to keep in the steam, and roast slowly from three to four 
hours, allowing a quarter of an hour to each pound of meat. If the meat 
should be tough, it may be stewed first in a pot, with water enough to 
cover it, until tender, and then put into a dripping-pan and browned in 
the oven. 

If the meat is to be eaten hot, skim off the fat from the gravy, into 
which, after it is taken off the fire, stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs. If 
onions are disliked you may omit them and substitute minced oysters. 

TENDERLOIN OF BEEF. 

To SERVE tenderloin as directed below, the whole piece must be ex- 
tracted before the hind-quarter of the animal is cut out. This must be 
particularly noted, because not commonly practiced, the tenderloin being 
usually left attached to the roasting pieces, in order to furnish a tidbit for 
a few. To dress it whole, proceed as follows: Washing the piece well, 
put it in an oven; add about a pint of water, and chop up a good handful 
of each of the following vegetables as an ingredient of the dish, viz., Irish 
potatoes, carrots, turnips and a large bunch of celery. They must be 
washed, peeled and chopped up raw, then added to the meat; blended with 
the juice, they form and flavor the gravy. Let the whole slowly simmer, 
and when nearly done, add a teaspoonful of pounded allspice. To give a 
richness to the gravy, put in a tablespoonful of butter. If the gravy should 
look too greasy, skim off some of the melted suet. Boil also a lean piece 
of beef, which, when perfectly done, chop fine, flavoring with a very small 
quantity of onion, besides pepper and salt to the taste. Make into small 
balls, wet them on the outside with eggs, roll in grated cracker or fine 
bread crumbs. Fry these force meat balls a light brown. When serving 
the dish, put these around the tenderloin, and pour over the whole the rich 
gravy. This dish is a very handsome one, and, altogether, fit for an epicu- 
rean palate. A sumptuous dish. 



110 MEATS. 

STEWED STEAK WITH OYSTERS. 

Two POUNDS of rump steak, one pint of oysters, one tablespoonful ( of 
lemon juice, three of butter, one of flour, salt, pepper, one cupful of water. 
Wash the oysters in the water and drain into a stewpan. Put this liquor 
on to heat. As soon as it comes to a boil, skim and set back. Put the 
butter in a frying pan, and when hot, put in a steak. Cook ten minutes. 
Take up the steak, and stir the flour into the butter remaining in the pan. 
Stir until a dark brown. Add the oyster liquor and boil one minute. 
Season with salt and pepper. Put back the steak, cover the pan, and sim- 
mer half an hour or until the steak seems tender, then add the oysters and 
lemon juice. Boil one minute. Serve on a hot dish with points of toast 
for a garnish. 

SMOTHERED BEEFSTEAK. 

TAKE thin slices of steak from the upper part of the round or one large 
thin steak. Lay the meat out smoothly and wipe it dry. Prepare a dress- 
ing, using a cupful of fine bread crumbs, half a teaspoonful of salt, some 
pepper, a tablespoonful of butter, half a teaspoonful of sage, the same of 
powdered summer savory, and enough milk to moisten it all into a stiff 
mixture. Spread it over the meat, roll it up carefully, and tie with a string, 
securing the ends well. Now fry a few thin slices of salt pork in the bot- 
tom of a kettle or saucepan, and into the fat that has fried out of this pork, 
place this roll or rolls of beef, and brown it on all sides, turning it until a 
rich color all over, then add half a pint of water, and stew until tender. If 
the flavor of onion is liked, a slice may be chopped fine and added to the 
dressing. When cooked sufficiently, take out the meat, thicken the gravy, 
and turn over it. To be carved cutting crosswise, in slices, through beef 
and stuffing. 

BEEFSTEAK ROLLS. 

THIS mode is similar to the above recipe, but many might prefer it. 

Prepare a good dressing, such as you like for turkey or duck ; take a 
round steak, pound it, but not very hard, spread the dressing over it, sprinkle 
in a little salt, pepper, and a few bits of butter, lap over the ends, roll the 
steak up tightly and tie closely; spread two great spoonfuls of butter over 
the steak after rolling it up, then wash with a well-beaten egg, put water 
in the bake-pan, lay in the steak so as not to touch the water, and bake as 
you would a duck, basting often. A half-hour in a brisk oven will bake. 
Make a brown gravy and send to the table hot. 



MEATS. Ill 

TO COLLAR A FLANK OF BEEF. 

PROCURE a well-corned flank of beef say six pounds. Wash it, and 
remove the inner and outer skin with the gristle. Prepare a seasoning of 
one teaspoonful each of sage, parsley, thyme, pepper and cloves. Lay your 
meat upon a board and spread this mixture over the inside. Eoll the beef 
up tight, fasten it with small skewers, put a cloth over it, bandage the 
cloth with tape, put the beef into the stewpot, cover it with water to 
the depth of an inch, boil gently six hours ; take it out of the water, place 
it on a board without undoing it ; lay a board on top of the beef, put a fifty 
pound weight upon this board, and let it remain twenty-four hours. Take 
off the bandage, garnish with green pickles and curled parsley, and serve. 

DRIED BEEF. 

BUY the best of beef, or that part which will oe the most lean and 
tender. The tender part of the round is a very good piece. For every 
twenty pounds of beef use one pint of salt, one teaspoonful of saltpetre, 
and a quarter of a pound of brown sugar. Mix them well together, and 
rub the beef well with one-third of the mixture for three successive days. 
Let it lie in the liquor it makes for six days, then hang up to dry. 

A large crock or jar is a good vessel to prepare the meat in before 
drying it. 

BEEF CORNED OR SALTED. (Red.) 

CUT up a quarter of beef. For each hundred weight take half -a peck of 
coarse salt, a quarter of a pound of saltpetre, the same weight of L^leratus 
and a quart of molasses, or two pounds of coarse brown sugar. Mace, 
cloves and allspice may be added for spiced beef. 

Strew some of the salt in the bottom of a pickle-tub or barrel; then put 
in a layer of meat, strew this with salt, then add another layer of meat, 
and salt and meat alternately, until all is used. Let it remain one night. 
Dissolve the saleratus and saltpetre in a little warm water, and put it to 
the molasses or sugar; then put it over the meat, add water enough to 
cover the meat, lay a board on it to keep it under the brine. The meat is 
fit for use after ten days. This recipe is for winter beef. Bather more 
salt may be used in warm weather. 

Towards spring take the brine from the meat, make it boiling hot, skim 
it clear, and when it is cooled, return it to the meat. 

Beef tongues and smoking pieces are fine pickled in this brine. Beef 
liver put in this brine for ten days, and then wiped dry and smoked, is 



112 MEATS. 

very fine. Cut it in slices, and fry or broil it. The brisket of beef, after 
being corned, may be smoked, and is very good for boiling. 

Lean pieces of beef, cut properly from the hind-quarter, are the proper 
pieces for being smoked. There may be some fine pieces cut from the 
fore-quarter. 

After the beef has been in brine ten days or more, wipe it dry, and hang 
it in a chimney where wood is burned, or make a smothered fire of saw- 
dust or chips, and keep it smoking for ten days; then rub fine black pepper 
over every part to keep the flies from it, and hang it in a dry, dark, cool 
place. After a week it is fit for use. A strong, coarse brown paper, folded 
around the beef, and fastened with paste, keeps it nicely. 

Tongues are smoked in the same manner. Hang them by a string put 
through the root end. Spiced brine for smoked beef or tongues will be 
generally liked. 

ROAST BEEF PIE WITH POTATO CRUST. 

WHEN you have a cold roast of beef, cut off as much as will half fill a 
baking-dish suited to the size of your family; put this sliced beef into a 
stewpan with any gravy that you may have also saved, a lump of butter, a 
bit of sliced onion and a seasoning of pepper and salt, with enough water 
to make plenty of gravy; thicken it, too, by dredging in a tablespoonful of 
flour; cover it up on the fire, where it may stew gently, but not be in 
danger of burning. Meanwhile there must be boiled a sufficient quantity 
of potatoes to fill up your baking-dish, after the stewed meat has been 
transferred to it. The potatoes must be boiled done, mashed smooth, and 
beaten up with milk and butter, as if they were to be served alone, and 
placed in a thick layer on top of the meat. Brush it over wtih egg, place 
the dish in an oven, and let it remain there long enough to be brown. 
There should be a goodly quantity of gravy left with the beef, that the 
dish be not dry and tasteless. Serve with it tomato sauce, Worcestershire 
sauce or any other kind that you prefer. A good, plain dish. 

ROAST BEEF PIE. 

CUT up roast beef, or beefsteak left from a previous meal, into thin 
slices, lay some of the slices into a deep dish which you have lined on the 
sides with rich biscuit dough, rolled very thin (say a quarter of an inch 
thick); now sprinkle over this layer a little pepper and salt; put in a small 
bit of butter, a few slices of cold potatoes, a little of the cold gravy, if you 
have any left from the roast. Make another layer of beef, another layer of 



MEATS. 113 

seasoning, and so on, until the dish is filled; cover the whole with paste 
leaving a slit in the centre, and bake half an hour. 

BEEFSTEAK PIE. 

CUT up rump or flank steak into strips two inches long and about an 
inch wide. Stew them with the bone, in just enough water to cover them, 
until partly cooked; have half a dozen of cold boiled potatoes sliced. Line 
a baking-dish with pie paste, put in a layer of the meat with salt, pepper, 
and a little of thinly-sliced onion, then one of the sliced potatoes, with bits 
of butter dotted over them. Then the steak, alternated with layers of 
potato, until the dish is full. Add the gravy or broth, having first thick- 
ened it with brown flour. Cover with a top crust, making a slit in the 
middle; brush a little beaten egg over it, and bake until quite brown. 

FRIZZLED BEEF. 

SHAVE off very thin slices of smoked or dried beef, put them in a fry- 
ing pan, cover with cold water, set it on the back of the range or stove, and 
let it come to a very slow heat, allowing it time to swell out to its natural 
size, but not to boil. Stir it up, then drain off the water. Melt one ounce 
of sweet butter in the frying pan and add the wafers of beef. When they 
begin to frizzle or turn up, break over them three eggs ; stir until the eggs 
are cooked; add a little white pepper, and serve on slices of buttered toast. 

FLANK STEAK. 

THIS is cut from the boneless part of the flank and is secreted between 
an outside and inside layer of creamy fat. There are two ways for broiling 
it. One is to slice it diagonally across the grain; the other is to broil it 
whole. In either case brush butter over it and proceed as in broiling 
other steaks. It is considered by butchers the finest steak, which they 
frequently reserve for themselves. 

TO BOIL CORNED BEEF. 

THE aitch-bone and the brisket are considered the best pieces for boil- 
ing. If you buy them in the market already corned, they will be fit to put 
over the fire without a previous soaking in water. If you corn them in 
the brine in which you keep your beef through the winter, they must be 
soaked in cold water over night. Put the beef into a pot, cover with suffi- 
cient cold water, place over a brisk fire, let it come to a boil in half an 
hour; just before boiling remove all the scum from the pot, place the pot 
on the back of the fire, let it boil very slowly until quite tender. 



114 MEATS. 

A piece weighing eight pounds requires two and a half hours' boiling. 
If you do not wish to eat it hot, let it remain in the pot after you, take 
it from the fire until nearly cold, then lay it in a colander to drain, lay a 
cloth over it to retain its fresh appearance; serve with horse-radish and 
pickles. 

If vegetables are to accompany this, making it the old-fashioned " boiled 
dinner, " about three-quarters of an hour before dishing up skim the liquor 
free from fat and turn part of it out into another kettle, into which put a cab- 
bage carefully prepared, cutting it into four quarters; also half a dozen 
peeled medium-sized white turnips, cut into halves; scrape four carrots and 
four parsnips each cut into four pieces. Into the kettle with the meat, 
about half an hour before serving, pour on more water from the boiling 
teakettle, and into this put peeled medium-sized potatoes. This dinner 
should also be accompanied by boiled beets, sliced hot, cooked separate 
from the rest, with vinegar over them. Cooking the cabbage separately 
from the meat prevents the meat from having the flavor of cabbage 
when cold. The carrots, parsnips and turnips will boil in about an 
hour. A piece of salt pork was usually boiled with a "New England boiled 
dinner. " 

SPICED BEEF RELISH. 

TAKE two pounds of raw, tender beefsteak, chop it very fine, put into it 
salt, pepper and a little sage, two tablespoonfuls of melted butter; add two 
rolled crackers made very fine, also two well-beaten eggs. Make it up into 
the shape of a roll and bake it; baste with butter and water before baking. 
Cut in slices when cold. 

FRIED BEEF LIVER. 

CUT it in rather thin slices, say a quarter of an inch thick; pour over it 
boiling water, which closes the pores of the meat, makes it impervious to 
the fat, and at the same time seals up the rich juice of the meat. It may 
be rolled in flour or bread crumbs, seasoned with salt and pepper, dipped 
in egg and fried in hot fat mixed with one-third butter. 

PRESSED BEEF. 

FIRST have your beef nicely pickled; let it stay in pickle a week; then 
take the thin, flanky pieces, such as will not make a handsome dish of 
themselves, put on a large potful, and let them boil until perfectly done; 
then pull to pieces, and season just as you do souse, with pepper, salt and 



MEATS. 113 

allspice; only put it in a coarse cloth and press down upon it some very 
heavy weight. 

The advantage of this recipe is that it makes a most acceptable, pre- 
sentable dish out of a part of the beef that otherwise might be wasted. 

FRENCH STEW. 

GREASE the bottom of an iron pot, and place in it three or four pounds 
of beef; be very careful that it does not burn, and turn it until it is nicely 
browned. Set a muffin ring under the beef to prevent its sticking. Add a 
few sliced carrots, one or two sliced onions, and a cupful of hot water; 
keep covered and stew slowly until the vegetables are done. Add pepper 
and salt. If you wish more gravy, add hot water, and thicken with flour. 
Serve on a dish with the vegetables. 

TO POT BEEF. 

THE round is the best piece for potting, and you may use both the upper 
and under part. Take ten pounds of beef, remove all the fat, cut the lean 
into square pieces, two inches thick. Mix together three teaspoonfuls of 
salt, one of pepper, one of cloves, one of mace, one of cinnamon, one of all- 
spice, one of thyme, and one of sweet basil. Put a layer of the pieces of 
beef into an earthen pot, sprinkle some of this spice mixture over this 
layer, add a piece of fat salt pork cut as thin as possible, sprinkle a little 
of the spice mixture over the pork, make another layer of the beef with 
spices and pork, and so on, until the pot is filed. Pour over the whole 
three tablespoonfuls of Tarragon vinegar, or, if you prefer it, half a pint of 
Madeira wine; cover the pot with a paste made of flour and water, so that 
no steam can escape. Put the pot into an oven, moderately heated, and 
let it stand there eight hours; then set it away to use when wanted. 

Beef cooked in this manner will keep good a fortnight in moderate 
weather. 

It is an excellent relish for breakfast, and may be eaten either warm or 
cold. When eaten warm, serve with slices of lemon. 

STEWED BRISKET OF BEEF. 

PUT the part that has the hard fat into a stewpot with a small quantity 
of water ; let it boil up and skim it thoroughly ; then add carrots, turnips, 
onions, celery and a few pepper-corns. Stew till extremely tender ; then 
take out all the flat bones and remove all the fat from the soup. Either 
serve that and the meat in a tureen, or the soup alone, and the meat on 



116 MEATS. 

a dish garnished with some vegetables. The following sauce is much 
admired served with the beef : Take half a pint of the soup and mix it 
with a spoonful of catsup, a teaspoonful of made mustard, a little flour, 
a bit of butter and salt ; boil all together a few minutes, then pour it 
round the meat. 

DRIED BEEF WITH CREAM. 

SHAVE your beef very fine. Put it into a suitable dish on the back of 
the stove ; cover with cold water and give it time to soak out to its 
original size before being dried. When it is quite soft and the water has 
become hot (it must not boil) take it off, turn off the water, pour on a cup 
of cream ; if you do not have it use milk and butter, a pinch of pepper ; let 
it come to a boil, thicken with a tablespoonful of flour wet up in a little 
milk. Serve on dipped toast or not, just as one fancies. A nice break- 
fast dish. 

BEEF CROQUETTES. No. 1. 

CHOP fine one cup of cold, cooked, lean beef, half a cup of fat, half a 
cup of cold boiled or fried ham; cold pork will do if you have not the ham. 
Also mince up a slice of onion. Season all with a teaspoonful of salt, half 
a teaspoonful of pepper, and a teaspoonful of powdered sage or parsley if 
liked. Heat together with half a cup of stock or milk ; when cool add a 
beaten egg. Form the mixture into balls, slightly flattened, roll in egg 
and bread crumbs, or flour and egg. Fry in hot lard or beef drippings. 
Serve on a platter and garnish with sprigs of parsley. Almost any cold 
meats can be used instead of beef. 

BEEF CROQUETTES. No. 2. 

TAKE cold roast or corned beef. Put it into a wooden bowl and chop it 
fine. Mix with it about twice the quantity of hot mashed potatoes well 
seasoned with butter and salt. Beat up an egg and work it into the potato 
a*"*, meat, then form the mixture into little cakes the size of fish-balls. 
Flatten them a little, roll in flour or egg and cracker crumbs, fry in butter 
and lard mixed, browning on both sides. Serve piping hot. 

MEAT AND POTATO CROQUETTES. 

PUT in a stewpan an ounce of butter and a slice of onion minced fine ; 
when this simmers add a level tablespoonful of sifted flour ; stir the mix- 
ture until it becomes smooth and frothy; then add half of a cupful of milk, 
some seasoning of salt and pepper ; let all boil, stirring it all the while. 



MEATS. 117 

Now add a cupful of cold meat chopped fine, and a cupful of cold or hot 
mashed potato. Mix all thoroughly and spread on a plate to cool. When 
it is cool enough, shape it with your hands into balls or rolls. Dip them 
in beaten egg and roll in cracker or bread crumbs. Drop them into hot 
lard and fry about two minutes a delicate brown ; take them out with a 
skimmer and drain them on a piece of brown paper. Serve immediately 
while hot. These are very nice. 

Cold rice or hominy may be used in place of the potato ; or a cupful of 
cold fish minced fine in place of the meat. 

COLD ROAST, WARMED. No. 1. 

CUT from the remains of a cold roast the lean meat from the bones into 
small, thin slices. Put over the fire a frying pan containing a spoonful of 
butter or drippings. Cut up a quarter of an onion and fry it brown, then 
remove the onion, add the meat gravy left from the day before, and if not 
thick enough add a little flour ; salt and pepper. Turn the pieces of meat 
into this and let them simmer a few minutes. Serve hot. 

COLD ROAST, WARMED. No. 2. 

COLD rare roast beef may be made as good as when freshly cooked by 
slicing, seasoning with salt, pepper and bits of butter ; put it in a plate or 
pan with a spoonful or two of water, covering closely, and set in the oven 
until hot, but no longer. Cold steak may. be shaved very fine with a knife 
and used the same way. 

Or, if the meat is in small pieces, cover them with buttered letter paper, 
twist each end tightly, and boil them on the gridiron, sprinkling them with 
finely chopped herbs. 

Still another nice way of using cold meats is to mince the lean portions 
very fine and add to a batter made of one pint of milk, one cup of flour 
and three eggs. Fry like fritters and serve with drawn butter or sauce. 

COLD MEAT AND POTATO, BAKED. 

PUT in a frying pan a round tablespoonful of cold butter; when it be- 
comes hot, stir into it a teaspoonful of chopped onion and a tablespoonful 
of flour, stirring it constantly until it is smooth and frothy; then add two- 
thirds of a cupful of cold milk or water. Season this with salt and pepper 
and allow it to come to a boil; then add a cupful of cold meat finely 
chopped and cleared from bone and skin; let this all heat thoroughly; then 
turn it into a shallow dish well buttered. Spread hot or cold mashed pota- 



118 MEATS. 

toes over the top, and cook for fifteen or twenty minutes in a moderate 
hot oven. , 

Cold hominy, or rice may be used in place of mashed potatoes, and is 
equally as good. 

BEEF HASH. No. 1. 

CHOP rather finely cold roast beef or pieces of beefsteak, also chop twice 
as much cold boiled potatoes. Put over the fire a stewpan or frying pan, 
in which put a piece of butter as large as required to season it well, add 
pepper and salt, moisten with beef gravy if you have it, if not, with hot 
water; cover and let it steam and heat through thoroughly, stirring occa- 
sionally, so that the ingredients be evenly distributed, and to keep the 
hash from sticking to the bottom of the pan. When done it should not 
be afrall watery, nor yet dry, but have sufficient adhesiveness to stand well 
on a dish or buttered toast. Many like the flavor of onion; if so, fry two 
or three slices in the butter before adding the hash. Corned beef makes 
excellent hash. 

BEEF HASH. No. 2. 

CHOP cold roast beef, or pieces of beefsteak; fry half an onion in a piece 
of butter; when the onion is brown, add the chopped beef; season with a 
little salt and pepper; moisten with the beef gravy, if you have any, if not, 
with a sufficient water and a little butter; cook long enough to be hot, but 
no longer, as much cooking toughens the meat. An excellent breakfast 
dish. 

Prof. mot. 

Some prefer to let a crust form on the bottom and turn the hash brown 
side uppermost. Served with poached eggs on top. 

HAMBURGER STEAK. 

TAKE a pound of raw flank or round steak, without any fat, bone or 
stringy pieces. Chop it until a perfect mince ; it cannot be chopped too 
fine. Also chop a small onion quite fine and mix well with the meat. 
Season with salt and pepper ; make into cukes as large as a biscuit, but 
quite flat, or into one large flat cake a little less than half an inch thick. 
Have ready a frying pan with butter and lard mixed ; when boiling hot 
put in the steak and fry brown. Garnish with celery top around the edge 
of the platter and two or three slices of lemon on the top of the meat. 

A brown gravy made from the grease the steak was fried in and poured 
over the meat enriches it. 



MEATS. 119 

TO BOAST BEEF HEART. 

WASH it carefully and open it sufficiently to remove the ventricles, then 
soak it in cold water until the blood is discharged ; wipe it dry and stuff it 
nicely with dressing, as for turkey; roast it about an hour and a half. Serve 
it with the gravy, which should be thickened with some of the stuffing and 
a glass of wine. It is very nice hashed. Served with currant jelly. 

Palmer House, Chicago. 
STEWED BEEF KIDNEY. 

CUT the kidney into slices, season highly with pepper and salt, fry it a 
light brown, take out the slices, then pour a little warm water into the pan, 
dredge in some flour, put in slices of kidney again ; let them stew very 
gently; add some parsley if liked. Sheep's kidneys may be split open, 
broiled over a clear fire and served with a piece of butter placed on each 

half. 

BEEFS HEART STEWED. 

AFTER washing the heart thoroughly cut it up into squares half an inch 
long ; put them into a saucepan with water enough to cover them. If any 
scum rises skim it off. Now take out the meat, strain the liquor and put 
back the meat, also add a sliced onion, some parsley, a head of celery 
chopped fine, pepper and salt and a piece of butter. Stew until the meat 
is very tender. Stir up a tablespoonful of brown flour with a small quan- 
tity of water and thicken the whole. Boil up and serve. 

BOILED BEEF TONGUE. 

WASH a fresh tongue and just cover it with water in the pot; put in a 
pint of salt and a small red pepper; add more water as it evaporates, so as 
to keep the tongue nearly covered until done when it can be easily 
pierced with a fork; take it out, and if wanted soon, take off the skin and 
set it away to cool. If wanted for future use, do not peel until it is re- 
quired. A cupful of salt will do for three tongues, if you have that number 
to boil; but do not fail to keep water enough in the pot to keep them cov- 
ered while boiling. If salt tongues are used, soak them over night, of 
course omitting the salt when boiling. Or, after peeling a tongue, place it 
in a saucepan with one cup of water, half a cup vinegar, four tablespoon- 
fuls sugar, and cook until the liquor is evaporated. 

SPICED BEEF TONGUE. 

RUB into each tongue a mixture made of half a pound of brown sugar, 
a piece of saltpetre the size of a pea and a tablespoonful of ground cloves; 



120 MEATS. 

put it in a brine made of three-quarters of a pound of salt to two quarts of 
water and keep covered. Pickle two weeks, then wash well and dry with 
a cloth; roll out a thin paste made of flour and water, smear it all over the 
tongue and place in a pan to bake slowly; baste well with lard and hot 
water; when done scrape off the paste and skin. 

TO BOIL TRIPE. 

WASH it well in warm water, and trim it nicely, taking off all the fat. 
Cut into small pieces, and put it on to boil five hours before dinner in 
water enough to cover it very well. After it has boiled four hours, pour 
off the water, season the tripe with pepper and salt, and put it into a pot 
with milk and water mixed in equal quantities. Boil it an hour in the 
milk and water. 

Boil in a saucepan ten or a dozen onions. When they are quite soft, 
drain them in a colander and mash them. Wipe out your saucepan and 
put them on again, with a bit of butter rolled in flour and a wineglass of 
cream or milk. Let them boil up, and add them to the tripe just before 
you send it to table. Eat it with pepper, vinegar and mustard. 

It is best to give tripe its first and longest boiling the day before it is 
wanted. 

TO FRY TRIPE. 

BOIL the tripe the day before till it is quite tender, which it will not be 
in less than four or five hours. Then cover it and set it away. Next day 
cut it into long slips, and dip each piece into beaten yolk of egg, and 
afterwards roll them in grated bread crumbs. Have ready in a frying pan 
over the fire some good beef drippings. When it is boiling hot put in the 
tripe, and fry it about ten minutes, till of a light brown. 

You may serve it with onion sauce. 

Boiled tripe that has been left from the dinner of the preceding day 
may be fried in this manner. 

FRICASSEED TRIPE. 

CUT a pound of tripe in narrow strips, put a small cup of water or milk 
to it, add a bit of butter the size of an egg, dredge in a large teaspoonful 
of flour, or work it with the butter; season with pepper and salt, let it 
simmer gently for half an hour, serve hot. A bunch of parsley cut small 
and put with it is an improvement. 

Some put in oysters five minutes before dishing up. 



MEATS. 121 

TRIPE LYONNAISE. 

CUT up half a pound of cold boiled tripe into neat squares. Put two 
ounces of butter and a tablespoonful of chopped onion in a frying pan and 
fry to a delicate brown; add to the tripe a teaspoonful of chopped parsley 
and a little strong vinegar, salt and cayenne; stir the pan to prevent burn- 
ing. Cover the bottom of a platter with tomato sauce, add the contents of 
the pan and serve. 

TO CLARIFY BEEF DRIPPINGS. 

DRIPPINGS accumulated from different cooked meats of beef or veal can 
be clarified by putting it into a basin and slicing into it a raw potato, 
allowing it to boil long enough for the potato to brown, which causes all 
impurities to disappear. Remove from the fire, and when cool drain it off 
from the sediment that settles at the bottom. Turn it into basins or small 
jars and set it in a cool place for future use. When mixed with an equal 
amount of butter it answers the same purpose as clear butter for frying 
and basting any meats except game and poultry. 

Mutton drippings impart an unpleasant flavor to anything cooked out- 
side of its kind. 

ROAST LOIN OF VEAL. 

PREPARE it the same as any roast, leaving in the kidney, around which 
put considerable salt. Make a dressing the same as for fowls; unroll the 
loin, put the stuffing well around the kidney, fold and secure with several 
coils of white cotton twine wound around in all directions; place in a drip- 
ping-pan with the thick side down, and put in a rather hot oven, graduated 
after it commences to roast to moderate; in half an hour add a little hot 
water to the pan, and baste often; in another half hour turnover the roast, 
and when about done dredge lightly with flour and baste with melted but- 
ter. Before serving, carefully remove the twine. A roast of four to five 
pounds will bake in about two hours. For a gravy, skim off some of the 
fat if there is too much in the drippings; dredge in some flour, stir until 
brown, add some hot water if necessary; boil a few minutes, stir in such 
sweet herbs as fancied, and put in a gravy boat. Serve with green peas 
and lemon jelly. Is very nice sliced cold for lunch, and Worcestershire 
or Chili sauce forms a fine relish. 

ROAST FILLET OF VEAL. 

SELECT a nice fillet, take out the bone, fill up the space with stuffing, 
and also put a good layer under the fat. Truss it of a good shape by 



122 MEATS. 

drawing the fat round and tie it up with tape. Cook it rather moderately 
at first, and baste with butter. It should have careful attention and fre- 
quent basting, that the fat may not burn. Roast from three to four hours, 
according to the size. After it is dished pour melted butter over it ; serve 
with ham or bacon, and fresh cucumbers, if in season. Veal, like all other 
meat, should be well washed in cold water before cooking and wiped thor- 
oughly dry with a clean cloth. Cold fillet of veal is very good stewed with 
tomatoes and an onion or two. 

In roasting veal, care must be taken that it is not at first placed in too 
hot an oven ; the fat of a loin, one of the most delicate joints of veal, 
should be covered with greased paper ; a fillet, also, should have on the 
caul until nearly done enough. 

BOILED FILLET OF VEAL. 

CHOOSE a small, delicate fillet ; prepare as for roasting, or stuff it with 
an oyster force meat ; after having washed it thoroughly, cover it with 
water and let it boil very gently three and a half or four hours, keeping it 
well skimmed. Send it to the table with a rich white sauce, or, if 
stuffed with oysters, a tureen of oyster sauce. Garnish with stewed celery 
and slices of bacon. A boiled tongue should be served with it. 

VEAL PUDDING. 

CUT about two pounds of lean veal into small collops a quarter of an 
inch in thickness; put a piece of butter the size of an egg into a very clean 
frying pan to melt ; then lay in the veal and a few slices of bacon, a small 
sprig of thyme and a seasoning of pepper and salt ; place the pan over a 
slow fire for about ten minutes, then add two or three spoonfuls of warm 
water. Just boil it up and then let it stand to cool. Line a pudding-dish 
with a good suet crust, lay in the veal and bacon, pour the gravy over it ; 
roll out a piece of paste to form a lid, place it over, press it close with th& 
thumb, tie the basin in a pudding cloth and put it into a saucepan of 
boiling water, keeping continually boiling until done, or about one hour. 

FRIED VEAL CUTLETS. 

PUT into a frying pan two or three tablespoonfuls of lard or beef drip- 
pings. When boiling hot lay in the cutlets, well seasoned with salt and 
pepper and dredged with flour. Brown nicely on both sides, then remove 
the meat, and if you have more grease than is necessary for the gravy put 
it aside for further use. Reserve a tablespoonful or more and rub into it a 



MEATS. 123 

tablespoonful of flour, with the back of the spoon, until it is a smooth, 
rich brown color ; then add gradually a cup of cold water and season with 
pepper and salt. When the gravy is boiled up well return the meat to the 
pan and gravy. Cover it closely and allow it to stew gently on the back 
of the range for fifteen minutes. This softens the meat, and with this 
gravy it makes a nice breakfast dish. 

Another mode is to simply fry the cutlets, and afterwards turning off 
some of the grease they were fried in and then adding to that left in the 
pan a few drops of hot water, turning the whole over the fried chops. 

FRIED VEAL CHOPS, (Plain.) 

SPRINKLE over them salt and pepper, then dip them in beaten egg and 
cracker crumbs, and fry in drippings, or hot lard and butter mixed. If you 
wish a gravy with them, add a tablespoonful of flour to the gravy they 
were fried in and turn in cream or milk; season to taste with salt and pep- 
per. Boil up and serve hot with the gravy in a separate dish. This dish is 
very fine accompanied with a few sound fresh tomatoes, sliced and fried in 
the same grease the cutlets were, and all dished on the same platter. 

VEAL COLLOPS. 

CUT veal from the leg or other lean part into pieces the size of an 
oyster. Season with pepper, salt and a little mace; rub some over each 
piece; dip in egg, then into cracker crumbs and fry. They both look and 
taste like oysters. 

VEAL OLIVES. 

CUT up a slice of a fillet of veal, about half an inch thick, into squares 
of three inches. Mix up a little salt pork, chopped with bread crumbs, one 
onion, a little pepper, salt, sweet marjoram, and one egg well beaten ; put 
this mixture upon the pieces of veal, fastening the four corners together 
with little bird skewers ; lay them in a pan with sufficient veal gravy or 
light stock to cover the bottom of the pan, dredge with flour and set in a 
hot oven. When browned on top, put a small bit of butter on each, and 
let them remain until quite tender, which will take twenty minutes. 
Serve with horse-radish, 

VEAL CHEESE. 

PREPARE equal quantities of boiled sliced veal and smoked tongue. 
Pound the slices separately in a mortar, moistening with butter as you 
proceed; then pack it in a jar or pail, mixmg it in alternate layers; first, 



124 MEATS. 

the tongue and then the veal, so that when cut it will look variegated. 
Press it down hard and pour melted butter over the top. Keep it well 
covered and in a dry place. Nice for sandwiches, or sliced cold for lunch. 

VEAL CEOaUETTES. 

MINCE a coffee cup of cold veal in a chopping bowl, adding a little cold 
ham and two or three slices of onion, a pinch of mace, powdered parsley 
and pepper, some salt. Let a pint of milk or cream come to the boiling 
point, then add a tablespoonful 01 cold butter, than the above mixture. 
Beat up two eggs and mix wiuh teaspoonful of corn-starch or flour, and 
add to the rest; cook it all about ten minutes, stirring with care. Remove 
from the fire, and spread it on a platter, roll it into balls, when cooled 
flatten each; dip them in egg and bread crumbs, and fry in a wire basket, 
dipped in hot lard. 

BROILED VEAL CUTLETS. (Fine.) 

Two or three pounds of veal cutlets, egg and bread crumbs, two table- 
spoonfuls of minced savory herbs, salt and pepper to taste, a little grated 
nutmeg. 

Cut the cutlets about three-quarters of an inch in thickness; flatten 
them, and brush them over with the yolk of an egg; dip them into bread 
crumbs and minced herbs, season with pepper and salt, and fold each cut- 
let in a piece of white letter paper well buttered; twist the ends, and 
broil over a clear fire; when done remove the paper. Cooked this way, 
they retain all the flavor. 

VEAL POT-PIE. 

PROCURE a nice breast or brisket of veal, well jointed, put the pieces into 
the pot with one quart of water to every five pounds of meat; put the pot 
over a slow fire; just before it comes to a boil, skim it well and pour in a 
teacupful of cold water; then turn over the meat in order that all the 
scum may rise; remove all the scum, boil quite hard, season with pepper 
and salt to your taste, always remembering that the crust will take up 
part of the seasoning; when this is done cut off your crust in pieces of 
equal size, but do not roll or mould them; lay them on top of the meat, so 
as to cover it; put the lid on the pot closely, let the whole boil slowly 
one hour. If the lid does not fit the pot closely, wrap a cloth around it, in 
order that no steam shall escape; and by no means allow the pot to stop 
boiling. 



MEATS. 125 

The crust for pot-pie should be raised with yeast. To three pints of 
flour add two ounces of butter, a little salt, and wet with milk sufficient to 
make a soft dough; knead it well and set it away to rise; when quite light, 
mould and knead it again, and let it stand, in winter, one hour, in summer, 
one-half hour, when it will be ready to cut. 

In summer you had better add one-half a teaspoonful of soda when you 
knead it the second time, or you may wet it with water and add another 
bit of butter. 

VEAL PIE, 

CUT the veal into rather small pieces or slices, put it in a stewpan with 
hot water to cover it ; add to it a tablespoonful of salt and set it over the 
fire ; take off the scum as it rises ; when the meat is tender turn it into a 
dish to cool ; take out all the small bones, butter a tin or earthen basin or 
pudding-pan, line it with pie paste, lay some of the parboiled meat in to 
half fill it; put bits of butter in the size of a hickory nut all over the meat; 
shake pepper over, dredge wheat flour over until it looks white, then fill it 
nearly to the top with some of the water in which the meat was boiled ; 
roll a cover for the top of the crust, puff-paste it, giving it two or three 
turns, and roll it to nearly half an inch thickness ; cut a slit in the centre 
and make several small incisions on either side of it, put the crust on, trim 
the edges neatly with a knife ; bake one hour in a quick oven. A breast 
of veal will make two two-quart basin pies ; half a pound of nice corned 
pork, cut in thin slices and parboiled with the meat, will make it very nice, 
and very little, if any, butter will be required for the pie ; when pork is 
used no other salt will be necessary. Many are fond of thin slices of 
sweet ham cooked with the veal for pie. 

VEAL STEW. 

CUT up two or three pounds of veal into pieces three inches long and 
one thick. Wash it, put it into your stewpan with two quarts of water, 
let it boil, skim it well, and when all the scum is removed, add pepper and 
salt to your taste, and a small piece of butter ; pare and cut in halves 
twelve small Irish potatoes, put them into the stewpan ; when it boils, 
have ready a batter made with two eggs, two spoonfuls of cream or milk, 
a little salt, and flour enough to make it a little thicker than for pancakes; 
drop this into the stew, a spoonful at a time, while it is boiling ; when all 
is in, cover the pan closely so that no steam can escape ; let it boil twenty 
minutes and serve in a deep dish. 



126 MEATS. 

VEAL LOAF. 

THREE pounds of raw veal chopped very fine, butter the size of an egg, 
three eggs, three tablespoonfuls of cream or milk ; if milk use a small 
piece of butter ; mix the eggs and cream together ; mix with the veal four 
pounded crackers, one teaspoonf ul of black pepper, one large tablespoonful 
salt, one large tablespoonful of sage ; mix well together and form into a 
loaf. Bake two and one-half hours, basting with butter and water while 
baking. Serve cut in thin slices. 

VEAL FOR LTTNCH.' 

BUTTER a good-sized bowl, and line it with thin slices of hard-boiled 
eggs; have veal and ham both in very thin slices; place in the bowl a layer 
of veal, with pepper and salt, then a layer of ham, omitting the salt, then 
a layer of veal, and so on, alternating.with veal and ham, until the bowl is 
filled; make a paste of flour and water as stiff as it can be rolled out; cover 
the contents of the bowl with the paste, and over this tie a double cotton 
cloth; put the bowl into a saucepan, or other vessel, with water just up to 
the rim of the bowl, and boil three hours; then take it from the fire, 
remove the cloth and paste, and let it stand until the next day, when it 
may be turned out and served in very thin slices. An excellent lunch in 
traveling. 

VEAL PATTIES. 

CUT portions of the neck or breast of veal into small pieces, and, with a 
little salt pork cut fine, stew gently for ten or fifteen minutes; season with 
pepper and salt, and a small piece of celery chopped coarsely, also of the 
yellow top, picked (not chopped) up; stir in a paste made of a tablespoon- 
ful of flour, the yolk of one egg, and milk to form a thin batter; let all come 
to a boil, and it is ready for the patties. Make the patties of a light, flaky 
crust, as for tarts, cut round, the size of a small sauceplate; the centre of 
each, for about three inches, cut half way through, to be raised and serve 
as a cover. Put a spoonful of the stew in each crust, lay on the top and 
serve. Stewed oysters or lamb may be used in place of veal. 

BRAISED VEAL. 

TAKE a piece of the shoulder weighing about five pounds. Have the 
bone removed and tie up the meat to make it firm. Put a piece of butter 
the size of half an egg, together with a few shavings of onion, into a kettle 
or stone crock and let it get hot. Salt and pepper the veal and put it into 



MEATS. 127 

the kettle, cover it tightly and put it over a medium fire until the meat is 
brown on both sides, turning it occasionally. Then set the kettle back on 
the stove, where it will simmer slowly for about two hours and a half. 
Before setting the meat back on the stove, see if the juice^ of the meat 
together with the butter do not make gravy enough, and if not, put in 
about two tablespoonfuls of hot water. When the gravy is cold it will be 
like jelly. It can be served hot with the hot meat, or cold with the cold 
meat. 

BAKED CALF'S HEAD. 

BOIL a calf's head (after having cleaned it) until tender, then split it in 
two, and keep the best half (bone it if you like); cut the meat from the 
other in uniform pieces, the size of an oyster; put bits of butter, the size of 
a nutmeg, all over the best half of the head; sprinkle pepper over it, and 
dredge on flour until it looks white, then set it on a trivet or muffin rings 
in a dripping-pan; put a cup of water into the pan, and set it in a hot oven; 
turn it that it may brown evenly; baste once or twice. Whilst this is 
doing, dip the prepared pieces of the head in wheat flour or batter, and 
fry in hot lard or beef dripping a delicate brown; season with pepper and 
salt and slices of lemon, if liked. When the roast is done put it on a hot 
dish, lay the fried pieces around it, and cover it with a tin cover ; put the 
gravy from the dipping-pan into the pan in which the pieces were fried, 
with the slices of lemon, and a tablespoonful of browned flour, and, if 
necessary, a little hot water. Let it boil up once, and strain it into a 
gravy boat, and serve with the meat. 

CALF'S HEAD CHEESE. 

BOIL a calf's head in water enough to cover it, until the meat leaves 
the bones; then take it with a skimmer into a wooden bowl or tray; take 
from it every particle of bone; chop it small; season with pepper and salt, 
a heaping tablespoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of pepper will be suffi- 
cient; if liked, add a tablespoonful of finely chopped sweet herbs; lay in a 
cloth in a colander, put the minced meat into it, then fold the cloth closely 
over it, lay a plate over, and on it a gentle weight. When cold it may 
be sliced thin for supper or sandwiches. Spread each slice with made 
mustard. 

BRAIN CUTLETS. 

WELL wash the brains and soak them in cold water until white. Par- 
boil them until tender in a small saucepan for about a quarter of an hour ; 



128 MEATS. 

then thoroughly drain them and place them on a board. Divide them 
into small pieces with a knife. Dip each piece into flour, and then roll 
them in egg and bread crumbs, and fry them in butter or well-clarified 
dripping. Serve very hot with gravy. Another way of doing brains is to 
prepare them as above, and then stew them gently in rich stock, like 
stewed sweetbreads. They are also nice plainly boiled and served with 
parsley and butter sauce. 

CALF'S HEAD BOILED. 

PUT the head into boiling water and let it remain about five minutes ; 
take it out, hold it by the ear, and with the back of the knife scrape off 
the hair (should it not come off easily dip the head again in boiling water). 
When perfectly clean take out the eyes, cut off the ears and remove the 
brain, which soak for an hour in warm water. Put the head to soak in 
hot water a few minutes to make it look white, and then have ready a 
stewpan, into which lay the head ; cover it with cold water and bring it 
gradually to boil. Remove the scum and add a little salt, which increases 
it and causes it to rise to the top. Simmer it very gently from two and a 
half to three hours, or until the bones will slip out easily, and when nearly 
done, boil the brains fifteen or twenty minutes ; skin and chop them (not 
too finely), and add a tablespoonful of minced parsley which has been pre- 
viously scalded; also a pinch of pepper, salt; then stir into this four table- 
spoonfuls of melted butter, set it on the back of the range to keep it hot. 
When the head is done, take it up and drain very dry. Score the top and 
rub it over with melted butter ; dredge it with flour and set it in the oven 
to brown. 

When you serve the head, have it accompanied with a gravy boat of 
melted butter and minced parsley. 

i 
CALF'S LIVEE AND BACON. 

SLICE the liver a quarter of an inch thick ; pour hot water over it and 
let it remain for a few minutes to clear it from blood ; then dry it in a 
cloth. Take a pound of bacon, or as much as you require, and cut the 
same number of thin slices as you have of liver ; fry the bacon to a nice 
crisp ; take it out and keep it hot ; then fry the liver in the same pan, 
having first seasoned it with pepper and salt and dredged in a little flour ; 
lay it in the hot bacon fat and fry it a nice brown. Serve it with a slice 
of bacon on the top of each slice of liver. 



MEATS. 129 

If you wish a gravy with it, pour off most of the fat from the frying 
pan, put in about two ounces of butter, a tablespoonful of flour well 
rubbed in, add a cup of water, salt and pepper, give it one boil and serve 
in a gravy boat. 

Another Way. Cut the liver in nice thin slices, pour boiling water over 
it and let it stand about five minutes ; then drain and put in a dripping- 
pan with three or four thin slices of salt pork or bacon ; pepper and salt 
and put in the oven, letting it cook until thoroughly done, then serve with 
a cream or milk gravy poured over it. 

Calf's liver and bacon are very good broiled after cutting each in thin 
slices. Season with butter, pepper and salt. 

CROdUETTES OF SWEETBREADS. 

TAKE four veal sweetbreads, soak them for an hour in cold salted water, 
first removing the pipes and membranes; then put them into boiling salted 
water with a tablespoonful of vinegar, and cook them twenty minutes, 
then drop them again into cold water to harden. Now remove them, chop 
them very fine, almost to a paste. Season with salt, pepper and a tea- 
spoonful of grated onion; add the beaten yolks of three raw eggs, one 
tablespoonful of butter, half a cupful of cream, and sufficient fine cracker 
crumbs to make stiff enough to roll out into little balls or cork-shaped cro- 
quettes. Have ready a frying kettle half full of fat over the fire, a dish 
containing three smoothly beaten eggs, a large platter of cracker dust; wet 
the hands with cold water and make the mixture in shape; afterwards 
rolling them in the cracker dust, then into the beaten egg, and again in 
the cracker dust; smooth them on the outside and drop them carefully in 
the hot fat. When the croquettes are fried a nice golden brown, put them 
on a brown paper a moment to free them from grease. Serve hot with 
sliced lemon or parsley. 

SWEETBREADS. 

THERE are two in a calf, which are considered delicacies. Select the 
largest. The color should be clear and a shade darker than the fat. Before 
cooking in any manner let them lie for half an hour in tepid water; then 
throw into hot water to whiten and harden, after which draw off the outer 
casing, remove the little pipes, and cut into thin slices. They should 
always be thoroughly cooked. 



130 MEATS. 

FRIED SWEETBREADS. 

AFTER preparing them as on preceding page they are put into hot fat 
and butter, and fried the same as lamb chop, also broiled the same, first 
rolling them in egg and cracker crumbs. 

BAKED SWEETBREADS. 

THREE sweetbreads, egg and bread crumbs, oiled butter, three slices of 
toast, brown gravy. 

Choose large, white sweetbreads, put them into warm water to draw out 
the blood, and to improve t\eir color; let them remain for rather more 
than one hour; then put them into boiling water, and allow them to sim- 
mer for about ten minutes, which renders them firm. Take them up, 
drain them, brush over the egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs; dip them in 
egg again, and then into more bread crumbs. Drop on them a little oiled 
butter, and put the sweetbreads into a moderately heated oven, and let 
them bake for nearly three-quarters of an hour. Make three pieces of 
toast; place the sweetbreads on the toast, and pour round, but not over, 
them a good brown gravy. 

FRICASSEED SWEETBREADS. 

IF THEY are uncooked, cut into thin slices, let them simmer in a rich 
gravy for three-quarters of an hour, add a well-beaten egg, two table- 
spoonfuls of cream and a tablespoonful of chopped parsley; stir all 
together for a few minutes and serve immediately. 



MUTTON AND LAMB. 

ROAST MUTTON. 

THE pieces mostly used for roasting are the hind-quarter of the sheep, 
called the loin and leg, the fore-quarter, the shoulder, also the chine or 
saddle, which is the two loins together. Every part should be trimmed 
off that cannot be eaten; then wash well and dry with a clean cloth; lay it 
in your dripping-pan and put in a little water to baste it with at first; then 
afterward with its own gravy. Allow, in roasting, about twelve minutes 
to the pound; that is, if your fire is strong, which it should be. It should 
not be salted at first, as that tends to harden it, and draws out too much 
of the Dlood or juices; but salt soon after it begins to roast well. If there 



MEATS. 131 

is danger of its browning too fast, cover it with a sheet of white paper. 
Baste it often, and about a quarter of an hour before you think it will be 
done dredge the meat very lightly with flour and baste it with butter. 
Skim the gravy well and thicken very slightly with brown flour. Serve 
with currant jelly or other tart sauce. 

BONED LEG OF MUTTON ROASTED. 

TAKE the bone out of a small leg of mutton, without spoiling the skin 
if possible, then cut off most of the fat. Fill the hole whence the bone was 
taken with a stuffing made the same as for fowls, adding to it part of 
an onion finely minced. Sew the leg up underneath to prevent the dress- 
ing or stuffing from falling out. Bind and tie it up compactly; put it in a 
roasting pan, turn in a cup of hot water and place it in a moderately hot 
oven, basting it occasionally. When partly cooked season with salt and 
pepper. When thoroughly cooked, remove and place the leg on a warm 
platter; skim the grease from the top of the drippings, add a cup of water 
and thicken with a spoonful of dissolved flour. Send the gravy to the 
table in a gravy dish, also a dish of currant jelly. 

BOILED LEG OF MUTTON. 

To PREPARE a leg of mutton for boiling, wash it clean, cut a small piece 
off the shank bone, and trim the knuckle. Put it into a pot with water 
enough to cover it, and boil gently from two to three hours, skimming well. 
Then take it from the fire, and keeping the pot well covered, let it finish 
by remaining in the steam for ten or fifteen minutes. Serve it up with a 
sauce boat of melted butter, into which a teacupful of capers or nastur- 
tiums have been stirred. If the broth is to be used for soup, put in a little 
salt while boiling; if not, salt it well when partly done, and boil the meat 
in a cloth. 

BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON. 

THIS recipe can be varied either by preparing the leg with a stuffing, 
placed in the cavity after having the bone removed, or cooking it without. 
Having lined the bottom of a thick iron kettle or stewpan with a few thin 
slices of bacon, put over the bacon four carrots, three onions, a bunch of 
savory herbs; then over these place the leg of mutton. Cover the whole 
with a few more slices of bacon, then pour over half of a pint of water. 
Cover with a tight cover and stew very gently for four hours, basting the 
leg occasionally with its own liquor, and seasoning it with salt and pepper 



132 MEATS. 

as soon as it begins to be tender. When cooked strain the gravy, thicken 
with a spoonful of flour (it should be quite brown), pour some of it over 
the meat and send the remainder to the table in a tureen, to be served 
with the mutton when carved. Garnish the dish around the leg with pota- 
toes cut in the shape of olives and fried a light brown in butter. 

LEG OF MUTTON A LA VENISON. 

REMOVE all the rough fat from the mutton and lay it in a deep earthen 
dish; rub into it thoroughly the following: One tablespoonful of salt, one 
each of celery-salt, brown sugar, black pepper, English mustard, allspice, 
and some sweet herbs, all powdered and mixed; after which pour over it 
slowly a teacup of good vinegar, cover tightly, and set in a cool place four 
or five days, turning it and basting often with the liquid each day. To 
cook, put in a kettle a quart of boiling water, place over it an inverted 
shallow pan, and on it lay the meat just as removed from the pickle; cover 
the kettle tightly and stew four hours. Do not let the water touch the 
meat. Add a cup of hot water to the pickle remaining and baste with it. 
When done, thicken the liquid with flour and strain through a fine sieve, to 
serve with the meat; also a relish of currant je.lly, the same as for venison. 

This is a fine dish when the directions are faithfully followed. 

STEAMED LEG OF MUTTON. 

WASH and put the leg in a steamer and cook it until tender, then place 
in a roasting pan, salt and dredge well with flour and set in a hot oven un- 
til nicely browned; the water that remains in the bottom of the steamer 
may be used for soup. Serve with currant jelly. 

HASHED MUTTON. 

CUT into small pieces the lean of some cold mutton that has been un- 
derdone, and season it with pepper and salt. Take the bones and other 
trimmings, put them into a saucepan with as much water as will cover 
them, and some sliced onions, and let them stew till you have drawn from 
them a good gravy. Having skimmed it well, strain the gravy into a stew- 
pan, and put the mutton into it. Have ready boiled some carrots, turnips, 
potatoes and onions. Slice them and add to the meat and gravy. Set the 
pan on the fire and let it simmer till the meat is warmed through, but do 
not allow it to boil, as it has been once cooked already. Cover the bottom 
of a dish with slices of buttered toast. Lay the meat and vegetables upon 
it, and pour over them the gravy. 



MEATS. 133 

Tomatoes will be found an improvement. 

If green peas or Lima beans are in season, you may boil them and put 
them to the hashed mutton, leaving out the other vegetables, or serving 

them up separately. 

BROILED MUTTON CHOPS. 

LOIN of mutton, pepper and salt, a small piece of butter. Cut the chops 
from a tenderloin of mutton, remove a portion of the fat, and trim them 
into a nice shape; slightly beat and level them; place the gridiron over a 
bright, clear fire, rub the bars with a little fat, and lay on the chops. 
While broiling frequently turn them, and in about eight minutes they will 
be done. Season with pepper and salt, dish them on a very hot dish, rub 
a small piece of butter on each chop, and serve very hot and expeditiously. 
Nice with tomato sauce poured over them. 

FRIED MUTTON CHOPS. No. 1. 

PUT into a frying pan a tablespoonful of cold lard and butter mixed; 
have some fine mutton chops without much fat; trim off the skin. Dip 
each in wheat flour, or rolled cracker and beaten egg, then lay them into 
the hot grease, sprinkle with salt and pepper, fry on both sides a fine 
brown. When done, take them up and place on a hot dish. If you wish a 
made gravy, turn off the superfluous grease, if any, stir into the hot gravy 
remaining a heaping spoonful of flour, stirring it until smooth and free 
from lumps, then turn into that a cup of cold water or milk; season with 
pepper and salt, let it boil up thick. You can serve it in a separate dish 
or pour it over the chops. Tomato sauce is considered fine, turned over a 
dish of hot fried or broiled chops. 

FRIED MUTTON CHOPS. No. 2. 

PREPARE the chops by trimming off all extra fat and skin, season them 
with salt and pepper, dip each chop in beaten egg, then in rolled cracker 
or bread crumbs; d ; i again in the egg and crumbs, and so on until they are 
well coated with the crumbs. Have ready a deep spider containing a 
pound or more of lard, hot enough to fry crullers. Drop into this hot lard 
the chops, frying only a few at one time, as too many cool the fat. Fry 
them brown, and serve up hot and dry on a warm platter. 

MUTTON CUTLETS. (Baked.) 

PREPARE them the same as for frying, lay them in a dripping-pan with a 
very little water at the bottom. Bake quickly, and baste often with butter 



134 MEATS. 

and water. Make a little brown gravy and turn over them when they are 
served. 

BAKED MUTTON CHOPS AND POTATOES. 

WASH and peel some good potatoes and cut them into slices the thick- 
ness of a penny-piece. The quantity of potatoes must, of course, be 
decided according to the number of persons to whom they have to be 
served; but it is a safe plan to allow two, or even three, potatoes for each 
person. After the potatoes are sliced, wash them in two or three waters to 
thoroughly cleanse them; then arrange them neatly (in layers) in a brown 
stone dish proper for baking purposes. Sprinkle a little salt and pepper 
between each layer, and add a sufficient quantity of cold water to prevent 
their burning. Place the dish in a very hot oven on the top shelf so 
as to brown the potatoes in a few minutes. Have ready some nice loin 
chops (say one for each person); trim off most of the fat; make them into 
a neat round shape by putting a small skewer through each. When the 
potatoes are nicely browned, remove the dish from the oven, and place the 
chops on the top. Add a little more salt and pepper, and water if required, 
and return the dish to a cooler part of the oven, where it may be allowed 
to remain until sufficiently cooked, which will be in about three-quarters 
of an hour. When the upper sides of the chops are a nice crisp brown, 
turn them over so as to brown the other side also. If, in the cooking, the 
potatoes appear to be getting too dry, a little more water may be gently 
poured in at one corner of the dish, only care must be taken to see that 
the water is hot this time not cold, as at first. The dish in which the 
chops and potatoes are baked must be as neat looking as possible, as it has 
to be sent to the table; turning the potatoes out would, of course, spoil 
their appearance. Those who have never tasted this dish have no idea 
how delightful it is. While the chops are baking the gravy drips from 
them among the potatoes, rendering the whole most delicious. 

MUTTONETTES. 

CUT from a leg of mutton slices about half an inch thick. On each 
slice lay a spoonful of stuffing made with bread crumbs, beaten egg, butter, 
salt, pepper, sage and summer savory. Roll up the slices, pinning with 
little skewers or small wooden toothpicks to keep the dressing in. Put a 
little butter and water in a baking-pan with the muttonettes, and cook in 
hot oven three-quarters of an hour. Baste often, and when done thicken 



MEATS. 13o 

fche gravy, pour over the meat, garnish with parsley, and serve on hot 

platter. 

IRISH STEW. 

TIME about two hours. Two and a half pounds of chops, eight potatoes, 
four turnips, four small onions, nearly a quart of water. Take some 
chops from loin of mutton, place them in stewpan in alternate layers of 
sliced potatoes and chops; add turnips and onions cut into pieces, pour in 
nearly a quart of cold water; cover stewpan closely, let it stew gently till 
vegetables are ready to mash and the greater part of the gravy is absorbed; 
then place in a dish; serve it up hot. 

MUTTON PUDDING. 

LINE a two-quart pudding basin with some beef suet paste; fill the lin- 
ing with thick mutton cutlets, slightly trimmed, or, if preferred, with 
steaks cut from the leg; season with pepper and salt, some parsley, a little 
thyme and two slices of onion chopped fine, and between each layer of 
meat, put some slices of potatoes. When the pudding is filled, wet the 
edges of the paste around the top of the basin, and cover with a piece of 
paste rolled out the size of the basin. Fasten down the edge by bearing 
all around with the thumb; and then with the thumb and forefinger twist 
the edges of the paste over and over so as to give it a corded appearance. 
This pudding can be set in a steamer and steamed, or boiled. The time 
required for cooking is about three hours. When done, turn it out care- 
fully on a platter and serve with a rich gravy under it. 

This is a very good recipe for cooking small birds. 

SCRAMBLED MUTTON. 

Two CUPS of chopped cold mutton, two tablespoonfuls of hot water, and 
a piece of butter as large as an English walnut. When the meat is hot, 
break in three eggs, and constantly stir until the eggs begin to stiffen. 
Season with pepper and salt. 

SCALLOPED MUTTON AND TOMATOES. 

OVER the bottom of an earthen baking-dish place a layer of bread 
crumbs, and over it alternate layers of cold roast mutton cut in thin slices, 
and tomatoes peeled and sliced; season each with salt, pepper and bits of 
butter, as laid in. The top layer should be of tomatoes, spread over with 
bread crumbs. Bake three-quarters of an hour, and serve immediately. 



136 MEATS. 

LAMB SWEETBREADS AND TOMATO SAUCE. 

LAMB sweetbreads are not always procurable, but a stroll tnrough'the 
markets occasionally reveals a small lot of them, which can invariably be 
had at a low price, owing to their excellence being recognized by but few 
buyers. Wash them well in salted water and parboil fifteen minutes; 
when cool, trim neatly and put them in a pan with just butter enough to 
prevent their burning; toss them about until a delicate color; season with 
salt and pepper and serve, surrounded with tomato sauce. (See SAUCES.) 

ROAST QUARTER OF LAMB. 

PROCURE a nice hind-quarter, remove some of the fat that is around the 
kidney, skewer the lower joint up to the fillet, place it in a moderate oven, 
let it heat through slowly, then dredge it with salt and flour; quicken the 
fire, put half a pint of water into the dripping-pan, with a teaspoonf ul of 
salt. With this liquor baste the meat occasionally; serve with lettuce, 
green peas and mint sauce. 

A quarter of lamb weighing seven or eight pounds will require two 
hours to roast. 

A breast of lamb roasted is very sweet, and is considered by many as 
preferable to hind-quarter. It requires nearly as long a time to roast as 
the quarter, and should be served in the same manner. 

Make the gravy from the drippings, thickened with flour. 

The mint sauce is made as follows: Take fresh, young spearmint 
leaves stripped from stems; wash and drain them or dry on a cloth, chop 
Very fine, put in a gravy tureen, and to three tablespoonfuls of mint add 
two of finely powdered cut-loaf sugar; mix, and let it stand a few minutes, 
then pour over it six tablespoonfuls good cider or white-wine vinegar. 
The sauce should be made some time before dinner, so that the flavor of 
the mint may be well extracted. 

TO BROIL THE FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB. 

TAKE off the shoulder and lay it upon the gridiron with the breast; cut 
In two parts, to facilitate its cooking; put a tin sheet on top of the meat, 
and a weight upon that; turn the meat around frequently to prevent its 
burning; turn over as soon as cooked on one side; renew the coals occa- 
sionally, that all parts may cook alike; when done, season with butter, 
pepper and salt] exactly like beefsteak. It takes some time to broil it 
well; but when done it will be found to be equal to broiled chicken, the 



MEATS. 137 

flavor being more delicate than when cooked otherwise. Serve with cream 
sauce, made as follows: Heat a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan, add 
a teaspoonful of flour and stir until perfectly smooth; then add, slowly stir- 
ring in, a cup of cold milk; let it boil up once, and season to taste with salt 
and pepper and a teaspoonful of finely chopped fresh parsley. Serve in a 
gravy boat, all hot. 

LAMB STEW. 

CUT up the lamb into small pieces (after removing all the fat) say about 
two inches square. Wash it well and put it over the fire, with just enough 
cold water to cover it well, and let it heat gradually. It should stew gently 
until it is partly done; then add a few thin slices of salt pork, one or two 
onions sliced up fine, some pepper and salt if needed, and two or three raw 
potatoes cut up into inch pieces. Cover it closely and stew until the meat 
is tender. Drop in a few made dumplings, made like short biscuit, cut out 
very small. Cook fifteen minutes longer. Thicken the gravy with a little 
flour moistened with milk. Serve. 

PRESSED LAME 

THE meat, either shoulder or leg, should be put to boil in the morning 
with water just enough to cover it; when tender, season with salt and 
pepper, then keep it over the fire until very tender and the juice nearly 
boiled out. Remove it from the fire-place in a wooden chopping bowl, 
season more if necessary, chop it up like hash. Place it in a breadpan, 
press out all the juice, and put it in a cool place to harden. The pressing 
is generally done by placing a dish over the meat and putting a flat-iron 
upon that. Nice cut up cold into thin slices, and the broth left from the 
meat would make a nice soup served with it, adding vegetables and spices. 

CROdUETTES OF ODDS AND ENDS. 

THESE are made of any scraps or bits of good food that happen to be 
left from one or more meals, and in such small quantities that they cannot 
be warmed up separately. As, for example, a couple of spoonfuls of 
frizzled beef and cream, the lean meat of one mutton chop, one spoonful 
of minced beef, two cold hard-boiled eggs, a little cold chopped potato, a 
little mashed potato, a chick's leg, all the gristle and hard outside taken 
from the meat. These things well chopped and seasoned, mixed with one 
raw egg, a little flour and butter, and boiling water; then made into 



138 MEATS. 

round cakes, thick like fish-balls, and browned well with butter in a fry- 
ing pan or on a griddle. < 

Scraps of hash, cold rice, boiled oatmeal left from breakfast, every kind 
.of fresh meat, bits of salt tongue, bacon, pork or ham, bits of poultry, and 
crumbs of bread may be used. They should be put together with care, so 
as not to have them too dry to be palatable, or too moist to cook in shape. 
Most housekeepers would be surprised at the result, making an addition to 
the breakfast or lunch table. Serve on small squares of buttered toast, 
and with cold celery if in season. 



PORK. 

THE best parts, and those usually used for roasting, are the loin, the leg, 
the shoulder, the sparerib and chine. The hams, shoulders and middlings 
are usually salted, pickled and smoked. Pork requires more thorough 
cooking than most meats; if the least underdone it is unwholesome. 

To choose pork: If the rind is thick and tough, and cannot be easily 
impressed with the finger, it is old; when fresh, it will look cool and 
smooth, and only corn-fed pork is good; swill or still-fed pork is unfit to 
cure. Fresh pork is in season from October to April. When dressing or 
stuffing is used, there are more or less herbs used for seasoning sage, 
summer savory, thyme and sweet marjoram; these can be found (in the 
dried, pulverized form, put up in small, light packages) at most of the 
best druggists; still those raised and gathered at home are considered more 
fresh. 

ROAST PIG. 

PREPARE your dressing as for DRESSING FOR FOWLS, adding half an 
onion, chopped fine; set it inside. Take a young pig about six weeks old, 
wash it thoroughly inside and outside; and in another water put a tea- 
spoonful of baking soda, and rinse out the inside again; wipe it dry with a 
fresh towel, salt the inside and stuff it with the prepared dressing; making 
it full and plump, giving it its original size and shape. Sew it up, place it 
in a kneeling posture in the dripping-pan, tying the legs in proper posi- 
tion. Pour a little hot salted water into the dripping-pan, baste with but- 
ter and water a few times as the pig warms, afterwards with gravy from 
the dripping-pan. When it begins to smoke all over rub it often with a 
rag dipped in melted butter. This will keep the skin from cracking and it 



MEATS. 139 

still will be crisp. It will take from two to three hours to roast. Make 
the gravy by skimming off most of the grease; stir into that remaining in 
the pan a good tablespoon of flour, turn in water to make it the right con- 
sistency, season with pepper and let all boil up once. Strain, and if you 
like wine in it, add half a glass; turn it into a gravy boat. Place the pig 
upon a large, hot platter, surrounded with parsley or celery tops; place 
a green wreath around the neck, and a sprig of celery in its mouth. In 
carving, cut off its head first; split down the back, take off its hams and 
shoulders, and separate the ribs. 

ROAST LOIN OF PORK. 

SCORE the skin in strips about a quarter of an inch apart; place it in a 
dripping-pan with a very little water under it; cook it moderately at first, 
as a high heat hardens the rind before the meat is heated through. If it 
is very lean, it should be rubbed with fresh lard or butter when put into 
the pan. A stuffing might be made of bread crumbs, chopped sage and 
onions, pepper and salt, and baked separately on a pie dish; this method is 
better than putting it in the meat, as many persons have a great aversion 
to its flavor. A loin weighing about six pounds will roast in two hours; 
allow more time if it should be very fat. Make a gravy with flour stirred 
into the pork drippings. Serve with apple sauce and pickles. 

ROAST LEG OF PORK. 

CHOOSE a small leg of fine young pork; cut a slit in the knuckle with a 
sharp knife, and fill the space with sage and onion chopped, and a little 
pepper and salt. When half done, score the skin in slices, but do not cut 
deeper than the outer rind. Apple sauce and potatoes should be served 
with it. The gravy is to be made the same way as for beef roast, by turn- 
ing off all the superfluous fat and adding a spoonful of flour stirred with a 
little water; add water to make the right consistency. Serve in a gravy 
boat. 

BOILED LEG OF PORK. 

FOR boiling, choose a small, compact, well-filled leg, and rub it well 
with salt; let it remain in pickle for a week or ten days, turning and rub- 
bing it everyday. An hour before dressing it put it into cold water for an 
hour, which improves the color. If the pork is purchased ready salted, 
ascertain how long the meat has been in pickle, and soak it accordingly. 
Put it into a boiling-pot, with sufficient cold water to cover it; let it 



140 MEATS. 

gradually come to a boil, and remove the scum as it rises. Simmer it very 
gently until tender, and do not allow it to boil fast, or the knuckle will fall 
to pieces before the middle of the leg is done. Carrots, turnips or parsnips 
may be boiled with the pork, some of which should be laid around the 
dish as a garnish. 

Time. A leg of pork weighing eight pounds, three hours after the 
water boils, and to be simmered very gently. 

FRESH PORK POT-PIE. 

BOIL a sparerib, after removing all the fat and cracking the bones, 
until tender; remove the scum as it rises, and when tender season with 
salt and pepper; half an hour before time for serving the dinner thicken 
the gravy with a little flour. Have ready another kettle, into which re- 
move all the bones and most of the gravy, leaving only sufficient to cover 
the pot half an inch above the rim that rests on the stove; put in the 
crust, cover tight, and boil steadily forty-five minutes. To prepare the 
crust, work into light dough a small bit of butter, roll it out thin, cut it in 
small, square cakes, and lay them on the moulding-board until very light. 
No steam should possibly escape while the crust is cooking, and by no 
means allow the pot to cease boiling. 

ROAST SPARERIB. 

TRIM off the rough ends neatly, crack the ribs across the middle, rub 
with salt and sprinkle with pepper, fold over, stuff with turkey dressing, 
sew ' up tightly, place in a dripping-pan with a pint of water, baste fre- 
quently, turning over once so as to bake both sides equally until a rich 
brown. 

PORK TENDERLOINS. 

THE tenderloins are unlike any other part of the pork in flavor. They 
may be either fried or broiled; the latter being drier, require to be well- 
buttered before serving, which should be done on a hot platter before the 
butter becomes oily. Fry them in a little lard, turning them to have them 
cooked through; when done, remove, and keep hot while making a gravy 
by dredging a little flour into the hot fat; if not enough add a little butter 
or lard, stir until browned, and add a little milk or cream, stir briskly, and 
pour over the dish. A little Worcestershire sauce may be added to the 
gravy if desired. 



MEATS. 141 

PORK CUTLETS. 

COT them from the leg, and remove the skin; trim them and beat them, 
and sprinkle on salt and pepper. Prepare some beaten egg in a pan, and 
on a flat dish a mixture of bread crumbs, minced onion and sage. Put 
some lard or drippings into a frying pan over the fire, and when it boils 
put in the cutlets, having dipped every one first in the egg, and then in 
the seasoning. Fry them twenty or thirty minutes, turning them often. 
After you have taken them out of the frying pan, skim the gravy, dredge 
in a little flour, give it one boil, and then pour it on the dish round the 
cutlets. 

Have apple sauce to eat with them. 

Pork cutlets prepared in this manner may be stewed instead of being 
fried. Add to them a little water, and stew them slowly till thoroughly 
done, keeping them closely covered, except when you remove the lid to 
skim them. 

PORK CHOPS AND FRIED APPLES. 

SEASON the chops with salt and pepper and a little powdered sage; dip 
them into bread crumbs. Fry about twenty minutes or until they are 
done. Put them on a hot dish; pour off part of the gravy into another 
pan to make a gravy to serve with them, if you choose. Then fry apples 
which you have sliced about two-thirds of an inch thick, cutting them 
around the apple so that the core is in the centre of each piece; then cut 
out the core. When they are browned on one side and partly cooked, turn 
them carefully with a pancake turner, and finish cooking; dish around the 
chops or on a separate dish. 

FRIED PORK CHOPS. 

FRY them the % same as mutton chops. If a sausage flavor is liked, 
sprinkle over them a little powdered sage or summer savory, pepper and 
salt, and if a gravy is liked, skim off some of the fat in the pan and stir in 
a spoonful of flour; stir it until free from lumps, then season with pepper 
and salt and turn in a pint of sweet milk. Boil up and serve in a gravy 
boat. 

PORK PIE. 

MAKE a good plain paste. Take from two and a half to three pounds of 
the thick ends of a loin of pork, with very little fat on it; cut into very 
thin slices three inches long by two inches wide; put a layer at the bottom 



142 MEATS. 

of a pie-dish. Wash and chop finely a handful of parsley, also an onion, 
Sprinkle a small portion of these over the pork, and a little pepper, and 
salt. Add another layer of pork, and over that some more of the season- 
ing, only be sparing of the nutmeg. Continue this till the dish is full. 
Now pour into the dish a cupful of stock or water, and a spoonful or two 
of catsup. Put a little paste around the edge of the dish; put on the cover 
and place the pie in a rather hot oven. When the paste has risen and 
begins to take color, place the pie at the bottom of the oven, with some 
paper over it, as it will require to be baked at least two hours. Some pre- 
fer to cook the meat until partly done, before putting into the crust. 

Palmer House, Chicago. 

PORK POT-PIE. 

TAKE pieces of ribs of lean salt pork, also a slice or two of the fat of 
salt pork; scald it well with hot water so as to wash out the briny taste. 
Put it into it a kettle and cover it with cold water, enough for the required 
want. Cover it and boil an hour, season with pepper; then add half a 
dozen potatoes cut into quarters. When it all commences to boil again, 
drop in dumplings rn^de from this recipe: 

One pint of sour or buttermilk, two eggs, well beaten, a teaspoonful of 
salt, a level teaspoonful of soda; dissolve in a spoonful of water as much 
flour as will make a very stiff batter. Drop this into the kettle or broth 
by spoonfuls, and cook forty minutes, closely covered. 

PORK AND BEANS. (Baked.) 

TAKE two quarts of white beans, pick them over the night before, put 
to soak in cold water; in the morning put them in fresh water and let 
them scald, then turn off the water and put on more, hot; put to cook with 
them a piece of salt pork, gashed, as much as would make five or six slices; 
boil slowly till soft (not mashed), then add a tablespoonful of molasses, half 
a teaspoonful of soda, stir in well, put in a deep pan, and bake one hour 
and a half. If you do not like to use pork, salt the beans when boiling, 
and add a lump of butter when preparing them for the oven. 

BOSTON PORK AND BEANS. 

PICK over carefully a quart of small, white beans; let them soak over 
night in cold water; in the morning wash and drain in another water. Put 
on to boil in plenty of cold water with a piece of soda the size of a bean; 
let them come to a boil, then drain again, cover with water once more, and 



MEATS. 143 

boil them fifteen minutes, or until the skin of the beans will crack when 
taken out and blown upon. Drain the beans again, put them into an 
earthen pot, adding a tablespoonful of salt; cover with hot water, place in 
the centre of a pound of salt pork, first scalding it with hot water, and 
scoring the rind across the top, a quarter of an inch apart to indicate where 
the slices are to be cut. Place the pot in the oven, and bake six hours or 
longer. Keep the oven a moderate heat; add hot water from the tea-kettle 
as needed, on account of evaporation, to keep the beans moist. When the 
meat becomes crisp and looks cooked, remove it, as too long baking the 
pork destroys its solidity. 

FRIED SALT PORK. 

CUT in thin slices, and freshen in cold water, roll in flour, and fry crisp. 
If required quickly, pour boiling water over the slices, let stand a few min- 
utes, drain and roll in flour as before; drain off most of the grease from the 
frying pan; stir in while hot one or two tablespoonfuls of flour, about half 
a pint of milk, a little pepper, and salt if over freshened; let it boil, and 
pour into a gravy dish. A teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley will add 
pleasantly to the appearance of the gravy. 

GRILLED SALT PORK. 

TAKE quite thin slices of the thick part jof side pork, of a clear white, 
and thinly streaked with lean; hold one on a toasting fork before a brisk 
fire to grill; have at hand a dish of cold water, in which immerse it fre- 
quently while cooking, to remove the superfluous fat and render it more 
delicate. Put each slice as cooked in a warm covered pan; when all are 
done, serve hot. 

FRIED HAM AND EGGS. 

CUT slices of ham quite thin, cut off the rind or skin, put them into a 
hot frying pan, turning them often until crisp, taking care not to burn the 
slices; three minutes will cook them well. Dish them on a hot platter; 
then turn off the top of the grease, rinse out the pan, and put back the 
clear grease to fry the eggs. Break the eggs separately in a saucer, that in 
case a bad one should be among them it may not mix with the rest. Slip 
each egg gently into the frying pan. Do not turn them while they are fry- 
ing, but keep pouring some of the hot lard over them with a kitchen spoon; 
this will do them sufficiently on the upper side. They will be done enough 
in about three minutes; the white must retain its transparency so that the 
yolk will be seen through it. When done, take them up with a tin slice, 



144 MEATS. 

drain off the lard, and if any part of the white is discolored or ragged, trim 
it off. Lay a fried egg upon each slice of the ham, and send to table Jiot. 

COLD BACON AND EGGS. 

AN ECONOMICAL way of using bacon and eggs that have been left from a 
previous meal is to put them in a wooden bowl and chop them quite fine, 
adding a little mashed or cold chopped potato, and a little bacon gravy, if 
any was left. Mix and mould it into little balls, roll in raw egg and cracker 
crumbs, and fry in a spider the same as frying eggs; fry a light brown on 
both sides. Serve hot. Very appetizing. 

SCRAPPEL. 

SCRAPPEL is a most palatable dish. Take the head, heart and any lean 
scraps of pork, and boil until the flesh slips easily from the bones. Re- 
move the fat, gristle and bones, then chop fine. Set the liquor in which 
the meat was boiled aside until cold, take the cake of fat from, the surface 
and return to the fire. When it boils put in the chopped meat and season 
well with pepper and salt. Let it boil again, then thicken with corn meal 
as you would in making ordinary corn meal mush, by letting it slip 
through the fingers slowly to prevent lumps. Cook an hour, stirring con- 
stantly at first, afterwards putting back on the range in a position to boil 
gently. When done, pour into a long, square pan, not too deep, and mould. 
In cold weather this can be kept several weeks. Cut into slices when cold, 
and fried brown, as you do mush, is a cheap and delicious breakfast dish. 

TO BAKE A HAM. (Corned.) 

TAKE a medium-sized ham and place it to soak for ten or twelve hours. 
Then cut away the rusty part from underneath, wipe it dry, and cover it 
rather thickly over with a paste made of flour and water. Put it into an 
earthen dish, and set it in a moderately heated oven. When done, take off 
the crust carefully, and peel off the skin, put a frill of cut paper around 
the knuckle, and raspings of bread over the fat of the ham, or serve it 
glazed and garnished with cut vegetables. It will take about four or five 
hours to bake it. 

Cooked in this way the flavor is much finer than when boiled. 

PIGS' FEET PICKLED. 

TAKE twelve pigs' feet, scrape and wash them clean, put them into a 
saucepan with enough hot (not boiling) water to cover them. When 



MEATS. 145 

partly done, salt them. It requires four to five hours to boil them soft. 
Pack them in a stone crock, and pour over them spiced vinegar made hot. 
They will be ready to use in a day or two. If you wish them for break- 
fast, split them, make a batter of two eggs, a cup of milk, salt, a teaspoon- 
ful of butter, with flour enough to make a thick batter; dip each piece in 
this and fry in hot lard. Or, dip them in beaten egg and flour and fry. 
Souse is good eaten cold or warm 

BOILED HAM. 

FIRST remove all dust and mold by wiping with a coarse cloth; soak 
it for an hour in cold water, then wash it thoroughly. Cut with a sharp 
knife the hardened surface from the base and butt of the ham. Place it 
over the fire in cold water, and let it come to a moderate boil, keeping it 
steadily at this point, allowing it to cook twenty minutes for every pound 
of meat. A ham weighing twelve pounds will require four hours to cook 
properly, as underdone ham is very unwholesome. When the ham is to 
be served hot, remove the skin by peeling it off, place it on a platter, the 
fat side up, and dot the surface with spots of black pepper. Stick in also 
some whole cloves. 

If the ham is to be served cold, allow it to remain in the pot until the 
water in which it was cooked becomes cold. This makes it more juicy. 
Serve it in the same manner as when served hot. 

BROILED HAM. 

CUT your ham into thin slices, which should be a little less than one 
quarter of an inch thick. Trim very closely the skin from the upper side 
of each slice, and also trim off the outer edge where the smoke has hard- 
ened the meat. If the ham is very salt lay it in cold water for one hour 
before cooking, then wipe with a dry cloth. Never soak ham in tepid or 
hot water, as it will toughen the meat. 

Broil over a brisk fire, turning the slices constantly. It will require 
about five minutes, and should be served the last thing directly from the 
gridiron, placed on a warm platter, with a little butter and a sprinkle of 
pepper on the top of each slice. If ham or bacon is allowed to stand by 
the fire after it has been broiled or fried, it will speedily toughen, losing 
all its grateful juices. 

Cold boiled ham is very nice for broiling, and many prefer it to using 

the raw ham. 
10 



146 MEATS. 

POTTED HAM. 

To TWO pounds of lean ham allow one pound of fat, two teaspoonfuls of 
powdered mace, half a nutmeg, grated, rather more than half a teaspoonf ul 
of cayenne. 

Mode. Mince the ham, fat and lean together, in the above proportion, 
and pound it well in a mortar, seasoning it with cayenne pepper, pounded 
mace and nutmeg; put the mixture into a deep baking-dish, and bake for 
half an hour; then press it well into a stone jar, fill up the jar with clarified 
lard, cover it closely, and paste over it a piece of thick paper. If well sea- 
soned, it will keep a long time in winter, and will be found very convenient 
for sandwiches, etc. 

BOLOGNA SAUSAGE. (Cooked.) 

Two POUNDS of lean pork, two pounds of lean veal, two pounds of fresh 
lean beef, two pounds of fat salt pork, one pound beef suet, ten tablespoon- 
fuls of powdered sage, one ounce each of parsley, savory, marjoram and 
thyme, mixed. Two teaspoonfuls of cayenne pepper, the same of black, 
one grated nutmeg, one teaspoonful of cloves, one minced onion, salt to 
taste. Chop or grind the meat and suet; season, and stuff into beef skins; 
tie these up, prick each in several places to allow the escape of steam; put 
into hot, not boiling, water, and heat gradually to the boiling point. Cook 
slowly for one hour; take out the skins and lay them to dry in the sun, upon 
clean sweet straw or hay. Rub the outside of the skins with oil or melted 
butter, and place in a cool, dry cellar. If you wish to keep them more 
than a week, rub ginger or pepper on the outside, then wash it off before 
using. This is eaten without further cooking. Cut in round slices and 
lay sliced lemon around the edge of the dish, as many like to squeeze a few 
drops upon the sausage before eating. These are very nice smoked like 

hams. 

COUNTRY PORK SAUSAGES. 

Six POUNDS lean fresh pork, three pounds of chine fat, three tablespoon- 
fuls of salt, two of black pepper, four tablespoonfuls of pounded and sifted 
sage, two of summer savory. Chop the lean and fat pork finely, mix the 
seasoning in with your hands, taste to see that it has the right flavor, then 
put them into cases, either the cleaned intestines of the hog, or make long, 
narrow bags of stout muslin, large enough to contain each enough sausage 
for a family dish. Fill these with the meat, dip in melted lard, and hang 
them in a cool, dry, dark place. Some prefer to pack the meat in jars, 
pouring melted lard over it, covering the top, to be taken out as wanted 



MEATS. 147 

and made into small round cakes with the hands, then fried brown. Many 
like spices added to the seasoning cloves, mace and nutmeg. This is a 

2natter Of taste. Marion Harland. 

TO FRY SAUSAGES. 

PUT a small piece of lard or butter into the frying pan. Prick the sau- 
sages with a fork, lay them in the melted grease, keep moving them about, 
turning them frequently to prevent bursting; in ten or twelve minutes 
they will be sufficiently browned and cooked. Another sure way to pre- 
vent the cases from bursting is to cover them with cold water and let it 
come to the boiling point; turn off the water and fry them. Sausages are 
nicely cooked by putting them in a baking-pan and browning them in the 
oven, turning them once or twice. In this way you avoid all smoke and 
disagreeable odor. A pound will cook brown in ten minutes in a hot oven. 

HEAD CHEESE. 

BOIL the forehead, ears and feet, and nice scraps trimmed from the 
hams of a fresh pig, until the meet will almost drop from the bones. Then 
separate the meat from the bones, put it in a large chopping-bowl, and 
season with pepper, salt, sage and summer savory. Chop it rather 
coarsely; put it back into the same kettle it was boiled in, with just 
enough of the liquor in which it was boiled to prevent its burning; warm 
it through thoroughly, mixing it well together. Now pour it into a strong 
muslin bag, press the bag between two flat surfaces, with a heavy weight 
on top; when cold and solid it can be cut in slices. Good cold, or warmed 
up in vinegar. 

TO CURE HAMS AND BACON. (A Prize Recipe.) 

FOR each hundred pounds of hams, make a pickle of ten pounds of salt, 
two pounds of brown sugar, two ounces of saltpetre, one ounce of red 
pepper, and from four to four and a half gallons of water, or just enough 
to cover the hams, after being packed in a water-tight vessel, or enough 
salt to make a brine to float a fresh egg high enough, that is to say, out of 
water. First rub the hams with common salt and lay them into a tub. 
Take the above ingredients, put them into a vessel over the fire, and heat 
it hot, stirring it frequently; remove all the scum, allow it to boil ten min- 
utes, let it cool and pour over the meat. After laying in this brine five or 
six weeks, take out, drain and wipe, and smoke from two to three weeks. 
Small pieces of bacon may remain in this pickle two weeks, which would 
be sufficient. 



148 MEATS. 

TO SMOKE HAMS AND FISH AT HOME. 

TAKE an old hogshead, stop up all the crevices, and fix a place to piit a 
cross-stick near the bottom, to hang the article to be smoked on. Next, in 
the side, cut a hole near the top, to introduce an iron pan filled with hick- 
ory wood sawdust and small pieces of green wood. Having turned the 
hogshead upside down, hang the articles upon the cross-stick, introduce 
the iron pan in the opening, and place a piece of red-hot iron in the pan, 
cover it with sawdust, and all will be complete. Let a large ham remain 
ten days, and keep up a good smoke. The best way for keeping hams is to 
sew them in coarse cloths, whitewashed on the outside. 

TO CURE ENGLISH BACON. 

THIS process is called the "dry cure," and is considered far preferable 
to the New England or Yankee style of putting prepared brine or pickle 
over the meat. First the hog should not be too large or too fat, weighing 
not over two hundred pounds, then after it is dressed and cooled cut it up 
into proper pieces; allow to every hundred pounds a mixture of four quarts 
of common salt, one quarter of a pound of saltpetre and four pounds of 
sugar. Rub this preparation thoroughly over and into each piece, then 
place them into a tight tub or suitable cask; there will a brine form of 
itself, from the juices of the meat, enough at least to baste it with, which 
should be done two or three times a week; turning each piece every time. 

In smoking this bacon, the sweetest flavor is derived from black birch 
chips, but if these are not to be had, the next best wood is hickory; the 
smoking with corn-cobs imparts a rank flavor to this bacon, which is very 
distasteful to English people visiting this country. It requires three weeks 
or a month to smoke this bacon properly. 

Berkshire Recipe, 
TO TRY OUT LARD. 

SKIN the leaf lard carefully, cut it into small pieces, and put it into a 
kettle or saucepan; pour in a cupful of water to prevent burning; set it over 
the fire where it will melt slowly. Stir it frequently and let it simmer 
until nothing remains but brown scraps. Remove the scraps with a per- 
forated skimmer, throw in a little salt to settle the fat, and, when clear, 
strain through a coarse cloth into jars. Remember to watch it constantly, 
stirring it from the bottom until the salt is thrown in to settle it; then set 
it back on the range until clear. If it scorches it gives it a very bad 
flavor. 



M 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 

* * * 
DRAWN BUTTER. 

ELTED butter is the foundation of most of the common sauces. 
Have a covered saucepan for this purpose. One lined with 
porcelain will be best. Take a quarter of a pound of the best 
fresh butter, cut it up, and mix with it about one tablespoonful 
of flour. When it is thoroughly mixed, put it into the saucepan, and add 
to it half a teacupful of hot water. Cover the saucepan and set it in a 
large tin pan of boiling water. Shake it round continually (always moving 
it the same way) till it is entirely melted and begins to simmer. Then let 
it rest till it boils up. 

If you set it on too hot a fire, it will be oily. 
If the butter and flour are not well mixed, it will be lumpy. 
If you put in too much water, it will be thin and poor. All these 
defects are to be carefully avoided. 

In melting butter for sweet or pudding sauce, you may use milk instead 

of water. 

TARTARE SAUCE. 

THE raw yolks of two eggs, half a teacupful of pure olive oil, three 
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, one of made mustard, one teaspoonful of sugar, 
a quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper, one teaspoonful of salt, one of onion 
juice, one tablespoonful of chopped capers, one of chopped cucumber 
pickle. Put together the same as mayonnaise dressing, adding the 
chopped ingredients the last thing. 

This sauce is good for fried or boiled fish, boiled tongue, fish salad, and 
may be used with fried and broiled meats. 

EGG SAUCE, OR WHITE SAUCE. 

Mix two tablespoonfuls of sifted flour with half a teacup of warm but- 
ter. Place over the fire a saucepan containing a pint of sweet milk and a 
saltspoon of salt, and a dash of white pepper ; when it reaches the boiling 
point, add the butter and flour, stirring briskly until it thickens and 
becomes like cream. Have ready three cold hard-boiled eggs, sliced and 

(149) 



150 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 

chopped, add them to the sauce; let them heat through thoroughly, and 
serve in a boat. If you have plenty of cream, use it and omit the butter 
By omitting the eggs, you have the same as "White Sauce." 

OYSTER SAUCE. 

TAKE a pint of oysters and heat them in their own liquor long enough 
to come to a boil, or until they begin to ruffle. Skim out the oysters into 
a warm dish, put into the liquor a teacup of milk or cream, two table- 
spoonfuls of cold butter, a pinch of cayenne and salt; thicken with a table- 
spoonful of flour stirred to a paste, boil up and then add the oysters. 

Oyster sauce is used for fish, boiled turkey, chickens and boiled white 
meats of most kinds. 

LOBSTER SAUCE, 

PUT the coral and spawn of a boiled lobster into a mortar with a table- 
spoonful of butter; pound it to a smooth mass, then rub it through a 
sieve; melt nearly a quarter of a pound of sweet butter, with a wineglass 
of water or vinegar; add a teaspoonful of made mustard, stir in the coral 
and spawn, and a little salt and pepper; stir it until it is smooth and 
serve. Some of the meat of the lobster may be chopped fine and stirred 
into it. 

SAUCE FOR SALMON AND OTHER FISH. 

ONE cupful of milk heated to a boil and thickened with a tablespoonful 
of cornstarch previously wet up with cold water, the liquor from the sal- 
mon, one great spoonful of butter, one raw egg beaten light, the juice of 
half a lemon, mace and cayenne pepper to taste. Add the egg to thick- 
ened milk when you have stirred in the butter and liquor; take from the 
fire, season and let it stand in hot water three minutes, covered. Lastly 
put in lemon juice and turn out immediately. Pour it all over and around 

the salmon. 

SAUCE FOR BOILED COD. 

To ONE gill of boiling water add as much milk; stir into this while boil- 
ing two tablespoonfuls of butter gradually, one tablespoonful of flour wet 
up with cold water; as it thickens, the chopped yolk of one boiled egg, and 
one raw egg beaten light. Take directly from the fire, season with pepper, 
salt, a little chopped parsley and the juice of one lemon, and set covered 
in boiling water (but not over fire) five minutes, stirring occasionally. 
Pour part of the sauce over fish when dished; the rest in a boat. Serve 
mashed potatoes with it. 



SA UGES AND DRESSINGS. 151 

FISH SAUCE. No. 1. 

MAKE a pint of drawn butter, add one tablespoonful of pepper sauce or 
Worcestershire sauce, a little salt and six hard-boiled eggs chopped fine. 
Pour over boiled fish and garnish with sliced lemon. Very nice. 

FISH SAUCE. No. 2. 

HALF a cupful of melted butter, half a cupful of vinegar, two table- 
spoonfuls of tomato catsup, salt, and a tablespoonful of made mustard. 
Boil ten minutes. 

CELERY SAUCE. 

Mix two tablespoonfuls of flour with half a teacupful of butter; have 
ready a pint of boiling milk; stir the flour and butter into the milk; take 
three heads of celery, cut into small bits, and boil for a few minutes in 
water, which strain off; put the celery into the melted butter, and keep it 
stirred over the fire for five or ten minutes. This is very nice with boiled 
fowl or turkey. Another way to make celery sauce is: Boil a head of 
celery until quite tender, then put it through a sieve; put the yolk of an 
egg in a basin, and beat it well with the strained juice of a lemon; add the 
celery and a couple of spoonfuls of liquor in which the turkey was boiled; 
salt and pepper to taste. 

CAPER SAUCE. 

CHOP the capers a very little, unless quite small; make half a pint of 
drawn butter, to which add the capers, with a large spoonful of the juice 
from the bottle in which they are sold; let it just simmer, and serve in a 
tureen. Nasturtiums much resemble capers in taste, though larger, and 
may be used, and, in fact, are preferred by many. They are grown on a 
climbing vine, and are cultivated for their blossom and for pickling. 
When used as capers they should be chopped more. If neither capers nor 
nasturtiums are at hand, some pickles chopped up form a very good substi- 
tute in the sauce. 

BREAD SAUCE. 

ONE cup of stale bread crumbs, one onion, two ounces of butter, pepper 
and salt, a little mace. Cut the onion fine, and boil it in milk till quite 
soft; then strain the milk on to the stale bread crumbs, and let it stand an 
hour. Put it in a saucepan with the boiled onion, pepper, salt and mace. 
Give it a boil, and serve in sauce tureen. This sauce can also be used for 
grouse, and is very nice. Roast partridges are nice served with bread 



152 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 

crumbs, fried brown in butter, with cranberry or currant jelly laid beside 
them in the platter. 

TOMATO SAUCE. 

TAKE a quart can of tomatoes, put it over the fire in a stewpan, put in 
one slice of onion and two cloves, a little pepper and salt; boil about twenty 
minutes; then remove from the fire and strain it through a sieve. Now 
melt in another pan an ounce of butter, and as it melts, sprinkle in a table- 
spoonful of flour; stir it until it browns and froths a little. Mix the tomato 
pulp with it, and it is ready for the table. 

Excellent for mutton chops, roast beef, etc. 

ONION SAUCE. 

WORK together until light a heaping tablespoonful of flour and half a 
cupful of butter, and gradually add two cups of boiling milk; stir constantly 
until it conies to a boil; then stir into that four tender boiled onions that 
have been chopped fine. Salt and pepper to taste. Serve with boiled veal, 
poultry or mutton. 

CHILI SAUCE. 

BOIL together two dozen ripe tomatoes, three small green peppers, or a 
half teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, one onion cut fine, half a cup of sugar. 
Boil until thick; then add two cups of vinegar; then strain the whole, set 
back on the fire and add a tablespoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful each of 
ginger, allspice, cloves and cinnamon; boil all five minutes, remove and 
seal in glass bottles. This is very nice. 

MINT SAUCE. 

TAKE fresh young spearmint leaves stripped from the stems; wash and 
drain them, or dry on a cloth. Chop very fine, put in a gravy boat, and to 
three tablespoonfuls of mint put two of white sugar; mix and let it stand 
a few minutes, then pour over it six tablespoonfuls of good cider or white- 
wine vinegar. The sauce should be made some time before it is to be used, 
so that the flavor of the mint may be well extracted. Fine with roast 
lamb. 

SHARP BROWN SAUCE. 

PUT in a saucepan one tablespoonful of chopped onion, three table- 
spoonfuls of good cider vinegar, six tablespoonfuls of water, three of tomato 
catsup, a little pepper and salt, half a cup of melted butter, in which stir 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 153 

a tablespoonful of sifted flour; put all together and boil until it thickens. 
This is most excellent with boiled meats, fish and poultry. 

BECHAMEL SAUCE. 

PUT three tablespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan; add three table- 
spoonfuls of sifted flour, quarter of a teaspoonful of nutmeg, ten pepper- 
corns, a teaspoonful of salt; beat all well together; then add to this three 
slices of onion, two slices of carrot, two sprigs of parsley, two of thyme, a 
bay leaf and half a dozen mushrooms cut up. Moisten the whole with a 
pint of stock or water and a cup of sweet cream. Set it on the stove and 
cook slowly for half of an hour, watching closely that it does not burn; then 
strain through a sieve. Most excellent with roast veal, meats and fish. 

St. Charles Hotel, New Orleans. 

MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE. 

MAKE a teacupful of drawn butter; add to it the juice of a lemon, two 
tablespoonfuls of minced onion, three tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, a 
teaspoonful of powdered thyme or summer savory, a pinch of cayenne and 
salt.. Simmer over the fire and stir well. Excellent with all kinds of fish. 

WINE SAUCE FOR GAME. 

HALF a glass of currant jelley, half a glass of port wine, half a glass of 
water, a tablespoonful of cold butter, a teaspoonful of salt, the juice of half 
a lemon, a pinch of cayenne pepper and three cloves. Simmer all together 
a few minutes, adding the wine after it is strained. A few spoonfuls of the 
gravy from the game may be added to it. This sauce is especially nice 
with venison. 

Tabor House, Denver. 
HOLLANDAISE SAUCE. 

HALF a teacupful of butter, the juice of half a lemon, the yolk of two 
eggs, a speck of cayenne pepper, half a cupful of boiling water, half a tea- 
spoonful of salt; beat the butter to a cream, add the yolks of eggs one by 
one; then the lemon juice, pepper and salt, beating all thoroughly; place 
the bowl in which is the mixture in a saucepan of boiling water; beat 
with an egg-beater until it begins to thicken which will be in about a min - 
ute; then add the boiling water, beating all the time; stir until it begins to 
thicken like soft custard; stir a few minutes after taking from the fire; be 
careful not to cook it too long. This is very nice with baked fish. 

Miss Parloa. 



154 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 

CURRANT JELLY SAUCE. 

THREE tablespoonfuls of butter, one onion, one bay leaf, one sprig 4 of 
celery, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, half a cupful of currant jelly, one 
tablespoonf ul of flour, one pint of stock, salt, pepper. Cook the butter and 
onion until the latter begins to color. Add the flour and herbs. Stir until 
brown; add the stock, and simmer twenty minutes. Strain and skim off 
all the fat. Add the jelly and stir over the fire until it is melted. Serve 
with game. 

BROWN SAUCE. 

DELICIOUS sauce for meats is made in this way: Slice a large onion and 
fry in butter till it is brown; then cover the onion with rich brown gravy, 
which is left from roast beef; add mustard, salt and pepper, and if you 
choose a tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce ; let this boil up, and if too 
thick, thin it with a little stock or gravy, or even a little hot water with 
butter. Pour this when done through a fine sieve. Of course a larger 
quantity can be prepared at once than is mentioned here. 

MUSHROOM SAUCE. 

WASH a pint of small button mushrooms, remove the stems and outside 
skins, stew them slowly in veal gravy or milk or cream, adding an onion, 
and seasoning with pepper, salt and a little butter rolled in flour. Their 
flavor will be heightened by salting a few the night before, to extract the 
juice. In dressing mushrooms, only those of a dull pearl color on the out- 
side and the under part tinged with pale pink should be selected. If there 
is a poisonous one among them, the onion in the sauce will turn black. 
In such a case throw the whole away. Used for poultry, beef or fish. 

APPLE SAUCE. 

WHEN you wish to serve apple sauce with meat prepare it in this way: 
Cook the apples until they are very tender, then stir them thoroughly so 
there will be no lumps at all; add the sugar and a little gelatine dissolved 
in warm water, a tablespoonful in a pint of sauce; pour the sauce into 
bowls, and when cold it will be stiff like jelly, and can be turned out on a 
plate. Cranberry sauce can be treated in the same way. Many prefer 
this to plain stewing. 

Apples cooked in the following way look very pretty on a tea-table, 
and are appreciated by the palate. Select firm, round greenings; pare 
neatly and cut in halves; place in a shallow stewpan with sufficient boiling 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 155 

water to cover them, and a cupful of sugar to every six apples. Each half 
should cook on the bottom of the pan, and be removed from the others so 
as not to injure its shape. Stew slowly until the pieces are very tender ; 
remove to a dish carefully; boil the syrup half an hour longer; pour it 
over the apples and eat cold. A few pieces of lemon boiled in the syrup 
adds to the flavor. These sauces are a fine accompaniment to roast pork 
or roast goose. 

CIDER APPLE SAUCE. 

BOIL four quarts of new cider until it is reduced to two quarts; then put 
into it enough pared and quartered apples to fill the kettle; let the whole 
stew over a moderate fire four hours; add cinnamon if liked. This sauce 
is very fine with almost any kind of meat. 

OLD-FASHIONED APPLE SAUCE. 

PARE and chop a dozen medium-sized apples, put them in a deep pud- 
ding-dish; sprinkle over them a heaping coffee-cupful of sugar and one of 
water. Place them in the oven and bake slowly two hours or more, or 
until they are a deep red brown; quite as nice as preserves. 

CRANBERRY SAUCE. 

ONE quart of cranberries, two cupfuls of sugar and a pint of water. 
Wash the cranberries, then put them on the fire with the water, but in a 
covered saucepan. Let them simmer until each cranberry bursts open; 
then remove the cover of the saucepan, add the sugar and let them all boil 
twenty minutes without the cover. The cranberries must never be stirred 
from the time they are placed on the fire. This is an unfailing recipe for 
a most delicious preparation of cranberries. Very fine with turkey and 
game. . 

APPLE OMELET. 

APPLE omelet, to be served with broiled sparerib or roast pork, is very 
delicate. Take nine large, tart apples, four eggs, one cup of sugar, one 
tablespoonful of butter; add cinnamon or other spices to suit your taste; 
stew the apples till they are very soft; mash them so that there will be no 
lumps; add the butter and sugar while they are still warm; but let them 
cool before putting in the beaten eggs; bake this till it is brown; you may 
put it all in a shallow pudding-dish or in two tin plates to bake. Very 
good. 



156 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 

FLAVORED VINEGARS. 

ALMOST all the flavorings used for meats and salads may be prepared in 
vinegar with little trouble and expense, and will be found useful to impart 
an acid to flavors when lemons are not at hand. 

Tarragon, sweet basil, burnet, green mint, sage, thyme, sweet marjoram, 
etc., may be prepared by putting three ounces of either of these herbs, 
when in blossom, into one gallon of sharp vinegar; let stand ten days, 
strain off clear, and bottle for use. 

Celery and cayenne may be prepared, using three ounces of the seed as 
above. 

CUCUMBER VINEGAR. 

Ingredients. Ten large cucumbers, or twelve smaller ones, one quart of 
vinegar, two onions, two shallots, one tablespoonful of salt, two tablespoon- 
fills of pepper, a quarter of a teaspoonful of cayenne. 

Mode. Pare and slice the cucumbers, put them in a stone jar, or wide- 
mouthed bottle, with the vinegar; slice the onions and shallots, and add 
them, with all the other ingredients, to the cucumbers. Let it stand four 
or five days; boil it all up, and when cold, strain the liquor through a piece 
of muslin, and store it away in small bottles well sealed. This vinegar is 
a very nice addition to gravies, hashes, etc., as well as a great improvement 
to salads, or to eat with cold meat. 

CURRY POWDER. 

To MAKE curry powder, take one ounce of ginger, one ounce of mustard, 
one ounce of pepper, three ounces of coriander seed, three ounces of tur- 
meric, half an ounce of cardamoms, one-quarter ounce of cayenne pepper, 
one-quarter ounce of cinnamon, and one-quarter ounce of cumin seed. 
Pound all these ingredients very fine in a mortar; sift them and cork tight 
in a bottle. 

This can be had already prepared at most druggists, and it is much less 
trouble to purchase it than to make it at home. 

CURRY SAUCE. 

ONE tablespoonful of butter, one of flour, one teaspoonful of curry pow- 
der, one large slice of onion, one large cupful of stock, salt and pepper to 
taste. Cut the onion fine, and fry brown in the butter. Add the flour and 
curry powder. Stir for one minute, add the stock and season with the salt 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 157 

and pepper. Simmer five minutes; then strain and serve. This sauce can 
be served with a broil or saute of meat or fish. 

TO BROWN BUTTER. 

PUT a lump of butter into a hot frying pan and toss it about until it 
browns. Stir brown flour into it until it is smooth and begins to boil. Use 
it for coloring gravies, and sauces for meats. 

TO BROWN FLOUR. 

SPREAD flour upon a tin pie-plate, set it upon the stove or in a very hot 
oven, and stir continually, after it begins to color, until it is brown all 
through. 

Keep it always on hand; put away in glass jars covered closely. It is 
excellent for coloring and thickening many dishes. 

TO MAKE MUSTARD. 

BOIL some vinegar; take four spoonfuls of mustard, half of a teaspoon- 
ful of sugar, a saltspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of melted butter; mix 

well. 

FRENCH MUSTARD. 

PHREE tablespoon fuls of mustard, one tablespoonful of granulated sugar, 
well worked together, then beat in an egg until it is smooth; add one tea- 
cupful of vinegar, a little at a time, working it all smooth; then set on the 
stove and cook three or four minutes, stirring all the time; when cool, add 
*>ne tablespoonful of the best olive oil, taking care to. get it all thoroughly 
worked in and smooth. You will find this very nice. 

Mrs. D. Riegel. 
KITCHEN PEPPER. 

Mix one ounce of ground ginger, half an ounce each of black pepper, 
ground cinnamon, nutmeg and allspice, one teaspoonful of ground cloves, 
and six ounces of salt. Keep in a tightly corked bottle. 

The Caterer. 
PREPARED COCOANUT. (For Pies, Puddings, etc.) 

To PREPARE cocoanut for future use, first cut a hole through the meat 
at one of the holes in the end, draw off the milk, then loosen the meat by 
pounding the nut well on all sides. Crack the nut and take out the meat, 
and place the pieces of meat in a cool open oven over night, or for a few 
hours, to dry; then grate it. If there is more grated than is needed for 



158 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 

present use, sprinkle it with sugar, and spread out in a cool dry place. 
When dry enough put away in dry cans or bottles. Will keep for weeks. 

SPICES. 

GINGER is the root of a shrub first known in Asia, and now cultivated in 
the West Indies and Sierra Leone. The stem grows three or four feet 
high and dies every year. There are two varieties of ginger the white 
and black caused by taking more or less care in selecting and preparing 
the roots, which are always dug in winter, when the stems are withered. 
The white is the best. 

Cinnamon is the inner bark of a beautiful tree, a native of Ceylon, that 
grows from twenty to thirty feet in height and lives to be centuries old. 

Cloves. Native to the Molucca Islands, and so called from resem- 
blance to a nail (clavis). The East Indians call them "changkek," from the 
Chinese "techengkia" (fragrant nails). They grow on a straight, smooth- 
barked tree, about forty feet high. Cloves are not fruits, but blossoms, 
gathered before they are quite unfolded. 

Allspice. A berry so called because it combines the flavor of several 
spices grows abundantly on the allspice or bay berry tree; native of South 
America and the West Indies. A single tree has been known to produce 
one hundred and fifty pounds of berries. They are purple when ripe. 

Black pepper is made by grinding the dried berry of a climbing vine, 
native to the East Indies. White pepper is obtained from the same ber- 
ries, freed from their husk or rind. Ked or cayenne pepper is obtained by 
grinding the scarlet pod or seed-vessel of a tropical plant that is now culti- 
vated in all parts of the world. 

Nutmeg is the kernel of a small, smooth, pear-shaped fruit that grows 
on a tree in the Molucca Islands, and other parts of the East. The trees 
commence bearing in the seventh year, and continue fruitful until they are 
seventy or eighty years old. Around the nutmeg or kernel is a bright, 
brown shell. This shell has a soft, scarlet covering, which, w T hen flattened 
out and dried, is known as mace. The best nutmegs are solid, and emit 
oil when pricked with a pin. 

HERBS FOR WINTER. 

To PREPARE herbs for winter use, such as sage, summer savory, thyme, 
mint or any of the sweet herbs, they should be gathered fresh in their sea- 
son, or procure them from the market. Examine them well, throwing out 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS, 159 

all poor sprigs; then wash and shake them; tie into small bundles, and tie 
over the bundles a piece of netting or old lace (to keep off the dust) ; hang 
up in a warm, dry place, the leaves downward. In a few days the herb 
will be thoroughly dry and brittle. Or you may place them in a cool oven, 
and let them remain in it until perfectly dry. Then pick off all the 
leaves and the tender tops of the stems ; put them in a clean, large- 
mouthed bottle that is perfectly dry. When wanted for use, rub fine, and 
sift through a sieve. It is much better to put them in bottles as soon 
as dried, as long exposure to the air causes them to lose strength and 
flavor. 

MEATS AND THEIR ACCOMPANIMENTS. 

WITH roast beef: tomato sauce, grated horse-radish, mustard, cranberry 

sauce, pickles. 

With roast pork: apple sauce, cranberry sauce. 

With roast veal: tomato sauce, mushroom sauce, onion sauce and cran- 
berry sauce. Horse-radish and lemons are good. 
With roast mutton: currant jelly, caper sauce. 
With boiled mutton: onion sauce, caper sauce. 
With boiled fowls: bread sauce, onion sauce, lemon sauce, cranberry 

sauce, jellies. Also cream sauce. 
With roast lamb: mint sauce. 
With roast turkey: cranberry sauce, currant jelly. 
With boiled turkey: oyster sauce. 
With venison or wild ducks: cranberry sauce, currant jelly, or currant jelly 

warmed with port wine. 

With roast goose: apple sauce, cranberry sauce, grape or currant jelly. 
With boiled fresh mackerel: stewed gooseberries. 
With boiled blue fish: white cream sauce, lemon sauce. 
With broiled shad: mushroom sauce, parsley or egg sauce. 
With fresh salmon: green peas, cream sauce. 

Pickles are good with all roast meats, and in fact are suitable accom- 
paniments to all kinds of meats in general. 

Spinach is the proper accompaniment to veal; green peas to lamb. 

Lemon juice makes a very grateful addition to nearly all the insipid 
members of the fish kingdom. Slices of lemon cut into very small dice 
and stirred into drawn butter and allowed to come to the boiling point, 
served with fowls, is a fine accompaniment. 



160 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS. 

VEGETABLES APPROPRIATE TO DIFFERENT DISHES. 

POTATOES are good with all meats. With fowls they are nicest mashed. 
Sweet potatoes are most appropriate with roast meats, as also are onions, 
winter squash, cucumbers and asparagus. 

Carrots, parsnips, turnips, greens and cabbage are generally eaten with 
boiled meat, and corn, beets, peas and beans are appropriate to either 
boiled or roasted meat. Mashed turnip is good with roast pork and with 
boiled meats. Tomatoes are good with almost every kind of meats, espe- 
cially with roasts. 

WARM DISHES FOR BREAKFAST. 

THE following of hot breakfast dishes may be of assistance in knowing 
what to provide for the comfortable meal called breakfast. 

Broiled beefsteak, broiled chops, broiled chicken, broiled fish, broiled 
quail on toast, fried pork tenderloins, fried pig's feet, fried oysters, fried 
clams, fried liver and bacon, fried chops, fried pork, ham and eggs fried, 
veal cutlets breaded, sausages, fricasseed tripe, fricasseed kidneys, turkey or 
chicken hash, corn beef hash, beef croquettes, codfish balls, creamed codfish, 
stewed meats on toast, poached eggs on toast, omelettes, eggs boiled plain, 
and eggs cooked in any of the various styles. 

VEGETABLES FOR BREAKFAST. 

POTATOES in any of the various modes of cooking, also stewed tomatoes, 
stewed corn, raw radishes, cucumbers sliced, tomatoes sliced raw, water 
cress, lettuce. 

To be included with the breakfast dishes: oatmeal mush, cracked 
wheat, hominy or corn-meal mush, these with cream, milk and sugar or 
syrup. 

Then numberless varieties of bread can be selected, in form of rolls, 
fritters, muffins, waffles, corn-cakes, griddle-cakes, etc., etc. 

For beverages, coffee, chocolate and cocoa, or tea if one prefers it; these 
are all suitable for the breakfast table. 

When obtainable always fyave a vase of choice flowers on the breakfast 
table; also some fresh fruit, if convenient. 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS SALADS. 161 



SALADS. 

EVERYTHING in the make-up of a salad should be of the freshest mate- 
rial, the vegetables crisp and fresh, the oil or butter the very best, meats, 
fowl and fish well cooked, pure cider or white wine vinegar in fact, every 
ingredient first class, to insure success. 

The vegetables used in salad are: Beet-root, onions, potatoes, cabbage, 
lettuce, celery, cucumbers, lentils, haricots, winter cress, peas, French 
beans, radish, cauliflower all these may be used judiciously in salad, if 
properly seasoned, according to the following directions. 

Chervil is a delicious salad herb, invariably found in all salads prepared 
by a French gourmet. No man can be a true epicure who is unfamiliar 
with this excellent herb. It may be procured from the vegetable stands 
at Fulton and Washington markets the year round. Its leaves resemble 
parsley, but are more divided, and a few of them added to a breakfast salad 
give a delightful flavor. 

Chervil Vinegar. A few drops of this vinegar added to fish sauces or 
salads is excellent, and well repays the little trouble taken in its prepara- 
tion. Half fill a bottle with fresh or dry chervil leaves; fill the bottle with 
good vinegar and heat it gently by placing it in warm water, which bring 
to boiling point; remove from the fire; when cool cork, and in two weeks 
it will be ready for use. 

MAYONNAISE DRESSING. 

PUT the yolks of four fresh raw eggs, with two hard-boiled ones, into a 
cold bowl. Rub these as smooth as possible before introducing the oil; a 
good measure of oil is a tablespoonful to each yolk of raw egg. All the 
art consists in introducing the oil by degrees, a few drops at a time. You 
can never make a good salad without taking plenty of time. When the 
oil is well mixed, and assumes the appearance of jelly, put in two heaping 
teaspoonfuls of dry table salt, one of pepper and one of made mustard. 
Never put in salt and pepper before this stage of the process, because the 
salt and pepper would coagulate the albumen of the eggs, and you could 
not get the dressing smooth. Two tablespoonfuls of vinegar added grad- 
ually. 

The Mayonnaise should be the thickness of thick cream when finished, 

but if it looks like curdling when mixing it, set in the ice-box or in a cold 
11 



162 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS SALADS. 

t 

place for about forty minutes or an hour, then mix it again. It is a good 
idea to place it in a pan of cracked ice while mixing. 

For lobster salad, use the coral, mashed and pressed through a sieve, 
then add to the above. 

Salad dressing should be kept in a separate bowl in a cold place, and 
not mixed with the salad until the moment it is to be served, or it may 
lose its crispness and freshness. 

DRESSING FOR COLD SLAW. (Cabbage Salad.) 

BEAT up two eggs with two tablespoonfuls of sugar, add a piece of but- 
ter the size of half an egg, a teaspoonful of mustard, a little pepper, and 
lastly a teacup of vinegar. Put all these ingredients into a dish over the 
fire and cook like a soft custard. Some think it improved by adding half 
a cupful of thick sweet cream to this dressing ; in that case use less vine- 
gar. Either way is very fine. 

SALAD CREAM DRESSING. No. 1. 

ONE cup fresh cream, one spoonful fine flour, the whites of two eggs 
beaten stiff, three spoonfuls of vinegar, two spoonfuls of salad oil or soft 
butter, two spoonfuls of powdered sugar, one teaspoonful salt, one-half tea- 
spoonful pepper, one teaspoonful of made mustard. Heat cream almost to 
boiling; stir in the flour, previously wet with cold milk; boil two minutes, 
stirring all the time ; add sugar and take from fire. When half cold, beat 
in whipped whites of egg ; set aside to cool. When quite cold, whip in 
the oil or butter, pepper, mustard and salt ; if the salad is ready, add vine- 
gar and pour at once over it. 

CREAM DRESSING. No. 2. 

Two tablespoonfuls of whipped sweet cream, two of sugar and four of 
vinegar; beat well and pour over the cabbage, previously cut very fine 
and seasoned with salt. 

FRENCH SALAD DRESSING. 

Mix one saltspoon of pepper with one of salt ; add three tablespoonfuls 
of olive oil and one even tablespoonful of onion scraped fine ; then one 
tablespoonful of vinegar ; when well mixed, pour the mixture over your 
salad and stir all till well mingled. 

The merit of a salad is that it should be cool, fresh and crisp. For 
vegetables use only the delicate white stalks of celery, the small heart- 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS SALADS. 163 

leaves of lettuce, or tenderest stalks and leaves of the white cabbage. 
Keep the vegetable portions crisp and fresh until the time for serving, 
when add the meat. For chicken and fish salads use the "Mayonnaise 
dressing." For simple vegetable salads the French dressing is most appro- 
priate, using onion rather than garlic. 

MIXED SUMMER SALAD. 

THREE heads of lettuce, two teaspoonfuls of green mustard leaves, a 
handful of water cresses, five tender radishes, one cucumber, three hard- 
boiled eggs, two teaspoonfuls of white sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, one 
teaspoonful of pepper, one teaspoonful of made mustard, one teacupful of 
vinegar, half a teacupful of oil. 

Mix all well together, and serve with a lump of ice in the middle. 

"Common Sense in the Household." 

CHICKEN SALAD. 

BOIL the fowls tender and remove all the fat, gristle and skin; mince 
the meat in small pieces, but do not hash it. To one chicken put twice 
and a half its weight in celery, cut in pieces of about one-quarter of an 
inch; mix thorougly and set it in a cool place the ice chest. 

In the meantime prepare a " Mayonnaise dressing," and when ready for 
the table pour this dressing over the chicken and celery, tossing and mix- 
ing it thoroughly. Set it in a cool place until ready to serve. Garnish 
with celery tips, or cold hard-boiled eggs, lettuce leaves, from the heart', 
cold boiled beets or capers, olives. 

Crisp cabbage is a good substitute for celery; when celery is not to be 
had use celery vinegar in the dressing. Turkey makes a fine salad. 

LOBSTER SALAD. No. 1. 

PREPARE a sauce with the coral of a fine, new lobster, boiled fresh for 
about half an hour. Pound and rub it smooth, and mix very gradually 
with a dressing made from the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs, a tablespoon- 
f ul of made mustard, three of salad oil, two of vinegar, one of white pow- 
dered sugar, a small teaspoonful of salt, as much black pepper, a pinch of 
cayenne and yolks of two fresh eggs. Next fill your salad bowl with some 
shred lettuce, the better part of two leaving the small curled centre to 
garnish your dish with. Mingle with this the flesh of your lobster, torn, 
broken or cut into bits seasoned with salt and pepper and a small portion 
of tiie dressing. Pour over the whole the rest of the dressing; put your 



164 SA UCES AND DRESSINGS SALADS. 

lettuce-hearts down the centre and arrange upon the sides slices of hard- 
boiled eggs. 

LOBSTER SALAD. No. 2. 

USING canned lobsters, take a can, skim off all the oil on the surface, 
and chop the meat up coarsely on a flat dish. Prepare the same way six 
heads of celery; mix a teaspoonful of mustard into a smooth paste with a 
little vinegar; add yolks of two fresh eggs; a tablespoonful of butter, 
creamed, a small teaspoonful of salt, the same of pepper, a quarter of a 
teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, a gill of vinegar, and the mashed yolks of 
two hard-boiled eggs. Mix a small portion of the dressing with the celery 
and meat, and turn the remainder over all. Garnish with the green tops 
of celery and a hard-boiled egg, cut into thin rings. 

FISH SALAD. 

TAKE a fresh white fish or trout, boil and chop it, but not too fine; put 
with the same quantity of chopped cabbage, celery or lettuce; season the 
same as chicken salad. Garnish with the tender leaves of the heart of let- 
tuce. 

OYSTER SALAD. 

DRAIN the liquor from a quart of fresh oysters. Put them in hot vine- 
gar enough to cover them placed over the fire; let them remain until 
plump, but not cooked; then drop them immediately in cold water, drain 
off, and mix with them two pickled cucumbers cut fine, also a quart of cel- 
ery cut in dice pieces, some seasoning of salt and pepper. Mix all well to- 
gether, tossing up with a silver fork. Pour over the whole a " Mayonnaise 
dressing." Garnish with celery tips and slices of hard-boiled eggs arranged 
tastefully. 

DUTCH SALAD. 

WASH, split and bone a dozen anchovies, and roll each one up; wash, 
split and bone one herring, and cut it up into small pieces; cut up into dice 
an equal quantity of Bologna or Lyons sausage, or of smoked ham and sau- 
sages; also, an equal quantity of the breast of cold roast fowl, or veal; add 
likewise, always in the same quantity, and cut into dice, beet-roots, pickled 
cucumbers, cold boiled potatoes cut in larger dice, and in quantity accord- 
ing to taste, but at least thrice as much potato as anything else; add a 
tablespoonful of capers, the yolks and whites of some hard-boiled eggs, 
minced separately, and a dozen stoned olives; mix all the ingredients well 
together, reserving the olives and anchovies to ornament the top of the 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS SALADS. 165 

bowl; beat up together oil and Tarragon vinegar with white pepper and 
French mustard to taste; pour this over the salad and serve. 

HAM SALAD. 

TAKE cold boiled ham, fat and lean together, chop it until it is thor- 
oughly mixed and the pieces are about the size of peas ; then add to this 
an equal quantity of celery cut fine; if celery is out of season, lettuce may 
be substituted. Line a dish thickly with lettuce leaves and fill with the 
chopped ham and celery. Make a dressing the same as for cold slaw and 
turn over the whole. Very fine. 

CRAB SALAD. 

BOIL three dozen hard-shell crabs twenty-five minutes ; drain and let 
them cool gradually ; remove the upper shell and the tail, break the 
remainder apart and pick out the meat carefully. The large claws should 
not be forgotten, for they contain a dainty morsel, and the creamy fat 
attached to the upper shell should not be overlooked. Line a salad bowl 
with the small white leaves of two heads of lettuce, add the crab meat, 
pour over it a " Mayonnaise " garnish with crab claws, hard-boiled eggs and 
little mounds of cress leaves, which may be mixed with the salad when 
served. 

COLD SLAW. 

SELECT the finest head of bleached cabbage that is to say, one of the 
finest and most compact of the more delicate varieties ; cut up enough 
into shreds to fill a large vegetable dish or salad bowl that to be regu- 
lated by the size of the cabbage and the quantity required ; shave very 
fine and after that chop up, the more thoroughly the better. Put this into 
a dish in which it is to be served, after seasoning it well with salt and 
pepper. Turn over it a dressing made as for cold slaw ; mix it well and 
garnish with slices of hard-boiled eggs. 

PLAIN COLD SLAW. 

SLICE cabbage very fine ; season with salt, pepper and a little sugar ; 
pour over vinegar and mix thoroughly. It is nice served in the centre of a 
platter with fried oysters around it. 

HOT SLAW. 

CUT the cabbage as for cold slaw ; put it into a stewpan and set it on 
the top of the stove for half an hour, or till hot all through ; do not let it 



166 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS SALADS. 

boil. Then make a dressing the same as for cold slaw, and, while hot, pour 
it over the hot cabbage. Stir it until well mixed and the cabbage looks 
coddled. Serve immediately. 

TOMATO SALAD. 

PEEL and slice twelve good, sound, fresh tomatoes; the slices about a 
quarter of an inch thick. Set them on the ice or in a refrigerator while 
you make the dressing. Make the same as "Mayonnaise," or you may use 
" Cream dressing." Take one head of the broad-leaved variety of lettuce, 
wash, and arrange them neatly around the sides of a salad bowl. Place 
the cold, sliced tomatoes in the centre. Pour over the dressing and serve. 

ENDIVE. 

THIS ought to be nicely blanched and crisp, and is the most wholesome 
of all salads. Take two, cut away the root, remove the dark green leaves, 
and pick off all the rest; wash and drain well, add a few chives. Dress 
with "Mayonnaise dressing." 

Endive is extensively cultivated for the adulteration of coffee; is also a 
fine relish, and has broad leaves. Endive is of the same nature as chicory, 
the leaves being curly. 

CELERY SALAD. 

PREPARE the dressing the same as for tomato salad; cut the celery into 
bits half an inch long, and season. Serve at once before the vinegar in- 
jures the crispness of the vegetables. 

LETTUCE SALAD. 

TAKE the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs, and salt and mustard to taste; 
mash it fine; make a paste by adding a dessertspoonful of olive oil or melted 
butter (use butter always when it is difficult to get fresh oil); mix thor- 
oughly, and then dilute by adding gradually a teacupful of vinegar, and 
pour over the lettuce. Garnish by slicing another egg and laying over the 
lettuce. This is sufficient for a moderate-sized dish of lettuce. 

POTATO SALAD, HOT. 

PARE six or eight large potatoes, and boil till done, and slice thin while 
hot; peel and cut up three large onions into small bits and mix with the 
potatoes; cut up some breakfast bacon into small bits, sufficient to fill a 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS SAL ADS. 167 

fceacup and fry it a light brown; remove the meat, and into the grease stir 
three tablespoonfuls of vinegar, making a sour gravy, which with the bacon 
pour over the potato and onion; mix lightly. To be eaten when hot. 

POTATO SALAD, COLD. 

CHOP cold boiled potatoes fine, with enough raw onions to season nicely; 
make a dressing as for lettuce salad, and pour over it. 

BEAN SALAD. 

STRING young beans; break into half-inch pieces or leave whole; wash and 
cook soft in salt water; drain well; add finely chopped onions, pepper, salt 
and vinegar; when cool, add olive oil or melted butter. 

TO DRESS CUCUMBERS RAW. 

THEY should be as fresh from the vine as possible, few vegetables being 
more unwholesome when long gathered. As soon as they are brought in, 
lay them in cold water. Just before they are to go to the table take them 
out, pare them and slice them into a pan of fresh cold water. When they 
are all sliced, transfer them to a deep dish; season them with a little salt 
and black pepper, and pour over them some of the best vinegar. You may 
mix with them a small quantity of sliced onions, not to be eaten, but to 
communicate a slight flavor of onion to the vinegar. 

CELERY UNDRESSED. 

CELERY is sometimes sent to the table without dressing. Scrape the 
outside stalks, and cut off the green tops and the roots; lay it in cold water 
until near the time to serve, then change the water, in which let it stand 
three or four minutes; split the stalks in three, with a sharp knife, being 
careful not to break them, and serve in goblet-shaped salad glasses. 

To crisp celery, let it lie in ice-water two hours before serving; to 
fringe the stalks, stick several coarse needles into a cork, and draw the 
stalk half way from the top through the needles several times and lay in 
the refrigerator to curl and crisp. 

RADISHES. 

ALL the varieties are generally served in the same manner, by scraping 
and placing on the table in glasses containing some cold water to keep 
them fresh looking. 



168 8 A UGES AND DRESSINGS CA TS UPS. 

PEPPERGRASS AND CRESS. 

THESE are used mostly as an appetizer, served simply with salt. Cresses 
are occasionally used in making salad. 

HORSE-RADISH. 

HOKSE-KADISH is an agreeable relish, and has a particularly fresh taste 
in the spring; is scraped fine or grated, and set on the table in a small cov- 
ered cup; much that is bottled and sold as horse-radish is adulterated with 
grated turnip. 

LETTUCE. 

WASH each leaf separately, breaking them from the head; crisp in ice- 
water and serve the leaves whole, to be prepared at table, providing hard- 
boiled eggs cut in halves or slices, oil and other ingredients, to be mixed 
at table to individual taste. 



CATSUPS. 

TOMATO CATSUP. No. 1. 

PUT into two quarts of tomato pulp (or two cans of canned tomatoes) 
one onion, cut fine, two tablespoonfuls of salt and three tablespoonfuls of 
brown sugar. Boil until quite thick; then take from the fire and strain it 
through a sieve, working it until it is all through but the seeds. Put it 
back on the stove, and add two tablespoonfuls of mustard, one of allspice, 
one of black pepper and one of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of ground 
cloves, half a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, one grated nutmeg, one pint 
of good vinegar; boil it until it will just run from the mouth of a bottle. 
It should be watched, stirred often, that it does not burn. If sealed tight 
while hot, in large-mouthed bottles, it will keep good for years. 

TOMATO CATSUP. No. 2. 

COOK one gallon of choice ripe tomatoes; strain them, and cook again 
until they become quite thick. About fifteen minutes before taking up 
put into them a small level teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, one table- 
spoonful of mustard seed, half a tablespoonful of whole cloves, one table- 
spoonful of w T hole allspice, all tied in a thin muslin bag. At the same 
time, add one heaping tablespoonful of sugar, and one teacupful of best 



SA UCES AND DRESSINGS CA TS UPS. 169 

vinegar and salt to suit the taste. Seal up air-tight, either in bottles or 
jugs. This is a valuable Southern recipe. 

GREEN TOMATO CATSUP. 

ONE peck of green tomatoes and two large onions sliced. Place them in 
layers, sprinkling salt between; let them stand twenty-four hours and then 
drain them. Add a quarter of a pound of mustard seed, one ounce allspice, 
one ounce cloves, one ounce ground mustard, one ounce ground ginger, 
two tablespoonf uls black pepper, two teaspoonf uls celery seed, a quarter of 
a pound of brown sugar. Put all in preserving-pan, cover with vinegar 
and boil two hours ; then strain through a sieve and bottle for use. 

WALNUT CATSUP. 

ONE hundred walnuts, six ounces of shallots, one head of garlic, half a 
pound of salt, two quarts of vinegar, two ounces of anchovies, two ounces 
of pepper, a quarter of an ounce of mace, half an ounce of cloves ; beat in 
a large mortar a hundred green walnuts until they are thoroughly broken; 
then put them into a jar with six ounces of shallots cut into pieces, a head 
of garlic, two quarts of vinegar and the half pound of salt ; let them stand 
for a fortnight, stirring them twice a day. Strain off the liquor, put into 
a stewpan with the anchovies, whole pepper, half an ounce of cloves and a 
quarter of an ounce of mace ; boil it half an hour, skimming it well. 
Strain it off, and, when cold, pour it clear from any sediment into small 
bottles, cork it down closely and store it in a dry place. The sediment 
can be used for flavoring sauces. 

OYSTER CATSUP. 

ONE pint of oyster meats, one teacupful of sherry, a tablespoonful of 
salt, a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, the same of powdered mace, a gill 
of cider vinegar. 

Procure the oysters very fresh and open sufficient to fill a pint meas- 
ure ; save the liquor and scald the oysters in it with the sherry ; strain 
the oysters and chop them fine with the salt, cayenne and mace, until 
reduced to a pulp ; then add it to the liquor in which they were scalded ; 
boil it again five minutes and skim well ; rub the whole through a sieve, 
and, when cold, bottle and cork closely. The corks should be sealed. 

MUSHROOM CATSUP. 

USE the larger kind known as umbrellas or "flaps." They must be 
very fresh and not gathered in very wet weather, or the catsup will be less 



170 $A UCES AND DRESSINGS CA T8 UPS. 

apt to keep. Wash and cut them in two to four pieces, and place them in 
a wide, flat jar or crock in layers, sprinkling each layer with salt, and let 
them stand for twenty-four hours; take them out and press out the juice, 
when bottle and cork; put the mushrooms back again, and in another 
twenty-four hours press them again; bottle and cork; repeat this for the 
third time, and then mix together all the juice extracted; add to it pepper, 
allspice, one or more cloves according to quantity, pounded together; boil 
the whole, and skim as long as any scum rises; bottle when cool; put in 
each bottle two cloves and a pepper-corn. Cork and seal, put in a dry 
place, and it will keep for years. 

GOOSEBERRY CATSUP. 

TEN pounds of fruit gathered just before ripening, five pounds of sugar, 
one quart of vinegar, two tablespoonfuls each of ground black pepper, all- 
spice and cinnamon. Boil the fruit in vinegar until reduced to a pulp, 
then add sugar and the other seasoning. Seal it hot. 

Grape catsup is made in the same manner. 

CUCUMBER CATSUP. 

TAKE cucumbers suitable for the table; peel and grate them, salt a little, 
and put in a bag to drain over night; in the morning season to taste with 
salt, pepper and vinegar, put in small jars and seal tight for fall or winter 

use. 

CURRANT CATSUP. 

FOUR pounds of currants, two pounds of sugar, one pint of vinegar, one 
teaspoonful of cloves, a tablespoonful of cinnamon, pepper and allspice. 
Boil in a porcelain saucepan until thoroughly cooked. Strain through a 
sieve all but the skins; boil down until just thick enough to run freely 
from the mouth of a bottle when cold. Cork and set aside. 

APPLE CATSUP. 

PEEL and quarter a dozen sound, tart apples; stew them until soft in as 
little water as possible, then pass them through a sieve. To a quart of the 
sifted apple, add a teacupful of sugar, one teaspoonful of pepper, one of 
cloves, one of mustard, two of cinnamon, and two medium-sized onions, 
chopped very fine. Stir all together, adding a tablespoonful of salt and a 
pint of vinegar. Place over the fire and boil one hour, and bottle while 
hot; seal very tight. It should be about as thick as tomato catsup, so that 
it will just run from the bottle, 



SAUCE 8 AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 171 

CELERY VINEGAR. 

A QUART of fresh celery, chopped fine, or a quarter of a pound of celery 
seed; one quart of best vinegar; one tablespoonful of salt, and one of white 
sugar. Put the celery or seed into a jar, heat the vinegar, sugar and salt; 
pour it boiling hot over the celery, let it cool, cover it tightly and set 
away. In two weeks strain and bottle. 

SPICED VINEGAR. 

TAKE one quart of cider vinegar, put into it half an ounce of celery seed, 
one-third of an ounce of dried mint, one-third of an ounce of dried parsley, 
one garlic, three small onions, three whole cloves, a teaspoonful of whole 
pepper-corns, a teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, salt to taste and a table- 
spoonful of sugar; add a tablespoonful of good brandy. Put all into a jar, 
and cover it well; let it stand for three weeks, then strain and bottle it 
well. Useful for flavoring salad and other dishes. 



PICKLES. 

PICKLES should never be put into vessels of brass, copper or tin, as the 
action of the acid on such metals often results in poisoning the pickles. 
Porcelain or granite-ware is the best for such purposes. 

Vinegar that is used for pickling should be the best cider or white- 
wine, and should never be boiled more than five or six minutes, as it re- 
duces its strength. In putting away pickles, use stone or glass jars; the 
glazing on common earthenware is rendered injurious by the action of the 
vinegar. When the jar is nearly filled with the pickles, the vinegar should 
completely cover them, and if there is any appearance of their not doing 
well, turn off the vinegar, cover with fresh vinegar and spices. Alum in 
small quantities is useful in making them firm and crisp. In using ground 
spices, tie them up in muslin bags. 

To green pickles, put green grape-vine leaves or green cabbage leaves 
between them when heating. Another way is to heat them in strong gin- 
ger tea. Pickles should be kept closely covered, put into glass jars and 
sealed tightly. 

" Turmeric " is India saffron, and is used very much in pickling as a 
coloring. 



172 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 

A piece of horse-radish put into a jar of pickles will keep the vinegar 
from losing its strength, and the pickles will keep sound much longer, 
especially tomato pickles. 

CUCUMBER PICKLES. 

SELECT the medium, small-sized cucumbers. For one bushel make a 
brine that will bear up an egg; heat it boiling hot and pour it over the 
cucumbers; let them stand twenty-four hours, then wipe them dry; heat 
some vinegar boiling hot and pour over them, standing again twenty-four 
hours. Now change the vinegar, putting on fresh vinegar, adding one 
quart of brown sugar, a pint of white mustard seed, a small handful of 
whole cloves, the same of cinnamon sticks, a piece of alum the size of an 
egg, half a cup of celery seed; heat it all boiling hot and pour over the 

cucumbers. 

i 

SLICED CUCUMBER PICKLE. 

TAKE one gallon of medium-sized cucumbers, put them into a jar or 
pail. Put into enough boiling water to cover them a small handful of salt, 
turn it over them and cover closely; repeat this three mornings, and the 
fourth morning scald enough cider vinegar to cover them, putting into it a 
piece of alum as large as a walnut, a teacup of horse-radish root cut up 
fine; then tie up in a small muslin bag, one teaspoonful of mustard, one of 
ground cloves, and one of cinnamon. Slice up the cucumbers half of an 
inch thick, place them in glass jars and pour the scalding vinegar over 
them. Seal tight and they will keep good a year or more. 

Mrs. Lydia C. Wright, South Vernon, Vermont. 

CUCUMBER PICKLES. (For Winter Use.) 

A GOOD way to put down cucumbers, a few at a time: 
When gathered from the vines, wash, and put in a firkin or half barrel 
layers of cucumbers and rock-salt alternately, enough salt to make suffi- 
cient brine to cover them, no water; cover with a cloth; keep them under 
the brine with a heavy board ; take off the cloth, and rinse it every time 
you put in fresh cucumbers, as a scum will rise and settle upon it. Use 
plenty of salt and it will keep a year. To prepare pickles for use, soak in 
hot water, and keep in a warm place until they are fresh enough, then 
pour spiced vinegar over them and let them stand over night, then pour 
that off and put on fresh. 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 173 

GREEN TOMATO PICKLES. (Sweet.) 

ONE peck of green tomatoes, sliced the day before you are ready for 
pickling, sprinkling them through and through with salt, not too heavily; 
in the morning drain off the liquor that will drain from them. Have a 
dozen good-sized onions rather coarsely sliced; take a suitable kettle and 
put in a layer of the sliced tomatoes, then of onions, and between each 
layer sprinkle the following spices: Six red peppers chopped coarsely, one 
cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of ground allspice, one tablespoonful of 
ground cinnamon, a teaspoonful of cloves, one tablespoonful of mustard. 
Turn over three pints of good vinegar, or enough to completely cover 
them; boil until tender. This is a choice recipe. 

If the flavor of onions is objectionable, the pickle is equally as good 
without them. 

GREEN TOMATO PICKLES. (Sour.) 

WASH and slice, without peeling, one peck of sound green tomatoes, put 
them into a jar in layers with a slight sprinkling of salt between. This 
may be done over night ; in the morning drain off the liquor that has 
accumulated. Have two dozen medium-sized onions peeled and sliced, 
also six red peppers chopped fine. Make some spiced vinegar by boiling 
for half an hour a quart of cider vinegar with whole spices in it. Now 
take a porcelain kettle and place in it some of the sliced tomatoes, then 
some of the sliced onions ; shake in some black pepper and some of the 
chopped red peppers ; pour over some of the spiced vinegar ; then repeat 
with the tomatoes, onions, etc., until the kettle is full ; cover with cold, 
pure cider vinegar and cook until tender, but not too soft. Turn into a 
jar well covered and set in a cool place. 

PICKLED MUSHROOMS. 

SUFFICIENT vinegar to cover the mushrooms ; to each quart of mush- 
rooms two blades pounded mace, one ounce ground pepper, salt to taste. 
Choose some nice young button mushrooms for pickling and rub off the 
skin with a piece of flannel and salt, and cut off the stalks ; if very large, 
take out the red inside, and reject the black ones, as they are too old. 
Put them in a stewpan, sprinkle salt over them, with pounded mace and 
pepper in the above proportion ; shake them well over a clear fire until 
the liquor flows and keep them there until it is all dried up again ; then 
add as much vinegar as will cover them; just let it simmer for one minute 
and store it away in stone jars for use. When cold', tie down with bladder 



174 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 

and keep in a dry place ; they will remain good for a length of time, and 
are generally considered excellent for flavoring stews and other dishes. 

PICKLED CABBAGE. (Purple.) 

CUT a sound cabbage into quarters, spread it on a large flat platter or 
dish and sprinkle thickly with salt; set it in a cool place for twenty-four 
hours; then drain off the brine, wipe it dry and lay it in the sun two 
hours, and cover with cold vinegar for twelve hours. Prepare a pickle by 
seasoning enough vinegar to cover the cabbage with equal quantities of 
mace, allspice, cinnamon and black pepper, a cup of sugar to every 
gallon of vinegar, and a teaspoonful of celery seed to every pint. Pack 
the cabbage in a stone jar; boil the vinegar and spices five minutes and 
pour on hot. Cover and set away in a cool, dry place. It will be good in 
a month. A few slices of beet-root improves the color. 

PICKLED WHITE CABBAGE. 

THIS recipe recommends itself as of a delightful flavor yet easily made, 
and a convenient substitute for the old-fashioned, tedious method of pick- 
ling the same vegetable. Take a peck of quartered cabbage, put a layer 
of cabbage and one of salt, let it remain over night; in the morning 
squeeze them and put them on the fire, with four chopped onions covered 
with vinegar; boil for half an hour, then add one ounce of turmeric, one 
gill of black pepper, one gill of celery seed, a few cloves, one tablespoonful 
of allspice, a few pieces of ginger, half an ounce of mace, and two pounds 
of brown sugar. Let it boil half an hour longer, and when cold it is fit for 
use. Four tablespoonfuls of made mustard should be added with the other 

ingredients. 

PICKLED CAULIFLOWER. 

BREAK the heads into small pieces and boil ten or fifteen minutes in 
salt and water; remove from the water and drain carefully. When cold, 
place in a jar, and pour over it hot vinegar, in which has been scalded a 
liberal supply of whole cloves, pepper, allspice and white mustard. Tie 
the spices in a bag, and, on removing the vinegar from the fire, stir into 
each quart of it two teaspoonfuls of French mustard, and half a cup of 
white sugar. Cover tightly and be sure to have the vinegar cover the 

pickle. 

PICKLED GREEN PEPPERS. 

TAKE two dozen large, green, bell peppers, extract the seeds by cutting 
a slit in the side (so as to leave them whole). Make a strong brine and 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 175 

pour over them; let them stand twenty-four hours. Take them out of the 
brine, and soak them in water for a day and a night; now turn off this 
water and scald some vinegar, in which put a small piece of alum, and pour 
over them, letting them stand three days. Prepare a stuffing of two hard 
heads of white cabbage, chopped fine, seasoned slightly with salt and a cup 
of white mustard seed; mix it well and stuff the peppers hard and full; 
stitch up, place them in a stone jar, and pour over spiced vinegar scalding 
hot. Cover tightly. 

GREEN PEPPER MANGOES. 

SELECT firm, sound, green peppers, and add a few red ones, as they are 
ornamental and look well upon the table. With a sharp knife remove the 
top, -take out the seed, soak over night in salt water, then fill with chopped 
cabbage and green tomatoes, seasoned with salt, mustard seed and ground 
cloves. Sew on the top. Boil vinegar sufficient to cover them, with a cup 
of brown sugar, and pour over the mangoes. Do this three mornings, then 
seal. 

CHOWCHOW. (Superior English Recipe.) 

THIS excellent pickle is seldom made at home, as we can get the im- 
ported article so much better than it can be made from the usual recipes. 
This we vouch for as being as near the genuine article as can be made: 
One quart of young, tiny cucumbers, not over two inches long, two quarts 
of very small white onions, two quarts of tender string beans, each one cut 
in halves, three quarts of green tomatoes, sliced and chopped very coarsely, 
two fresh heads of cauliflower, cut into small pieces, or two heads of white, 
hard cabbage. 

After preparing these articles, put them in a stone jar, mix them to- 
gether, sprinkling salt between them sparingly. Let them stand twenty- 
four hours, then drain off all the brine that has accumulated. Now put 
these vegetables in a preserving kettle over the fire, sprinkling through 
them an ounce of turmeric for coloring, six red peppers, chopped coarsely, 
four tablespoonfuls of mustard seed, two of celery seed, two of whole all- 
spice, two of whole cloves, a coffee cup of sugar, and two-thirds of a teacup 
of best ground mixed mustard. Pour on enough of the best cider vinegar 
to cover the whole well; cover tightly and simmer all well until it is 
cooked all through and seems tender, watching and stirring it often. Put 
in bottles or glass jars. It grows better as it grows older, especially if 
sealed when hot. 



176 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 

PICKLED ONIONS. 

PEEL small onions until they are white. Scald them in salt and water 
until tender, then take them up, put them into wide-mouthed bottles, and 
pour over them hot spiced vinegar; when cold, cork them close. Keep in 
a dry, dark place. A tablespoonful of sweet oil may be put in the bottles 
before the cork. The best sort of onions for pickling are the small white 
buttons. 

PICKLED MANGOES. 

LET the mangoes, or young musk-melons, lie in salt water, strong 
enough to bear an egg, for two weeks; then soak them in pure water for 
two days, changing the water two or three times; then remove -the seeds 
and put the mangoes in a kettle, first a layer of grape leaves, then man- 
goes, and so on until all are in, covering the top with leaves; add a lump 
of alum the size of a hickory nut; pour vinegar over them and boil them 
ten or fifteen minutes; remove the leaves and let the pickles stand in this 
vinegar for a week; then stuff them with the following mixture: One 
pound of ginger soaked in brine for a day or two, and cut in slices, one 
ounce of black pepper, one of mace, one of allspice, one of turmeric, half a 
pound of garlic, soaked for a day or two in brine and then dried; one pint 
grated horse-radish, one of black mustard seed and one of white mustard 
seed; bruise all the spices and mix with a teacup of pure olive oil; to each 
mango add one teaspoonful of brown sugar; cut one solid head of cabbage 
fine; add one pint of small onions, a few small cucumbers and green toma- 
toes; lay them in brine a day and a night, then drain them well and add 
the imperfect mangoes chopped fine and the spices; mix thoroughly, stuff 
the mangoes and tie them; put them in a stone jar and pour over them the 
best cider vinegar; set them in a bright, dry place until they are canned. 
In a month add three pounds of brown sugar; if this is not sufficient, add 
more until agreeable to taste. This is for four dozen mangoes. 

PICKLE OF RIPE CUCUMBERS. 

THIS is a French recipe and is the most excellent of all the high-flavored 
condiments ; it is made by sun-drying thirty old, full-grown cucumbers, 
which have first been pared and split, had the seeds taken out, been salted 
and let stand twenty-four hours. The sun should be permitted to dry, not 
simply drain, them. When they are moderately dry, wash them with vine- 
gar and place them in layers in a jar, alternating them with a layer of 
horse-radish, mustard seed, garlic and onions for each layer of cucumbers 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 177 

Boil in one quart of vinegar, one ounce of race ginger, half an ounce of 
allspice and the. same of turmeric; when cool pour this over the cucum- 
bers, tie up tightly and set away. This pickle requires several months to 
mature it, but is delicious when old, keeps admirably, and only a little is 
needed as a relish. 

PICKLED OYSTERS. 

ONE gallon of oysters ; wash them well in their own liquor ; carefully 
clear away the particles of shell, then put them into a kettle, strain the 
liquor over them, add salt to your taste, let them just come to the boiling 
point, or until the edges curl up ; then skim them out and lay in a dish to 
cool ; put a sprig of mace and a little cold pepper and allow the liquor to 
boil some time, skimming it now and then so long as any scum rises. 
Pour it into a pan and let it cool. When perfectly cool, add a half pint of 
strong vinegar, place the oysters in a jar and pour the liquor over them. 

RIPE CUCUMBER PICKLES. (Sweet.) 

PARE and seed ripe cucumbers. Slice each cucumber lengthwise into 
four pieces, or cut it into fancy shapes, as preferred. Let them stand 
twenty-four hours covered with cold vinegar. Drain them; then put them 
into fresh vinegar, with two pounds of sugar and one ounce of cassia buds 
to one quart of vinegar, and a tablespoonful of salt. Boil all together 
twenty minutes. Cover them closely in a jar. 

PICCALILI. 

ONE peck of green tomatoes; eight large onions chopped fine, with one 
cup of salt well stirred in. Let it stand over night; in the morning drain 
off all the liquor. Now take two quarts of water and one of vinegar, boil 
all together twenty minutes. Drain all through a sieve or colander. Put 
it back into the kettle again; turn over it two quarts of vinegar, one pound 
of sugar, half a pound of white mustard seed, two tablespoonf uls of ground 
pepper, two of cinnamon, one of cloves, two of ginger, one of allspice, and 
half a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper. Boil all together fifteen minutes or 
until tender. Stir it often to prevent scorching. Seal in glass jars. 

A most delicious accompaniment for any kind of meat or fish. 

Mrs. St. Johns. 
PICKLED EGGS. 

PICKLED eggs are very easily prepared and most excellent as an accom- 
paniment for cold meats. Boil quite hard three dozen eggs, drop in cold 

12 



178 SAUCES AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 

water and remove the shells, and pack them when entirely cold in a wide- 
mouthed jar, large enough to let them in or out without breaking. Take 
as much vinegar as you think will cover them entirely, and boil in it white 
pepper, allspice, a little root ginger; pack them in stone or wide-mouthed 
glass jars, occasionally putting in a tablespoonful of white and black mus- 
tard seed mixed, a small piece of race ginger, garlic, if liked, horse-radish 
ungrated, whole cloves, and a very little allspice. Slice two or three green 
peppers, and add in very small quantities. They will be fit for use in eight 

or ten days. 

AN ORNAMENTAL PICKLE. 

BOIL fresh eggs half an hour, then put them in cold water. Boil red 
beets until tender, peel and cut in dice form, and cover with vinegar, 
spiced; shell the eggs and drop into the pickle jar. 

EAST INDIA PICKLE. 

LAY in strong brine for two weeks, or until convenient to use them, 
small cucumbers, very small common white onions, snap beans, gherkins, 
hard white cabbage quartered, plums, peaches, pears, lemons, green 
tomatoes and anything else you may wish. When ready, take them out of 
the brine and simmer in pure water until tender enough to stick a straw 
through if still too salt, soak in clear water; drain thoroughly and lay 
them in vinegar in which is dissolved one ounce of turmeric to the gallon. 
For five gallons of pickle, take two ounces of mace, two of cloves, two of 
cinnamon, two of allspice, two of celery seed, a quarter of a pound of 
white race ginger, cracked fine, half a pound of white mustard seed, half a 
pint of small red peppers, quarter of a pound of grated horse-radish, half a 
pint of flour mustard, two ounces of turmeric, half a pint of garlic, if you 
like; soak in two gallons of cider vinegar for two weeks, stirring daily. 
After the pickles have lain in the turmeric vinegar for a week, take them 
out and put in jars or casks, one layer of pickle and one of spice out of the 
vinegar, till all is used. If the turmeric vinegar is still good and strong, 
add it and, the spiced vinegar. If the turmeric vinegar be much diluted, 
do not use it, but add enough fresh to the spiced to cover the pickles; put 
it on the fire with a pound of brown sugar to each gallon; when boiling, 
pour over the pickle. Repeat this two or three times as your taste may 

direct. 

MIXED PICKLES. 

SCALD in salt water until tender cauliflower heads, small onions, pep- 
pers, cucumbers cut in dice, nasturtiums and green beans ; then drain 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 179 

until dry and pack into wide-mouthed bottles. Boil in each pint of cider 
vinegar one tablespoonful of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt and two 
tablespoonfuls of mustard ; pour over the pickle and seal carefully. Other 
spices may be added if liked. 

BLUEBERRY PICKLES. 

FOR blueberry pickles, old jars which have lost their covers, or whose 
edges have been broken so that the covers will not fit tightly, serve an 
excellent purpose, as these pickles must not be kept air-tight. 

Pick over your berries, using only sound ones ; fill your jars or wide- 
mouthed bottles to within an inch of the top, then pour in molasses enough 
to settle down into all the spaces ; this cannot be done in a moment, as 
molasses does not run very freely. Only lazy people will feel obliged to 
stand by and watch its progress. As it settles, pour in more until the ber- 
ries are covered. Then tie over the top a piece of cotton cloth to keep the 
flies and other insects out and set away in the preserve closet. Cheap 
molasses is good enough, and your pickles will soon be "sharp." Wild 
grapes may be pickled in the same manner. 

PICKLED BUTTERNUTS AND WALNUTS. 

THESE nuts are in the best state for pickling when the outside shell can 
be penetrated by the head of a pin. Scald them and rub off the outside 
skin, put them in a strong brine for six days, changing the water every 
other day, keeping them closely covered from the air. Then drain and 
wipe them (piercing each nut through in several places with a large 
needle) and prepare the pickle as follows : For a hundred large nuts, take 
of black pepper and ginger root each an ounce ; and of cloves, mace and 
nutmeg, each a half ounce. Pound all the spices to powder and mix them 
well together, adding two large spoonfuls of mustard seed. Put the nuts 
into jars (having first stuck each of them through in several places with a 
large needle), strewing the powdered seasoning between every layer of 
nuts. Boil for five minutes a gallon of the very best cider vinegar and 
pour it boiling hot upon the nuts. Secure the jars closely with corks. 
You may begin to eat the nuts in a fortnight. 

WATERMELON PICKLE. 

TEN pounds of watermelon rind boiled in pure water until tender; drain 
the water off, and make a syrup of two pounds of white sugar, one quart of 



180 SAUCES AND D RE 8 SIN a S PIGKL ES. 

vinegar, half an ounce of cloves, one ounce of cinnamon. The syrup to be 
poured over the rind boiling hot three days in succession. 

/ 
SWEET PICKLE FOR FRUIT. 

MOST of the recipes for making a sweet pickle for fruit, such as cling- 
stone peaches, damsons, plums, cherries, apricots, etc., are so similar, that 
we give that which is the most successfully used. 

To every quart of fruit, allow a cup of white sugar and a large pint of 
good cider vinegar, adding half an ounce of stick cinnamon, one tablespoon- 
ful of whole cloves, the same of whole allspice. Let it come to a boil, and 
pour it hot over the fruit; repeat this two or three days in succession; then 
seal hot in glass jars if you wish to keep it for a long time. 

The fruit, not the liquor, is to be eaten, and used the same as any pickle. 
Some confound this with "Spiced Fruit," which is not treated the same, 
one being a pickle, the other a spiced preserve boiled down thick. 

Damsons and plums should be pricked with a needle, and peaches 
washed with a weak lye, and then rubbed with a coarse cloth to remove 
the fur. 

PEAR PICKLE. 

SELECT 'small, sound ones, remove the blossom end, stick them with a 
fork, allow to each quart of pears one pint of cider vinegar and one cup of 
sugar, put in a teaspoonf ul allspice, cinnamon and cloves to boil with the 
vinegar; then add the pears and boil, and seal in jars. 

SPICED CURRANTS. 

SEVEN pounds of fruit, four pounds of sugar, one pint of good cider vin- 
egar, one tablespoonful of ground cinnamon, one teaspoonful of cloves. 
Put into a kettle and boil until the fruit is soft; then skim out the fruit, 
putting it on dishes until the syrup is boiled down thick. Turn the fruit 
back into the syrup again, so as to heat it ail through; then seal it hot in 
glass jars, and set it in a cool, dark place. 

Any tart fruit may be put up in this way, and is considered a very good 
embellishment for cold meats. 

SPICED PLUMS. 

SEVEN pounds of plums, one pint of cider vinegar, four pounds of sugar, 
two tablespoonfuls of broken cinnamon bark, half as much of whole cloves 
and the same of broken nutmeg; place these in a muslin bag and simmer 



SAUCES AND DRESSINGS PICKLES. 181 

them in a little vinegar and water for half an hour; then add it all to the 
vinegar and sugar, and bring to a boil; add the plums, and boil carefully 
until they are cooked tender. Before cooking the plums they should be 
pierced with a darning needle several times; this will prevent the skins 
bursting while cooking. 

SPICED GRAPES. 

TAKE the pulp from the grapes, preserving the skins. Boil the pulp and 
rub through a colander to get out the seeds; then add the skins to the 
strained pulp and boil with the sugar, vinegar and spices. To every seven 
pounds of grapes use four and one-half pounds of sugar, one pint of good 
vinegar. Spice quite highly with ground cloves and allspice, with a little 
cinnamon. 

PICKLED CHERRIES. 

SELECT sound, large cherries, as large as you can get them; to every 
quart of cherries allow a large cupful of vinegar, two tablespoonfuls of 
sugar, a dozen whole cloves, and half a dozen blades of mace; put the vine- 
gar and sugar on to heat with the spices; boil five minutes, turn out into a 
covered stoneware vessel; cover and let it get perfectly cold; pack the cher- 
ries into jars, and pour the vinegar over them when cold; cork tightly and 
set away; they are fit for use almost immediately. 





VEGETABLES. 

* * * 

EGETABLES of all kinds should be thoroughly picked over, throwing 
out all decayed or unripe parts, then well washed in several 
waters. Most vegetables, when peeled, are better when laid in 
cold water a short time before cooking. When partly cooked a 
little salt should be thrown into the water in which they are boiled, and 
they should cook steadily after they are put on, not allowed to stop boil- 
ing or simmering until they are thoroughly done. Every sort of culinary 
vegetable is much better when freshly gathered and cooked as soon as 
possible, and, when done, thoroughly drained, and served immediately 
while hot. 

Onions, cabbage, carrots and turnips should be cooked in a great deal of 
water, boiled only long enough to sufficiently cook them, and immediately 
drained. Longer boiling makes them insipid in taste, and with too little 
water they turn a dark color. 

Potatoes rank first in importance in the vegetable line, and conse- 
quently should be properly served. It requires some little intelligence to 
cook even so simple and common a dish as boiled potatoes. In the first 
place, all defective or green ones should be cast out; a bad one will flavor 
a whole dish. If they are not uniform in size, they should be made so by 
cutting after they are peeled. The best part of a potato, or the most 
nutritious, is next to the skin, therefore they should be pared very thinly, 
if at all; then, if old, the cores should be cut out, thrown into cold water 
salted a little, and boiled until soft enough for a fork to pierce through 
easily; drain immediately, and replace the kettle on the fire with the cover 
partly removed, until they are completely dried. New potatoes should be 
put into boiling water, and when partly done salted a little. They should 
be prepared just in time for cooking by scraping off the thin outside skin. 
They require about twenty minutes to boil. 

TO BOIL NEW POTATOES. 

Do NOT have the potatoes dug long before they are dressed, as they are 
r good when they have been out of the ground for some time. Well 

(188) 



VEGETABLES. 183 

wash them, rub off the skins with a coarse cloth, and put them in boiling 
water salted. Let them boil until tender; try them with a fork, and when 
done pour the water away from them; let them stand by the side of the 
fire with the lid of the saucepan partially removed, and when the potatoes 
are thoroughly dry, put them in a hot vegetable dish, with a piece of but- 
ter the size of a walnut; pile the potatoes over this and serve. If the pota- 
toes are too old to have the skins rubbed off; boil them in their jackets; 
drain, peel and serve them as above, with a piece of butter placed in the 
midst of them. They require twenty to thirty minutes to cook. Serve 
them hot and plain, or with melted butter over them. 

MASHED POTATOES. 

TAKE the quantity needed, pare off the skins and lay them in cold water 
half an hour; then put them into a saucepan with a little salt; cover with 
water and boil them until done. Drain off the water and mash them fine 
with a potato masher. Have ready a piece of butter the size of an egg, 
melted in half a cup of boiling hot milk and a good pinch of salt ; mix it 
well with the mashed potatoes until they are a smooth paste, taking care 
that they are not too wet. Put them into a vegetable dish, heap them up 
and smooth over the top, put a small piece of butter on the top in the 
centre, and have dots of pepper here and there on the surface as large as a 
half dime. 

Some prefer using a heavy fork or wire beater, instead of a potato 
masher, beating the potatoes quite light and heaping them up in the dish 
without smoothing over the top. 

BROWNED POTATOES. 

MASH them the same as the above, put them into a dish that they are 
to be served in, smooth over the top and brush over with the yolk of an 
egg, or spread on a bountiful supply of butter and dust well with flour. Set 
in the oven to brown; it will brown in fifteen minutes with a quick fire. 

MASHED POTATOES. (Warmed Over.) 

To TWO cupfuls of cold mashed potatoes add a half cupful of milk, a 
pinch of salt, a tablespoonful of butter, two tablespoonf uls of flour and two 
eggs beaten to a froth. Mix the whole until thoroughly light ; then put 
into a pudding or vegetable dish, spread a little butter over the top and 
bake a golden brown, The quality depends upon very thoroughly beating 



184 VEGETABLES. 

the eggs before adding them, so that the potato will remain light and 
porous after baking, similar to sponge cake. 

POTATO PUFFS. 

PEEPARE the potatoes as directed for mashed potato. While hot, 
shape in balls about the size of an egg. Have a tin sheet well buttered, 
and place the balls on it. As soon as all are done, brush over with beaten 
egg. Brown in the oven. When done, slip a knife under them and slide 
them upon a hot platter. Garnish with parsley and serve immediately. 

POTATOES A LA CREME. 

HEAT a cupful of milk; stir in a heaping tablespoonful of butter cut up 
in as much flour. Stir until smooth and thick; pepper and salt, and add 
two cupfuls of cold boiled potatoes, sliced, and a little very finely chopped 
parsley. Shake over the fire until the potatoes are hot all through, and 
pour into a deep dish. 

NEW POTATOES AND CREAM. 

WASH and rub new potatoes with a coarse cloth or scrubbing-brush; 
drop into boiling water and boil briskly until done, and no more; press a 
potato against the side of the kettle with a fork; if done, it will yield to a 
gentle pressure; in a saucepan have ready some butter and cream, hot, but 
not boiling, a little green parsley, pepper and salt; drain the potatoes, add 
the mixture, put over hot water for a minute or two, and serve. 

SARATOGA CHIPS. 

PEEL good-sized potatoes, and slice them as evenly as possible. Drop 
them into ice-water; have a kettle of very hot lard, as for cakes; put a few 
at a time into a towel and shake, to dry the moisture out of them, and 
then drop them into the boiling lard. Stir them occasionally, and when of 
a light brown take them out with a skimmer, and they will be crisp and 
not greasy. Sprinkle sail: over them while hot. 

FRIED RAW POTATOES. 

PEEL half a dozen medium-sized potatoes very evenly, cut them in 
slices as thin as an egg-shell, and be sure to cut them from the breadth, not 
the length, of the potato. Put a tablespoonful each of butter and sweet lard 
into the frying pan, and as soon as it boils add the sliced potatoes, sprink- 
ling over them salt and pepper to season them. Cover them with a tight- 
fitting lid, and let the steam partly cook them; then remove it, and let 



VEGETABLES. 185 

them fry a bright gold color, shaking and turning them carefully, so as 
to brown equally. Serve very hot. 

Fried, cold cooked potatoes may be fried by the same recipe, only slice 
them a little thicker. 

Remark. Boiled or steamed potatoes chopped up or sliced while they 
are yet warm never fry so successfully as when cold. 

SCALLOPED POTATOES. (Kentucky Style.) 

PEEL and slice raw potatoes thin, the same as for frying. Butter an 
earthen dish, put in a layer of potatoes, and season with salt, pepper, but- 
ter, a bit of onion chopped fine, if liked; sprinkle a little flour. Now put 
another layer of potatoes and the seasoning. Continue in this way till the 
dish is filled. Just before putting into the oven, pour a quart of hot milk 
over. Bake three-quarters of an hour. 

Cold boiled potatoes may be cooked the same. It requires less time to 
bake them; they are delicious either way. If the onion is disliked it can 
be omitted. 

STEAMED POTATOES. 

THIS mode of cooking potatoes is now much in vogue, particularly 
where they are wanted on a large scale, it being so very convenient. Pare 
the potatoes, throw them into cold water as they are peeled, then put them 
in a steamer. Place the steamer over a saucepan of boiling water, and 
steam the potatoes from twenty to forty minutes, according to the size and 
sort. When the fork goes easily through them, they are done; then take 
them up, dish and serve very quickly. 

POTATO SNOW. 

CHOOSE some mealy potatoes that will boil exceedingly white; pare 
them and cook them well, but not so as to be watery; drain them, and 
mash and season them well. Put in the saucepan in which they were 
dressed, so as to keep them as hot as possible; then press them through a 
wire sieve into the dish in which they are to be served; strew a little fine 
salt upon them previous to sending them to table. French cooks also add 
a small quantity of pounded loaf sugar while they are being mashed. 

HASTY COOKED POTATOES. 

WASH and peel some potatoes; cut them into slices of about a quarter 
of an inch in thickness; throw them into boiling salted water, and, if of 
good quality, they will be done in about ten minutes. 



186 VEGETABLES. 

Strain off the water, put the potatoes into a hot dish, chop them 
slightly, add pepper, salt, and a few small pieces of fresh butter, and serve 
without loss of time. 

FAVORITE WARMED POTATOES. 

THE potatoes should be boiled lohole with the skins on in plenty of water, 
well salted, and are much better for being boiled the day before needed. 
Care should be taken that they are not over cooked. Strip off the skins 
(not pare them with a knife) and slice them nearly a quarter of an inch 
thick. Place them in a chopping-bowl and sprinkle over them sufficient 
salt and pepper to season them well ; chop them all one way, then turn 
the chopping-bowl half way around and chop across them, cutting them 
into little square pieces the shape of dice. About twenty-five minutes 
before serving time, place on the stove a saucepan (or any suitable dish) 
containing a piece of butter the size of an egg ; when it begins to melt 
and run over the bottom of the dish, put in a cup of rich sweet milk. 
When this boils up put in the chopped potatoes ; there should be about a 
quart of them ; stir them a little so that they become moistened through 
with the milk ; then cover and place them on the back of the stove, or in 
a moderate oven, where they will heat through gradually. When heated 
through, stir carefully from the bottom with a spoon and cover tightly 
again. Keep hot until ready to serve. Baked potatoes are very good 
warmed in this manner. 

CRISP POTATOES. 

CUT cold raw potatoes into shavings, cubes, or any small shape ; throw 
them, a few at a time, into boiling fat and toss them about with a knife 
until they are a uniform light brown ; drain and season with salt and pep- 
per. Fat is never hot enough while bubbling when it is ready it is still 
and smoking, but should never burn. 

LYONNAISE POTATOES. 

TAKE eight or ten good-sized cold boiled potatoes, slice them endwise, 
then crosswise, making them like dice in small squares. When you are 
ready to cook them, heat some butter or good drippings in a frying pan ; 
fry in it one small onion (chopped fine) until it begins to change color and 
look yellow. Now put in your potatoes, sprinkle well with salt and pep- 
per, stir well and cook about five minutes, taking care that you do not 
break them, They must not brown, Just before taking up stir in a 



VEGETABLES. 187 

tablespoonful of minced parsley. Drain dry by shaking in a heated col- 
ander. Serve very hot. 

Delmonico. 
POTATO FILLETS. 

PARE and slice the potatoes thin ; cut them if you like in small fillets 
about a quarter of an inch square, and as long as the potato will admit ; 
keep them in cold water until wanted, then drop them into boiling lard ; 
when nearly done, take them out with a skimmer and drain them, boil up 
the lard again, drop the potatoes back and fry till done ; this operation 
causes the fillets to swell up and puff. 

POTATO CROQUETTES. No. 1. 

WASH, peel and put four large potatoes in cold water, with a pinch of 
salt, and set them over a brisk fire ; when they are done pour off all the 
water and mash them. Take another saucepan, and put in it ten table- 
spoonfuls of milk and a lump of butter half the size of an egg ; put it over 
a brisk fire ; as soon as the milk comes to a boil, pour the potatoes into it, 
and stir them very fast with a wooden spoon ; when thoroughly mixed, 
take them from the fire and put them on a dish. Take a tablespoonful and 
roll it in a clean towel, making it oval in shape ; dip it in a well-beaten 
egg, and then in bread crumbs, and drop it in hot drippings or lard. 
Proceed in this manner till all the potato is used, four potatoes making six 
croquettes. Fry them a light brown all over, turning them gently as may 
be necessary. When they are done, lay them on brown paper or a hair 
sieve, to drain off all fat ; then serve on a napkin. 

POTATO CROQUETTES. No. 2. 

TAKE two cups of cold mashed potatoes, season with a pinch of salt, 
pepper and a tablespoonful of butter. Beat up the whites of two eggs, and 
work all together thoroughly ; make it into small balls slightly flattened, 
dip them in the beaten yolks of the eggs, then roll either in flour or 
cracker crumbs ; fry the same as fish-balls. 

Delmonico's. 

POTATOES A LA DELMONICO. 

CUT the potatoes with a vegetable cutter into small balls about the size 
of a marble; put them into a stewpan with plenty of butter and a good 
sprinkling of salt; keep the saucepan covered, and shake occasionally until 
they are quite done, which will be in about an hour* 



188 VEGETABLES. 

FRIED POTATOES WITH EGGS. 

SLICE cold boiled potatoes and fry in good butter until brown; beat up 
one or two eggs, and stir into them just as you dish them for the table; do 
not leave them a moment on the fire after the eggs are in, for if they 
harden they are not half so nice; one egg is enough for three or four per- 
sons, unless they are very fond of potatoes ; if they are, have plenty and 
put in two. 

BAKED POTATOES. 

POTATOES are either baked in their jackets or peeled; in either case 
they should not be exposed to a fierce heat, which is wasteful, inasmuch as 
thereby a great deal of vegetable is scorched and rendered uneatable. 
They should be frequently turned while being baked and kept from touch- 
ing each other in the oven or dish. When done in their skins, be particu- 
lar to wash and brush them before baking them. If convenient, they may 
be baked in wood-ashes, or in a Dutch oven in front of the fire. When 
pared they should be baked in a dish and fat of some kind added to pre- 
vent their outsides from becoming burnt; they are ordinarily baked thus as 
an accessory to baked meat. 

Never serve potatoes, boiled or baked whole, in a closely covered dish. 
They become sodden and clammy. Cover with a folded napkin that allows 
the steam to escape, or absorbs the moisture. They should be served 
promptly when done and require about three-quarters of an hour to one 
hour to bake them, if of a good size. 

BROWNED POTATOES WITH A ROAST. No. 1. 

ABOUT three-quarters of an hour before taking up your roasts, peel mid- 
dling-sized potatoes, boil them until partly done, then arrange them in the 
roasting-pan around the roast, basting them with the drippings at the same 
time you do the meat, browning them evenly. Serve hot with the meat. 
Many cooks partly boil the potatoes before putting around the roast. New 
potatoes are very good cooked around a roast. 

BROWNED POTATOES WITH A ROAST. No. 2. 

PEEL, cook and mash the required quantity, adding while hot a little 
chopped onion, pepper and salt; form it into small oval balls and dredge 
them with flour; then place around the meat about twenty minutes before 
it is taken from the oven. When nicely browned, drain dry and serve hot 
with the meat. 



VEGETABLES. 189 

SWEET POTATOES. 

BOILED, steamed and baked the same as Irish potatoes; generally cooked 
with their jackets on. Cold sweet potatoes may be cut in slices across or 
lengthwise, and fried as common potatoes; or may be cut in half and 
served cold. 

Boiled sweet potatoes are very nice. Boil until partly done, peel them 
and bake brown, basting them with butter or beef drippings several times. 
Served hot. They should be a nice brown. 

BAKED SWEET POTATOES. 

WASH and scrape them, split them lengthwise. Steam or boil them 
until nearly done. Drain, and put them in a baking dish, placing jver 
them lumps of butter, pepper and salt; sprinkle thickly with sugar, and 
bake in the oven to a nice brown. 

Hubbard squash is nice cooked in the same manner. 

ONIONS BOILED. 

THE white silver-skins are the best species. To boil them peel off the 
outside, cut off the ends, put them into cold water and into a stewpan and 
let them scald two minutes ; then turn off that water, pour on cold water 
salted a little, and boil slowly till tender, which will be in thirty or forty 
minutes, according to their size ; when done drain them quite dry, pour a 
little melted butter over them, sprinkle them with pepper and salt and 
serve hot. 

An excellent way to peel onions so as not to affect the eyes is to take a 
pan/W/ of water and hold and peel them under the water. 

ONIONS STEWED. 

COOK the same as boiled onions, and, when quite done, turn off all the 
water; add a teacupful of milk, a piece of butter the size of an egg, pepper 
and salt to taste, a tablespoonful of flour stirred to a cream ; let all boil 
up once and serve in a vegetable dish hot. 

ONIONS BAKED. 

USE tho large Spanish onion, as best for this purpose; wash them clean, 
but do not peel, and put into a saucepan with slightly salted water ; boil 
an hour, replacing the water with more boiling hot as it evaporates ; turn 
off the water and lay the onions on a cloth to dry them well ; roll each 



190 VEGETABLES. 

one in a piece of buttered tissue paper, twisting it at the top to keep it on, 
and bake in a slow oven about an hour, or until tender all through ; peel 
them ; place in a deep dish and brown slightly, basting well with butter 
for fifteen minutes ; season with salt and pepper and pour some melted 
butter over them. 

PRIED ONIONS. 

PEEL, slice and fry them brown in equal quantities of butter and lard 
or nice drippings ; cover until partly soft, remove the cover and brown 
them ; salt and pepper. 

SCALLOPED ONIONS. 

TAKE eight or ten onions of good size, slice them and boil until tender. 
Lay them in a baking-dish, put in bread crumbs, butter in small bits, 
pepper and salt, between each layer until the dish is full, putting bread 
crumbs last; add milk or cream until full. Bake twenty minutes or half 
an hour. 

A little onion is not an injurious article of food, as many believe. A 
judicious use of plants of the onion family is quite as important a 
factor in successful cookery as salt and pepper. When carefully concealed 
by manipulation in food, it affords zest and enjoyment to many who could 
not otherwise taste of it were its presence known. A great many success- 
ful compounds derive their excellence from the partly concealed flavor of 
the onion, which imparts a delicate appetizing aroma highly prized by 
epicures. 

CAULIFLOWER. 

WHEN cleaned and washed, drop them into boiling water, into which 
you have put salt and a teaspoonful of flour, or a slice of bread; boil till 
tender; take off, drain and dish them; serve with a sauce spread over and 
made with melted butter, salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, chopped parsley 
and vinegar. 

Another way is to make a white sauce (see SAUCES) and when the cauli- 
flowers are dished as above, turn the white sauce over, and r>erve warm. 
They may also be served in the same way with a milk, cream, or tomato 
sauce, or with brown butter. 

It is a very good plan to loosen the leaves of a head of cauliflower and 
let lie, the top downward, in a pan of cold salt water, to remove any in- 
sects that might be hidden between them. 



VEGETABLES. 191 

FRIED CAULIFLOWER. 

BOIL the cauliflower till about half done. Mix two tablespoonfuls of 
flour with two yolks of eggs, then add water enough to make a rather thin 
paste; add salt to taste; the two whites are beaten till stiff, and then mixed 
with the yolks, flour and water. Dip each branch of the cauliflower into 
the mixture, and fry them in hot fat. When done, take them off with a 
skimmer, turn into a colander, dust salt all over and serve warm. Aspara- 
gus, celery, egg-plant, oyster-plant are all fine when fried in this manner. 

CABBAGE BOILED. 

GREAT care is requisite in cleaning a cabbage for boiling, as it fre- 
quently harbors numerous insects. The large drumhead cabbage requires 
an hour to boil ; the green savory cabbage will boil in twenty minutes. 
Add considerable salt to the water when boiling. Do not let a cabbage 
boil too long by a long boiling it becomes watery. Remove it from the 
water into a colander to drain and serve with drawn butter, or butter 
poured over it. 

Red cabbage is used for slaw, as is also the white winter cabbage. For 
directions to prepare these varieties, see articles SLAW and SOURCROUT. 

CABBAGE WITH CREAM. 

REMOVE the outer leaves from a solid, small-sized head of cabbage, and 
cut the remainder as fine as for slaw. Have on the fire a spider or deep 
skillet, and when it is hot put in the cut cabbage, pouring over it right 
away a pint of boiling water. Cover closely and allow it to cook rapidly 
for ten minutes. Drain off the water and add half a pint of new milk, or 
part milk and cream ; when it boils, stir in a large teaspoonful of either 
wheat or rice flour moistened with milk ; add salt and pepper, and as soon 
as it comes to a boil, serve. Those who find slaw and other dishes pre- 
pared from cabbage indigestible will not complain of this. 

STEAMED CABBAGE. 

TAKE a sound, solid cabbage, and with a large sharp knife shave it very 
fine. Put it in a saucepan, pour in half a teacupful of water, or just 
enough to keep it from burning ; cover it very tightly, so as to confine the 
steam; watch it closely, add a little water now and then, until it begins to 
be tender ; then put into it a large tablespoonful of butter ; salt and pep- 
per to taste, dish it hot. If you prefer to give it a tart taste, just before 
taking from the fire add a third of a cup of good vinegar. 



192 VEGETABLES. 

LADIES' CABBAGE. 

BOIL a firm white cabbage fifteen minutes, changing the water then for 
more from the boiling tea-kettle. When tender, drain and set aside until 
perfectly cold. Chop fine and add two beaten eggs, a tablespoonful of but- 
ter, pepper, salt, three tablespoonfuls of rich milk or cream. Stir all well 
together, and bake in a buttered pudding-dish until brown. Serve very 
hot. This dish resembles cauliflower and is very digestible and palatable. 

FRIED CABBAGE. 

PLACE in a frying pan an ounce of butter and heat it boiling hot. Then 
take cold boiled cabbage chopped fine, or cabbage hot, cooked the same as 
steamed cabbage, put it into the hot butter and fry a light brown, adding 
two tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Very good. 

FRENCH WAY OF COOKING CABBAGE. 

CHOP cold boiled white cabbage and let it drain till perfectly dry; stir 
in some melted butter to taste; pepper, salt and four tablespoonfuls of 
cream; after it is heated through add two well-beaten eggs; then turn the 
mixture into a buttered frying pan, stirring until it is very hot and be- 
comes a delicate brown on the under side. Place a hot dish over the pan, 
which must be reversed when turned out to be served. 

SOTJRCROUT. 

BARRELS having held wine or vinegar are used to prepare sourcrout 
in. It is better, however, to have a special barrel for the purpose. Stras- 
burg, as well as all Alsace, has a well-acquired fame for preparing the cab- 
bages. They slice very white and firm cabbages in fine shreds with a 
machine made for the purpose. At the bottom of a small barrel they 
place a layer of course salt and alternately layers of cabbage and salt, 
being careful to have one of salt on the top. As each layer of cabbage is 
added, it must be pressed down by a large and heavy pestle and fresh 
layers are added as soon as the juice floats on the surface. The cabbage 
must be seasoned with a few grains of coriander, juniper berries, etc. 
When the barrel is full it must be put in a dry cellar, covered with a cloth, 
under a plank, and on this heavy weights are placed. At the end of a few 
days it will begin to ferment, during which time the pickle must be drawn 
off and replaced by fresh, until the liquor becomes clear. This should be 
done everyday. Renew the cloth and wash the cover, put the weights 



VEGETABLES. 193 

back and let stand for a month. By that time the sourcrout will be 
ready for use. Care must be taken to let the least possible air enter the 
sourcrout and to have the cover perfectly clean. Each time the barrel 
has to be opened it must be properly closed again. These precautions 
must not be neglected. 

This is often fried in the same manner as fried cabbage, excepting it is 
first boiled until soft in just water enough to cook it, then fry and add 
vinegar. 

TO BOIL RICE. 

PICK over the rice carefully, wash it in warm water, rubbing it between 
the hands, rinsing it in several waters, then let it remain in cold water 
until ready to be cooked. Have a saucepan of water slightly salted; when 
it is boiling hard, pour off the cold water from the rice, and sprinkle it in 
the boiling water by degrees, so as to keep the particles separated. Boil it 
steadily for twenty minutes, then take it off from the fire and drain off all 
the water. Place the saucepan with the lid partly off, on the back part of 
the stove, where it is only moderately warm, to allow the rice to dry. The 
moisture will pass off and each grain of rice will be separated, so that if 
shaken the grains will fall apart. This is the true way of serving rice as a 
vegetable and is the mode of cooking it in the Southern States where it is 
raised. 

PARSNIPS, BOILED. 

WASH, scrape and split them. Put them into a pot of boiling water; 
add a little salt, and boil them till quite tender, which will be in from 
two to three hours, according to their size. Dry them in a cloth when 
done and pour melted butter or white sauce (see SAUCES) over them in the 
dish. Serve them up with any sort of boiled meat or with salt cod. 

Parsnips are very good baked or stewed with meat. 

FRIED PARSNIPS. 

BOIL tender in a little hot water salted; scrape, cut into^long slices, 
dredge with flour; fry in hot lard or dripping, or in butter and lard mixed; 
fry quite brown. Drain off fat and serve. 

Parsnips may be boiled and mashed the same as potatoes. 

STEWED PARSNIPS. 

AFTER washing and scraping the parsnips slice them about half of an 

inch thick. Put them in a saucepan of boiling water containing just 
13 



194 VEGETABLES. 

enough to barely cook them; add a tablespoonful of butter, season with 
salt and pepper, then cover closely. Stew them until the water has cooked 
away, watching carefully and stirring often to prevent burning, until they 
are soft. When they are done they will be of a creamy light straw color 
and deliciously sweet, retaining all the goodness of the vegetable. 

PARSNIP FRITTERS. 

BOIL four or five parsnips; when tender take off the skin and mash them 
fine; add to them a teaspoonful of wheat flour and a beaten egg; put a 
tablespoonful of lard or beef drippings in a frying pan over the fire, add to 
it a saltspoonful of salt; when boiling hot put in the parsnips; make it in 
small cakes with a spoon; when one side is a delicate brown turn the other; 
when both are done take them on a dish, put a very little of the fat in 
which they were fried over and serve hot. These resemble very nearly the 
taste of the salsify or oyster plant, and will generally be preferred. 

CREAMED PARSNIPS. 

BOIL tender, scrape and slice lengthwise. Put over the fire with two 
tablespoonfuls of butter, pepper and salt and a little minced parsley. 
Shake until the mixture boils. Dish the parsnips, add to the sauce three 
tablespoonfuls of cream or milk in which has been stirred a quarter of a 
spoonful of flour. Boil once and pour over the parsnips. 

STEWED TOMATOES. 

POUR boiling water over a dozen sound ripe tomatoes ; let them remain 
for a few moments ; then peel off the skins, slice them and put them over 
the fire in a well-lined tin or granite-ware saucepan. Stew them about 
twenty minutes, then add a tablespoonful of butter, salt and pepper to 
taste ; let them stew fifteen minutes longer and serve hot. Some prefer 
to thicken tomatoes with a little grated bread, adding a teaspoonful of 
sugar ; and others who like the flavor of onion chop up one and add while 
stewing ; then again, some add as much green corn as there are tomatoes. 

TO PEEL TOMATOES. 

PUT the tomatoes into a frying basket and plunge them into hot water 
for three or four minutes. Drain and peel. Another way is to place them 
in a flat baking-tin and set them in a hot oven about five minutes ; this 
loosens the skins so that they readily slip off. 



VEGETABLES. 195 

SCALLOPED TOMATOES. 

BUTTER the sides and bottom of a pudding-dish. Put a layer of bread 
crumbs in the bottom ; on them put a layer of sliced tomatoes ; sprinkle 
with salt, pepper and some bits of butter, and a very little white sugar. 
Then repeat with another layer of crumbs, another of tomato and season- 
ing until full, having the top layer of slices of tomato, with bits of butter 
on each. Bake covered until well cooked through ; remove the cover and 
brown quickly. 

STUFFED BAKED TOMATOES. V 

FROM the blossom-end of a dozen tomatoes smooth, ripe and solid 
cut a thin slice and with a small spoon scoop out the pulp without break- 
ing the rind surrounding it; chop a small head of cabbage and a good-sized 
onion fine and mix with them fine bread crumbs and the pulp; season 
with pepper, salt and sugar and add a cup of sweet cream; when all is well 
mixed, fill the tomato shells, replace the slices and place the tomatoes in a 
buttered baking-dish, cut ends up and put in the pan just enough water 
to keep from burning; drop a small lump of butter on each tomato and 
bake half an hour or so, till well done ; place another bit of butter on each 
and serve in same dish. Very fine. 

Another stuffing which is considered quite fine. Cut a slice from the 
stem of each and scoop out the soft pulp. Mince one small onion and fry 
it slightly; add a gill of hot water, the tomato pulp and two ounces of cold 
veal or chicken chopped fine, simmer slowly and season with salt and 
pepper. Stir into the pan cracker dust or bread crumbs enough to absorb 
the moisture; take off from the fire and let it cool; stuff the tomatoes with 
this mass, sprinkle dry crumbs over the top; add a small piece of butter to 
the top of each and bake until slightly browned on top. 

BAKED TOMATOES. (Plain.) 

PEEL and slice quarter of an inch thick; place in layers in a pudding- 
dish, seasoning each layer with salt, pepper, butter and a very little white 
sugar. Cover with a lid or large plate and bake half an hour. Remove 
the lid and brown for fifteen minutes. Just before taking from the oven, 
pour over the top three or four tablespoonfuls of whipped cream with 
melted butter. 

TO PREPARE TOMATOES. (Raw.) 

CAREFULLY remove the peelings. Only perfectly ripe tomatoes should 
ever be eaten raw and if ripe the skins easily peel off. Scalding injures 



196 VEGETABLES. 

the flavor. Slice them and sprinkle generously with salt, more sparingly 
with black pepper, and to a dish holding one quart, add a light tablespoon- 
ful of sugar to give a piquant zest to the whole. Lastly, add a gill of best 
cider vinegar; although, if you would have a dish yet better suited to 
please an epicurean palate, you may add a teaspoonful of made mustard 
and two tablespoonfuls of rich sweet cream. 

FRIED AND BROILED TOMATOES. 

CUT firm, large, ripe tomatoes into thick slices, rather more than a 
quarter of an inch thick. Season with salt and pepper, dredge well with 
flour, or roll in egg and crumbs, and fry them brown on both sides evenly, 
in hot butter and lard mixed. Or, prepare them the same as for frying, 
broiling on a well-greased gridiron, seasoning afterward the same as beef- 
steak. A good accompaniment to steak. Or, having prepared the follow- 
ing sauce, a pint of milk, a tablespoonf ul of flour and one beaten egg, salt, 
pepper and a very little mace; cream an ounce of butter, whisk into it the 
milk and let it simmer until it thickens; pour the sauce on a hot side-dish 
and arrange the tomatoes in the centre. 

SCRAMBLED TOMATOES. 

REMOVE the skins from a dozen tomatoes; cut them up in a saucepan; 
udd a little butter, pepper and salt; when sufficiently boiled, beat up five 
or six eggs and j ust before you serve turn them into the saucepan with the 
tomatoes, and stir one way for two minutes, allowing them time to be 
done thoroughly. 

CUCUMBER A LA CREME. 

PEEL and cut into slices (lengthwise) some fine cucumbers. Boil them 
until soft; salt to taste, and serve with delicate cream sauce. 
For Tomato Salad, see SALADS, also for Raw Cucumbers. 

FRIED CUCUMBERS. 

PARE them and cut lengthwise in very thick slices; wipe them dry with 
a cloth; sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and fry in lard 
and butter, a tablespoonful of each, mixed. Brown both sides and serve 
warm. 

GREEN CORN, BOILED. 

THIS should be cooked on the same day it is gathered; it loses its sweet- 
ness in a few hours and must be artificially supplied. Strip off the husks 



VEGETABLES. 197 

pick out all the silk and put it in boiling water; if not entirely fresh, add a 
tablespoonful of sugar to the water, but no salt; boil twenty minutes, fast, 
and serve; or you may cut it from the cob, put in plenty of butter and a 
little salt, and serve in a covered vegetable dish. The corn is much sweeter 
when cooked with the husks on, but requires longer time to boil. Will 
generally boil in twenty minutes. 

Green corn left over from dinner makes a nice breakfast dish, prepared 
as follows: Cut the corn from the cob, and put into a bowl with a cup of 
milk to every cup of corn, a half cup of flour, one egg, a pinch of salt, and 
a little butter. Mix well into a thick batter, and fry in small cakes in 
very hot butter. Serve with plenty of butter and powdered sugar. 

CORN PUDDING. 

THIS is a Virginia dish. Scrape the substance out of twelve ears of 
tender, green, uncooked corn (it is better scraped than grated, as you do 
not get those husky particles which you cannot avoid with a grater); add 
yolks and whites, beaten separately, of four eggs, a teaspoonful of sugar, 
the same of flour mixed in a tablespoonful of butter, a small quantity of 
salt and pepper, and one pint of milk. Bake about half or three-quarters 

of an hour. 

STEWED COEN. 

TAKE a dozen ears of green sweet corn, very tender and juicy ; cut off 
the kernels, cutting with a large sharp knife from the top of the cob down; 
then scrape the cob. Put the corn into a saucepan over the fire with just 
enough water to make it cook without burning ; boil about twenty min- 
utes, then add a teacupful of milk or cream, a tablespoonful of cold butter, 
and season with pepper and salt. Boil ten minutes longer and dish up hot 
in a vegetable dish. The corn would be much sweeter if the scraped cobs 
were boiled first in the water that the corn is cooked in. 

Many like corn cooked in this manner, putting half corn and half toma- 
toes ; either way is very good. 

FRIED CORN. 

CUT the corn off the cob, taking care not to bring off any of the husk 
with it and to have the grains as separate as possible. Fry in a little 
butter just enough to keep it from sticking to the pan ; stir very often. 
When nicely browned, add salt and pepper and a little rich cream. Do 
not set it near the stove after the cream is added, as it will be apt to turn. 
This makes a nice dinner or breakfast dish. 



198 VEGETABLES. 

ROASTED GREEN CORN. 

STRIP on all the husk from green corn and roast it on a gridiron over a 
bright fire of coals, turning it as one side is done. Or, if a wood fire is 
used, make a place clean in front of the fire, lay the corn down, turn it 
when one side is done ; serve with salt and butter. 

SUCCOTASH. 

TAKE a pint of fresh shelled Lima beans, or any large fresh beans, put 
them in a pot with cold water, rather more than will cover them. Scrape 
the kernels from twelve ears of young sweet corn; put the cobs in with 
the beans, boiling from half to three-quarters of an hour. Now take out 
the cobs and put in the scraped corn; boil again fifteen minutes, then sea- 
son with salt and pepper to taste, a piece of butter the size of an egg and 
half a cup of cream. Serve hot. 

FRIED EGG-PLANT. 



TAKE fresh, purple egg-plants of a middling size; cut them in slices a 
quarter of an inch thick, and soak them for half an hour in cold water, 
with a teaspoonful of salt in it. Have ready some cracker or bread 
crumbs and one beaten egg; drain off the water from the slices, lay them 
on a napkin, dip them in the crumbs and then in the egg, put another coat 
of crumbs on them and fry them in butter to a light brown. The frying 
pan must be hot before the slices are put in they will fry in ten minutes. 

You may pare them before you put them into the frying pan, or you 
may pull off the skins when you take them up. You must not remove 
them from the water until you are ready to cook them, as the air will turn 
them black. 

STUFFED EGG-PLANT. 

CUT the egg-plant in two; scrape out all the inside and put it in a 
saucepan with a little minced ham; cover with water and boil until soft; 
drain off the water; add two tablespoonfuls of grated crumbs, a tablespoon- 
ful of butter, half a minced onion, salt and pepper; stuff each half of the 
hull with the mixture; add a small lump of butter to each and bake fifteen 
minutes. Minced veal or chicken in the place of ham, is equally as good 
and many prefer it. 

STRING BEANS. 

BREAK off the end that grew to the vine, drawing off at the same time 
the string upon the edge; repeat the same process from the other end; cut 



VEGETABLES. 199 

them with a sharp knife into pieces half an inch long, and boil them in 
just enough water to cover them. They usually require one hour's boiling ; 
but this depends upon their age and freshness. After they have boiled 
until tender and the water boiled nearly, out, add pepper and salt, a table- 
spoonful of butter and a half a cup of cream ; if you have not the cream 
add more butter. 

Many prefer to drain them before adding the seasoning ; in that case 
they lose the real goodness of the vegetable. 

LIMA AND KIDNEY BEANS. 

THESE beans should be put into boiling water, a little more than enough 
to cover them, and boiled till tender from half an hour to two hours ; 
serve with butter and salt upon them. 

These beans are in season from the last of July to the last of Septem- 
ber. There are several other varieties of beans used as summer vegeta- 
bles, which are cooked as above. 

For Baked Beans, see PORK AND BEANS. 

CELERY. 

THIS is stewed the same as green corn, by boiling, adding cream, butter, 
salt and pepper. 

STEWED SALSIFY OR OYSTER-PLANT. 

WASH the roots and scrape off their skins, throwing them, as you do so, 
into cold water, for exposure to the air causes them to immediately turn 
dark. Then cut crosswise into little thin slices ; throw into fresh water, 
enough to cover; add a little salt and stew in a covered vessel until tender, 
or about one hour. Pour off a little of the water, add a small lump of 
butter, a little pepper, and a gill of sweet cream and a teaspoon ful of flour 
stirred to a paste. Boil up and serve hot. 

Salsify may be simply boiled and melted butter turned over them, 

FRIED SALSIFY. 

STEW the salsify as usual till very tender; then with the back of a 
spoon or a potato jammer mash it very fine. Beat up an egg, add a tea- 
cupful of milk, a little flour, butter and seasoning of pepper and salt. 
Make into little cakes, and fry a light brown in boiling lard, first rolling in 
beaten egg and then flour. 



200 VEGETABLES. 

BEETS BOILED. 

SELECT small-sized, smooth roots. They should be carefully washed, 
but not cut before boiling, as the juice will escape and the sweetness of 
the vegetable be impaired, leaving it white and hard. Put them into boil- 
ing water, and boil them until tender, which requires often from one to 
two hours. Do not probe them, but press them with the finger to ascer- 
tain if they are sufficiently done. When satisfied of this, take them up, 
and put them into a pan of cold water, and slip off the outside. Cut them 
into thin slices, and while hot season with butter, salt, a little pepper and 
very sharp vinegar. 

BAKED BEETS. 

BEETS retain their sugary, delicate flavor to perfection if they are 
baked instead of boiled. Turn them frequently while in the oven, using a 
knife, as the fork allows the juice to run out. When done remove the 
skin, and serve with butter, salt and pepper on the slices. 

STEWED BEETS. 

BOIL them first and then scrape and slice them. Put them into a stew- 
pan with a piece of butter rolled in flour, some boiled onion and parsley 
chopped fine, and a little vinegar, salt and pepper. Set the pan on the 
fire, and let the beets stew for a quarter of an hour. 

OKEA. 

THIS grows in the shape of pods, and is of a gelatinous character, much 
used for soup, and is also pickled; it may be boiled as follows: Put the 
young and tender pods of long white okra in salted boiling water in gran- 
ite, porcelain or a tin-lined saucepan as contact with iron will discolor 
it; boil fifteen minutes; remove the stems, and serve with butter, pepper, 
salt and vinegar if preferred. 

ASPARAGUS. 

SCKAPE the stems of the asparagus lightly, but very clean; throw them 
into cold water and when they are all scraped and very clean, tie them in 
buries of equal size; cut the large ends evenly, that the stems may be all 
of t. ifi.sam" length, and put the asparagus into plenty of boiling water, 
well saV While it is boiling, cut several slices of bread half an inch 
thick, r jff the crust and toast it a delicate brown on both sides. When 
the st? of the asparagus are tender (it will usually cook in twenty to 
forty minutes) lift it out directly, or it will lose both its color and flavor 



VEGETABLES. 201 

and will also be liable to break; dip the toast quickly into the liquor in 
which it was boiled and dish the vegetable upon it, the heads all lying one 
way. Pour over white sauce, or melted butter. 

ASPARAGUS WITH EGGS. 

BOIL a bunch of asparagus twenty minutes; cut off the tender tops and 
lay them in a deep pie plate, buttering, salting and peppering well. Beat 
up four eggs, the yolks and whites separately, to a stiff froth; add two 
tablespoonfuls of milk or cream, a tablespoonful of warm butter, pepper 
and salt to taste. Pour evenly over the asparagus mixture. Bake eight 
minutes or until the eggs are set. Very good. 

GREEN PEAS. 

SHELL the peas and wash in cold water. Put in boiling water just 
enough to cover them well and keep them from burning; boil from twenty 
minutes to half an hour, when the liquor should be nearly boiled out; sea- 
son with pepper and salt and a good allowance of butter; serve very hot. 

This is a very much better way than cooking in a larger quantity of 
water and draining off the liquor, as that diminishes the sweetness, and 
much of the fine flavor of the peas is lost. The salt should never be put 
in the peas before they are tender, unless very young, as it tends to harden 
them. 

STEWED GREEN PEAS. 

INTO a saucepan of boiling water put two or three pints of young green 
peas, and when nearly done and tender drain in a colander dry; then melt 
two ounces of butter in two of flour; stir well and boil five minutes longer; 
should the pods be quite clean and fresh boil them first in the water, 
remove and put in the peas. The Germans prepare a very palatable dish 
of sweet young pods alone by simply stirring in a little butter with some 
savory herbs. 

SQUASHES, OR CYMBLINGS. 

THE green or summer squash is best when the outside is beginnhi: 
turn yellow, as it is then less watery and insipid than wher -voun 
Wash them, cut them into pieces and take out the seeds. Boil 4 h about 
three-quarters of an hour, or till quite tender. When done, drain and 
squeeze them well till you have pressed out all the water ; mash them 
with a little butter, pepper and salt. Then put the squash thus prepared 




202 VEGETABLES. 

into a stewpan, set it on hot coals and stir it very frequently till it becomes 
dry. Take care not to let it burn. 

Summer squash is very nice steamed, then prepared the same as boiled. 

BOILED WINTER SQUASH. 

THIS is much finer than the summer squash. It is fit to eat in August, 
and, in a dry warm place, can be kept well all winter. The color is a very 
bright yellow. Pare it, take out the seeds, cut it in pieces, and stew it 
slowly till quite soft in a very little water. Afterwards drain, squeeze and 
press it well; then mash it with a very little butter, pepper and salt. They 
will boil in from twenty to forty minutes. 

BAKED WINTER SQUASH. 

CUT open the squash, take out the seeds and without paring cut it up 
into large pieces; put the pieces on tins or in a dripping-pan, place in a 
moderately hot oven and bake about an hour. When done, peel and mash 
like mashed potatoes, or serve the pieces hot on a dish, to be eaten warm 
with butter like sweet potatoes. It retains its sweetness much better 
baked this way than when boiled. 

VEGETABLE HASH. 

CHOP rather coarsely the remains of vegetables left from a boiled din- 
ner, such as cabbage, parsnips, potatoes, etc.; sprinkle over them a little 
pepper, place in a saucepan or frying pan over the fire; put in a piece of 
butter the size of a hickory nut; when it begins to melt, tip the dish so as 
to oil the bottom and around the sides; then put in the chopped vegetables, 
pour in a spoonful or two of hot water from the tea-kettle, cover quickly so 
as to keep in the steam. When heated thoroughly take off the cover and 
stir occasionally until well cooked. Serve hot. Persons fond of vegetables 
will relish this dish very much. 

SPINACH. 

IT SHOULD be cooked so as to retain its bright green color and not sent 
to table, as it so often is, of a dull brown or olive color; to retain its fresh 
appearance, do not cover the vessel while it is cooking. 

Spinach requires close examination and picking, as insects are fre- 
quently found among it and it is often gritty. Wash it through three of 
four waters. Then drain it and put it in boiling water. Fifteen to twenty 
minutes is generally sufficient time to boil spinach. Be careful to remove 



VEGETABLES. 

the scum. When it is quite tender, take it up, and drain and squeeze it 
well. Chop it fine, and put it into a saucepan with a piece of butter and a 
little pepper and salt. Set it on the fire and let it stew five minutes, stir- 
ring it all the time, until quite dry. Turn it into a vegetable dish, shape 
it into a mound, slice some hard-boiled eggs and lay around the top. 

QUEENS. 

ABOUT a peck of greens are enough for a mess for a family of six, such 
as dandelions, cowslips, burdock, chiccory and other greens. All greens 
should be carefully examined, the tough ones thrown out, then be thor- 
oughly washed through several waters until they are entirely free from 
sand. The addition of a handful of salt to each pan of water used in -wash- 
ing the greens will free them from insects and worms, especially if after 
the last watering they are allowed to stand in salted water for a half hour 
or longer. When ready to boil the greens, put them into a large pot half 
full of boiling water, with a handful of salt, and boil them steadily until 
the stalks are tender ; this will be in from five to twenty minutes, accord- 
ing to the maturity of the greens ; but remember that long-continued 
boiling wastes the tender substances of the leaves, and so diminishes both 
the bulk and the nourishment of the dish ; for this reason it is best to cut 
away any tough stalks before beginning to cook the greens. As soon as 
they are tender drain them in a colander, chop them a little and return 
them to the fire long enough to season them with salt, pepper and butter ; 
vinegar may be added if it is liked ; the greens should be served as soon as 
they are hot. 

All kinds of greens can be cooked in this manner. 

STEWED CARROTS. 

WASH and scrape the carrots and divide them into strips ; put them 
into a stewpan with water enough to cover them ; add a spoonful of salt 
and let them boil slowly until tender ; then drain and replace them in the 
pan, with two tablespoonfuls of butter rolled in flour, shake over a little 
pepper and salt, then add enough cream or milk to moisten the whole ; 
let it come to a boil and serve hot. 

CARROTS MASHED. 

SCRAPE and wash them ; cook them tender in boiling water salted 
slightly. Drain well and mash them. Work in a good piece of butter and 
season with pepper and salt. Heap up on a vegetable dish and serve hot. 



204 VEGETABLES. 

Carrots are also good simply boiled in salted water and dished up hot 
with melted butter over them. 

TURNIPS. 

TURNIPS are boiled plain with or without meat, also mashed like pota- 
toes and stewed like parsnips. They should always be served hot. They 
require from forty minutes to an hour to cook. 

STEWED PUMPKIN. 

SEE STEWED PUMPKIN FOE PIE. Cook the same, then after stewing 
season the same as mashed potatoes. Pumpkin is good baked in the same 
manner as baked winter squash. 

STEWED ENDIVE. 

Ingredients. Six heads of endive, salt and water, one pint of broth, 
thickening of butter and flour, one tablespoonful of lemon juice, a small 
lump of sugar. 

Mode. Wash and free the endive thoroughly from insects, remove the 
green part of the leaves, and put it into boiling water, slightly salted. Let 
it remain for ten minutes; then take it out, drain it till there is no water 
remaining and chop it very fine. Put it into a stewpan with the broth, 
add a little salt and a lump of sugar, and boil until the endive is perfectly 
tender. When done, which may be ascertained by squeezing a piece be- 
tween the thumb and finger, add a thickening of butter and flour and the 
lemon juice; let the sauce boil up and serve. 

Time. Ten minutes to boil, five minutes to simmer in the broth. 

BAKED MUSHROOMS. 

PREPARE them the same as for stewing. Place them in a baking-pan 
in a moderate oven. Season with salt, pepper, lemon juice and chopped 
parsley. Cook in the oven fifteen minutes, baste with butter. Arrange on 
a dish and pour the gravy over them. Serve with sauce made by beating 
a cup of cream, two ounces of butter, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a 
little cayenne pepper, salt, a tablespoonful of white sauce and two table- 
spoonfuls of lemon juice. Put in a saucepan and set on the fire. Stir 
until thick, but do not let boil. Mushrooms are very nice placed on slices 
of well-buttered toast when set into the oven to bake. They cook in about 
fifteen minutes. 



VEGETABLES. 205 

STEWED MUSHROOMS. 

TIME, twenty-one minutes. Button mushrooms, salt to taste, a little 
butter rolled in flour, two tablespoonf uls of cream or the yolk of one egg. 
Choose buttons of uniform size. Wipe them clean and white with a wet 
flannel; put them in a stewpan with a little water and let them stew very 
gently for a quarter of an hour. Add salt to taste, work in a little flour 
and butter, to make the liquor about as thick as cream, and let it boil for 
five minutes. When you are ready to dish it up, stir in two tablespoonfuls 
of cream or the yolk of an egg; stir it over the fire for a minute, but do not 
let it boil, and serve. Stewed button mushrooms are very nice, either in 
fish stews or ragouts, or served apart to eat with fish. Another way of 
doing them is to stew them in milk and water (after they are rubbed 
white), add to them a little veal gravy, mace and salt and thicken the 
gravy with cream or the yolks of eggs. 

Mushrooms can be cooked in the same manner as the recipes for 
oysters, either stewed, fried, broiled, or as a soup. They are also used to 
flavor sauces, catsups, meat gravies, game and soups. 

CANNED MUSHROOMS. 

CANNED mushrooms may be served with good effect with game and even 
with beefsteak if prepared in this way: Open the can and pour off every 
drop of the liquid found there; let the mushrooms drain, then put them in 
a saucepan with a little cream and butter, pepper and salt; let them sim- 
mer gently for from five to ten minutes, and when the meat is on the plat- 
ter pour the mushrooms over it. If served with steak, that should be very 
tender and be broiled, never in any case fried. 

MUSHROOMS FOR WINTER USE. 

WASH and wipe free from grit the small fresh button mushrooms. Put 
into a frying pan a quarter of a pound of the very best butter. Add to it 
two whole cloves, a saltspoonful of salt and a tablespoonf ul of lemon juice. 
When hot add a quart of the small mushrooms, toss them about in the 
butter for a moment only, then put them in jars ; fill the top of each jar 
with an inch or two of the butter and let it cool. Keep the jars in a cool 
place, and when the butter is quite firm add a top layer of salt. Cover to 
keep out dust. 

The best mushrooms grow on uplands or in high open fields, where the 
air is pure. 



206 VEGETABLES. 

TRUFFLES. 

THE truffle belongs to the family of the mushrooms ; they are used 
principally in this country as a condiment for boned turkey and chicken, 
scrambled eggs, fillets of beef, game and fish. When mixed in due pro- 
portion, they add a peculiar zest and flavor to sauces that cannot be found 
in any other plant in the vegetable kingdom. 

ITALIAN STYLE OF DRESSING TRUFFLES. 

TEN truffles, a quarter of a pint of salad oil, pepper and salt to taste, 
one tablespoonful of minced parsley, a very little finely minced garlic, two 
blades of pounded mace, one tablespoonful of lemon juice. 

After cleansing and brushing the truffles, cut them into thin slices and 
put them in a baking-dish, on a seasoning of oil or butter, pepper, salt, 
parsley, garlic and mace in the above proportion. Bake them for nearly 
an hour, and just before serving add the lemon juice and send them to 
table very hot. 

TRUFFLES AU NATUREL. 

SELECT some fine truffles ; cleanse them by washing them in several 
waters with a brush until not a particle of sand or grit remains on them ; 
wrap each truffle in buttered paper and bake in a hot oven for quite an 
hour; take off the paper, wipe the truffles and serve them in a hot napkin. 



MACARONI. 

MACARONI A LA ITALIENNE. 

DIVIDE a quarter of a pound of macaroni into four-inch pieces. Simmer 
fifteen minutes in plenty of boiling water, salted. Drain. Put the maca- 
roni into a saucepan and turn over it a strong soup stock, enough to pre- 
vent burning. Strew over it an ounce of grated cheese ; when the cheese 
is melted, dish. Put alternate layers of macaroni and cheese, then turn 
over the soup stock and bake half an hour. 

MACARONI AND CHEESE. 

BREAK half a pound of macaroni into pieces an inch or two long ; cook 
it in boiling water, enough to cover it well ; put in a good teaspoonful of 
salt ; let it boil about twenty minutes. Drain it well and then put a layer 
in the bottom of a well-buttered pudding-dish, upon this some grated 



VEGETABLES. 207 

cheese and small pieces of butter, a bit of salt, then more macaroni, and so 
on, filling the dish ; sprinkle the top layer with a thick layer of cracker 
crumbs. Pour over the whole a teacupf ul of cream or milk. Set it in the 
oven and bake half an hour. It should be nicely browned on top. Serve in 
the same dish in which it was baked with a clean napkin pinned around it. 

TIMBALE OF MACARONI. 

BREAK in very short lengths small macaroni (vermicelli, spaghetti, tag- 
liarini). Let it be rather overdone; dress it with butter and grated cheese; 
then work into it one or two eggs, according to quantity. Butter and 
bread crumb a plain mold, and when the macaroni is nearly cold fill the 
mold with it, pressing it well down and leaving a hollow in the centre, 
into which place a well-flavored mince of meat, poultry or game ; then fill 
up the mold with more macaroni, pressed well down. Bake in a moder- 
ately heated oven, turn out and serve. 

MACARONI A LA CREME. 

BOIL one-quarter of a pound of macaroni in plenty of hot water, salted, 
until tender ; put half a pint of milk in a double boiler, and when it boils 
stir into it a mixture of two tablespoonfuls of butter and one of flour. 
Add two tablespoonfuls of cream, a little white and cayenne pepper ; salt 
to taste, and from one-quarter to one-half a pound of grated cheese, accord- 
ing to taste. Drain and dish the macaroni ; pour the boiling sauce over it 
and serve immediately. 

MACARONI AND TOMATO SAUCE. 

DIVIDE half a pound of macaroni into four-inch pieces, put it into boil- 
ing salted water enough to cover it ; boil from fifteen to twenty minutes, 
then drain ; arrange it neatly on a hot dish and pour tomato sauce over it, 
and serve immediately while hot. See SAUCES for tomato sauce. 



BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

* * * 
TO MAKE BTJTTER. 

THOROUGHLY scald the churn, then cool well with ice or spring water. 
Now pour in the thick cream; churn fast at first, then, as the but- 
ter forms, more slowly; always with perfect regularity; in warm 
weather, pour a little cold water into the churn, should the but- 
ter form slowly; in the winter, if the cream is too cold, add a little warm 
water to bring it to the proper temperature. When the butter has 
"come," rinse the sides of the churn down with cold water and take the 
butter up with a perforated dasher or a wooden ladle, turning it dexter- 
ously just below the surface of the buttermilk to catch every stray bit; 
have ready some very cold water in a deep wooden tray; and into this 
plunge the dasher when you draw it from the churn; the butter will float 
off, leaving the dasher free. When you have collected all the butter, 
gather behind a wooden butter ladle and drain off the water, squeezing 
and pressing the butter with the ladle; then pour on more cold water and 
work the butter with the ladle to get the milk out, drain off the water, 
sprinkle salt over the butter a tablespoonful to a pound; work it in a 
little and set in a cool place for an hour to harden, then work and 
knead it until not another drop of water exudes, and the butter is per- 
fectly smooth, and close in texture and polish;, then with the ladle make 
up into rolls, little balls, stamped pats, etc. 

The churn, dasher, tray and ladle, should be well scalded before using, 
so that the butter will not stick to them, and then cooled with very cold 
water. 

When you skim cream into your cream jar, stir it well into what is 
already there, so that it may all sour alike; and no/res^ cream should be put 
with it within twelve hours before churning, or the butter will not come 
quickly; and perhaps, not at all. 

Butter is indispensable in almost all culinary preparations. Good 
fresh butter, used in moderation, is easily digested; it is softening, nutri- 
tious and fattening, and is far more easily digested than any other of the 
oleaginous substances sometimes used in its place. 

(208) 



BUTTER AND CHEESE. 209 

TO MAKE BUTTER QUICKLY. 

IMMEDIATELY after the cow is milked, strain the milk into clean pans, and 
set it over a moderate fire until it is scalding hot; do not let it boil; then 
set it aside; when it is cold, skim off the cream; the milk will still be fit for 
any ordinary use; when you have enough cream, put it into a clean earthen 
basin; beat it with a wooden spoon until the butter is made, which will 
not be long; then take it from the milk and work it with a little cold 
water, until it is free from milk; then drain off the water, put a small 
tablespoonful of fine salt to each pound of butter and work it in. A small 
teaspoonful of fine white sugar, worked in with the salt, will be found an 
improvement sugar is a great preservative. Make the butter in a roll; 
cover it with a bit of muslin and keep it in a cool place. A reliable 
recipe. 

A SEINE TO PRESERVE BUTTER. 

FIEST work your butter into small rolls, wrapping each one carefully in 
a clean muslin cloth, tying them up with a string. Make a brine, say 
three gallons, having it strong enough of salt to bear up an egg; add half a 
teacupful of pure, white sugar, and one tablespoonful of saltpetre; boil the 
brine, and when cold strain it carefully. Pour it over the rolls so as to 
more than cover them, as this excludes the air. Place a weight over all to 
keep the rolls under the surface. 

PUTTING UP BUTTER TO KEEP. 

TAKE of the best pure common salt two quarts, one ounce of white 
sugar and one of saltpetre; pulverize them together completely. Work 
the butter well, then thoroughly work in an ounce of this mixture to every 
pound of butter. The butter is to be made into half-pound rolls, and put 
into the following brine to three gallons of brine strong enough to bear 
an egg, add a quarter of a pound of white sugar. 

Orange Co., N. Y. Style. 
CURDS AND CREAM. 

ONE gallon of milk will make a moderate dish. Put one spoonful of 
prepared rennet to each quart of milk, and when you find that it has 
become curd, tie it loosely in a thin cloth and hang it to drain ; do not 
wring or press the cloth ; when drained, put the curd into a mug and set 
in cool water, which must be frequently changed (a refrigerator saves this 
trouble). When you dish it, if there is whey in the mug, ladle it gently 
out without pressing the curd ; lay it on a deep dish, and pour fresh cream 

14 



210 BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

over it ; have powdered loaf-sugar to eat with it ; also hand the nutmeg 
grater. 

Prepared rennet can be had at almost any druggist's, and at a reason- 
able price. 

NEW JERSEY CREAM CHEESE. 

FIRST scald the quantity of milk desired ; let it cool a little, then add 
the rennet; the directions for quantity are given on the packages of "Pre- 
pared Rennet." When the curd is formed, take it out on a ladle without 
breaking it; lay it on a thin cloth held by two persons; dash a ladleful of 
water over each ladleful of curd, to separate the curd ; hang it up to drain 
the water off, and then put it under a light press for one hour; cut the curd 
with a thread into small pieces; lay a cloth between each two, and press 
for an hour; take them out, rub them with fine salt, let them lie on a 
board for an hour, and wash them in cold water; let them lie to drain, and 
in a day or two the skin will look dry; put some sweet grass under and 
over them, and they will soon ripen. 

COTTAGE CHEESE. 

PUT a pan of sour or loppered milk on the stove or range where it is 
not too hot ; let it scald until the whey rises to the top (be careful that it 
does not boil, or the curd will become hard and tough). Place a clean 
cloth or towel over a sieve and pour this whey and curd into it, leaving it 
cohered to drain two to three "hours ; then put it into a dish and chop it 
fine with a spoon, adding a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of butter 
and enough sweet cream to make the cheese the consistency of putty. 
With your hands make it into little balls flattened. Keep it in a cool 
place. Many like it made rather thin with cream, serving it in a deep dish. 
You may make this cheese of sweet milk by forming the curd with pre- 
pared rennet. 

SLIP. 

SLIP is bonny-clabber without its acidity, and so delicate is its flavor 
that many persons like it just as well as ice cream. It is prepared thus: 
Make a quart of milk moderately warm ; then stir into it one large spoon- 
ful of the preparation called rennet ; set it by, and when cool again it will 
be as stiff as jelly. It should be made only a few hours before it is to be 
used, or it will be tough and watery ; in summer set the dish on ice after 
it has jellied. It must be served with powdered sugar, nutmeg and cream. 



BUTTER AND CHEESE. 211 

CHEESE FONDIT. 

MELT an ounce of butter and whisk into it a pint of boiled milk. Dis^ 
solve two tablespoonfuls of flour in a gill of cold milk, add it to the boiled 
milk and let it cool. Beat the yolks of four eggs with a heaping teaspoon- 
ful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper and five ounces of grated cheese. 
Whip the whites of the eggs and add them, pour the mixture into a deep 
tin lined with buttered paper, and allow for the rising, say four inches. 
Bake twenty minutes and serve the moment it leaves the oven. 

CHEESE SOUFFLE. 

MELT an ounce of butter in a saucepan; mix smoothly with it one ounce 
of flour, a pinch of salt and cayenne and a quarter of a pint of milk; sim- 
mer the mixture gently over the fire, stirring it all the time, till it is as 
thick as melted butter, stir into it about three ounces of finely-grated par- 
mesan, or any good cheese. Turn it into a basin and mix with it the 
yolks of two well-beaten eggs. Whisk three whites to a solid froth, and 
just before the souffle is baked put them into it, and pour the mixture into 
a small round tin. It should be only half filled, as the fondu will rise very 
high. Pin a napkin around the dish in which it is baked, and serve the 
moment it is baked. It would be well to have a metal cover strongly 
heated, Time twenty minutes. Sufficient for six persons. 

SCALLOPED CHEESE. 

ANY person who is fond of cheese could not fail to favor this recipe. 

Take three slices of bread well-buttered, first cutting off the brown out- 
side crust. Grate fine a quarter of a pound of any kind of good cheese; lay 
the bread in layers in a buttered baking-dish, sprinkle over it the grated 
cheese, some salt and pepper to taste. Mix four well-beaten eggs with 
three cups of milk; pour it over the bread and cheese. Bake it in a hot 
oven as you would cook a bread pudding. This makes an ample dish for 
four people. 

PASTRY RAMAKINS. 

TAKE the remains or odd pieces of any light puff paste left from pies 
or tarts; gather up the pieces of paste, roll it out evenly, and sprinkle it 
with grated cheese of a nice flavor. Fold the paste in three, roll it out 
again, and sprinkle more cheese over; fold the paste, roll it out, and with a 
paste-cutter shape it in any way that may be desired. Bake the ramakins 



212 BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

in a brisk oven from ten to fifteen minutes; dish them on a hot nap- 
kin and serve quickly. The appearance of this dish may be very much 
improved by brushing the ramakins over with yolk of egg before they are 
placed in the oven. Where expense is not objected to, parmesan is the 
best kind of cheese to use for making this dish. 
Very nice with a cup of coffee for a lunch. 

CAYENNE CHEESE STRAWS. 

A QUARTER of a pound of flour, two ounces butter, two ounces grated 
parmesan cheese, a pinch of salt and a few grains of cayenne pepper. Mix 
into a paste with the yolk of an egg. Roll out to the thickness of a silver 
quarter, about four or five inches long ; cut into strips about a third of an 
inch wide, twist them as you would a paper spill and lay them on a baking- 
sheet slightly floured. Bake in a moderate oven until crisp, but they must 
not be the least brown. If put away in a tin these cheese straws will keep 
a long time. Serve cold, piled tastefully on a glass dish. You can make 
the straws of remnants of puff pastry, rolling in the grated cheese. 

CHEESE CREAM TOAST. 

STALE bread may be served as follows: Toast the slices and cover them 
slightly with grated cheese ; make a cream for ten slices out of a pint of 
milk and two tablespoonfuls of plain flour. The milk should be boiling, 
and the flour mixed in a little cold water before stirring in. When the 
cream is nicely cooked, season with salt and butter ; set the toast and 
cheese in the oven for three or four minutes and then pour the cream 
over them. 

WELSH RAREBIT. 

GRATE three ounces of dry cheese and mix it with the yolks of two eggs, 
put four ounces of grated bread and three of butter ; beat the whole 
together in a mortar with a dessertspoonful of made mustard, a little salt 
and some pepper ; toast some slices of bread, cut off the outside crust, cut 
it in shapes and spread the paste thick upon them, and put them in the 
oven, let them become hot 'and slightly browned, serve hot as possible. 



EGGS AND OMELETS. 

* * * 

THERE are so many ways of cooking and dressing eggs, that it seems 
unnecessary for the ordinary family to use only those that are 
the most practical. 

To ascertain the freshness of an egg, hold it between your 
thumb and forefinger in a horizontal position, with a strong light in front 
of you. The fresh egg will have a clear appearance, both upper and lower 
sides being the same. The stale egg will have a clear appearance at the 
lower side, while the upper side will exhibit a dark or cloudy appearance. 
Another test is to put them in a pan of cold water; those that are the 
first to sink are the freshest; the stale will rise and float on top; or, if the 
large end turns up in the water, they are not fresh. The best time for 
preserving eggs is from July to September. 

TO PRESERVE EGGS. 

THERE are several recipes for. preserving eggs and we give first one 
which we know to be effectual, keeping them fresh from August until 
Spring. Take a piece of quick-lime as large as a good-sized lemon and 
two teacupfuls of salt; put it into a large vessel and slack it with a gallon 
of boiling water. It will boil and bubble until thick as cream; when it is 
cold, pour off the top, which will be perfectly clear. Drain off this liquor, 
and pour it over your eggs; see that the liquor more than covers them. 
A stone jar is the most convenient one that holds about six quarts. 

Another manner of preserving eggs is to pack them in a jar with layers 
of salt between, the large end of the egg downward, with a thick layer of 
salt at the top; cover tightly and set in a cool place. 

Some put them in a wire basket or a piece of mosquito net and dip 
them in boiling water half a minute; then pack in sawdust. Still another 
manner is to dissolve a cheap article of gum arabic, about as thin as 
muscilage, and brush over each egg with it; then pack in powdered char- 
coal; set in a cool, dark place. 

(213) 



214 EGGS AND OMELETS. 

Eggs can be kept for some time by smearing the shells with butter or 
lard; then packed in plenty of bran or sawdust, the eggs not allowed to 
touch one another; or coat the eggs with melted paraffine. 

BOILED EGGS. 

EGGS for boiling cannot be too fresh, or boiled too soon after they are 
laid ; but rather a longer time should be allowed for boiling a new-laid 
egg than for one that is three or four days old. Have ready a saucepan of 
boiling water ; put the eggs into it gently with a spoon, letting the spoon 
touch the bottom of the saucepan before it is withdrawn, that the egg may 
not fall and consequently crack. For those who like eggs lightly boiled, 
three minutes will be found sufficient ; three and three-quarters to four 
minutes will be ample time to set the white nicely ; and if liked hard, 
six or seven minutes will not be found too long. Should the eggs be 
unusually large, as those of black Spanish fowls sometimes are, allow an 
extra half minute for them. Eggs for salad should be boiled for ten or 
fifteen minutes, and should be placed in a basin of cold water for a few 
minutes to shrink the meat from the shell ; they should then be rolled on 
the table with the hand and the shell will peel off easily* 

SOFT BOILED EGGS. 

WHEN properly cooked eggs are done evenly through, like any other 
food. This result may be obtained by putting the eggs into a dish with a 
Cover, or a tin pail, and then pouring upon them boiling water two quarts 
or more to a dozen of eggs and cover and set them away where they will 
keep hot and not boil for ten to twelve minutes. The heat of the water 
cooks the eggs slowly, evenly and sufficiently, leaving the centre or yolk 
harder than the white, and the egg tastes as much richer and nicer as a 
fresh egg is nicer than a stale egg. 

SCALLOPED EGGS. 

HARD-BOIL twelve eggs ; slice them thin in rings ; in the bottom of a 
large well-buttered baking-dish place a layer of grated bread crumbs, then 
one of eggs ; cover with bits of butter and sprinkle with pepper and salt. 
Continue thus to blend these ingredients until the dish is full ; be sure, 
though, that the crumbs cover the eggs upon top. Over the whole pour a 
large teacupful of sweet cream or milk and brown nicely in a moderately 
heated oven. 



EGGS AND OMELETS. 215 

SHIRRED EGGS. 

SET into the oven until quite hot a common white dish large enough 
to hold the number of eggs to be cooked, allowing plenty of room for each. 
Melt in it a small piece of butter, and breaking the eggs carefully in a 
saucer, one at a time, slip them into the hot dish ; sprinkle over them a 
small quantity of pepper and salt and allow them to cook four or five min- 
utes. Adding a tablespoonful of cream for every two eggs, when the eggs 
are first slipped in, is a great improvement. 

This is far more delicate than fried eggs. 

Or prepare the eggs the same and set them in a steamer over boiling 
water. 

They are usually served in hotels baked in individual dishes, about two 
in a dish, and in the same dish they were baked in. 

SCRAMBLED EGGS. 

PUT a tablespoonful of butter into a hot frying pan ; tip around so 
that it will touch all sides of the pan. Having ready half a dozen eggs 
broken in a dish, salted and peppered, turn them (without beating) into 
the hot butter ; stir them one way briskly for five or six minutes or until 
they are mixed. Be careful that they do not get too hard. Turn over 
toast or dish up without. 

POACHED OR DROPPED EGGS. 

HAVE one quart of boiling water and one tablespoonful of salt in a 
frying pan. Break the eggs, one by one, into a saucer, and slide care- 
fully into the salted water. Dash with a spoon a little water over the 
egg, to keep the top white. 

The beauty of a poached egg is for the yolk to be seen blushing through 
the white, which should only be just sufficiently hardened to form a 
transparent veil for the egg. 

Cook until the white is firm, and lift out with a griddle cake turner, 
and place on toasted bread. Serve immediately. 

A tablespoonful of vinegar put into the water keeps the eggs from 
spreading. 

Open gem rings are nice placed in the water and an egg dropped into 

each ring. 

FRIED EGGS. 

BREAK the eggs, one at a time, into a saucer, and then slide them care- 
fully off into a frying pan of lard and butter mixed, dipping over the eggs 



216 EGGS AND OMELETS. 

the hot grease in spoonfuls, or turn them over, frying both sides without 
breaking them. They require about three minutes' cooking. 

Eggs can be fried round like balls, by dropping one at a time into a 
quantity of hot lard, the same as for fried cakes, first stirring the hot 
lard with a stick until it runs round like a whirlpool ; this will make the 
eggs look like balls. Take out with a skimmer. Eggs can be poached 
the same in boiling water. 

EGGS ATTX FINES HERBES. 

KOLL an ounce of butter in a good teaspoonful of flour; season with 
pepper, salt and nutmeg; put it into a coffeecupful of fresh milk, together 
with two teaspoonfuls of chopped parsley; stir and simmer it for fifteen 
minutes, add a teacupful of thick cream. Hard-boil five eggs and halve 
them; arrange them in a dish with the ends upwards, pour the sauce 
over them, and decorate with little heaps of fried bread crumbs round 
the margin of the dish. 

POACHED EGGS A LA CREME. 

PUT a quart of hot water, a tablespoonful of vinegar and a teaspoonful 
of salt into a frying pan, and break each egg separately into a saucer; slip 
the egg carefully into the hot water, simmer three or four minutes until 
the white is set, then with a skimmer lift them out into a hot dish. Empty 
the pan of its contents, put in half a cup of cream, or rich milk; if milk, a 
large spoonful of butter; pepper and salt to taste, thicken with a very lit- 
tle cornstarch; let it boil up once, and turn it over the dish of poached 
eggs. It can be served on toast or without. 

It is a better plan to warm the cream and butter in a separate dish, that 
the eggs may not have to stand. 

EGGS IN GASES. 

MAKE little paper cases of buttered writing paper; put a small piece of 
butter in each, and a little chopped parsley or onion, pepper and salt. 
Place the cases upon a gridiron over a moderate fire of bright coals, and 
when the butter melts, break a fresh egg into each case. Strew in upon 
them a few seasoned bread crumbs, and when nearly done, glaze the tops 
with a hot shovel. Serve in the paper cases. 

MINCED EGGS. 

CHOP up four or five hard-boiled eggs; do not mince them too fine. Put 
over the fire in a suitable dish a cupful of milk, a tablespoonful of bntter, 




THE FAMOUS EAST ROOM. 




THE RED ROOM. 



THE BLUE ROOM, 



EGGS AND OMELETS. 217 

salt and pepper, and some savory chopped small. When this comes to a 
boil stir into it a tablespoonful of flour, dissolved in a little cold milk. 
When it cooks thick like cream put in the minced eggs. Stir it gently 
around and around for a few moments and serve, garnished with sippets of 
toast. Any particular flavor may be given to this dish, such as that of 
mushrooms, truffles, catsup, essence of shrimps, etc., or some shred anchovy 
may be added to the mince 

MIXED EGGS AND BACON. 

TAKE a nice rasher of mild bacon; cut it into squares no larger than 
dice; fry it quickly until nicely browned, but on no account burn it. 
Break half a dozen eggs into a basin, strain and season them with pepper, 
add them to the bacon, stir the whole about and, when sufficiently firm, 
turn it out into a dish. Decorate with hot pickles. 

MIXED EGGS GENERALLY SAVORY OR SWEET. 

MUCH the same method is followed in mixed eggs generally, whatever 
may be added to them; really it is nothing more than an omelet which is 
stirred about in the pan while it is being dressed, instead of being allowed 
to set as a pancake. Chopped tongue, oysters, shrimps, sardines, dried 
salmon, anchovies, herbs, may be used. 

COLD EGGS FOR A PICNIC. 

THIS novel way of preparing cold egg for the lunch-basket fully repays 
one for the extra time required. Boil hard several eggs, halve them 
lengthwise; remove the yolks and chop them fine with cold chicken, lamb, 
veal or any tender, roasted meat; or with bread soaked in milk and any 
salad, as parsley, onion, celery, the bread being half of the whole; or with 
grated cheese, a little olive oil, drawn butter, flavored. Fill the cavity in 
the egg with either of these mixtures, or any similar preparation. Press 
the halves together, roll twice in beaten egg and bread crumbs, and dip 
into boiling lard. When the color rises delicately, drain them and they 
are ready for use. 

OMELETS. 

IN MAKING an omelet, care should be taken that the omelet pan is hot 
and dry. To ensure this, put a small quantity of lard or suet into a clean 
frying pan, let it simmer a few minutes, then remove it ; wipe the pan 
dry with a towel, and then put in a tablespoonful of butter. The smooth- 
ness of the pan is most essential, as the least particle of roughness 



218 EGGS AND OMELETS. 

will cause the omelet to stick. As a general rule, a small omelet can 
be made more successfully than a large one, it being much better to 
make two small ones of four eggs each, than to try double the number 
of eggs in one omelet and fail. Allow one egg to a person in making 
an omelet and one tablespoonful of milk ; this makes an omelet more 
puffy and tender than one made without milk. Many prefer them without 
milk. 

Omelets are called by the name of what is added to give them flavor, 
as minced ham, salmon, onions, oysters, etc., beaten up in the eggs in 
due quantity, which gives as many different kinds of omelets. 

They are also served over many kinds of thick sauces or purees, such 
as tomatoes, spinach, endive, lettuce, celery, etc. 

If vegetables are to be added, they should be already cooked, seasoned 
and hot ; place in the centre of the omelet, just before turning ; so with 
mushroom, shrimps, or any cooked ingredients. All omelets should be 
served the moment they are done, as they harden by standing, and care 
taken that they do not cook too much. 

Sweet omelets are generally used for breakfast or plain desserts. 

PLAIN OMELET. 

PUT a smooth, clean, iron frying pan on the fire to heat; meanwhile, 
beat four eggs very light, the whites to a stiff froth and the yolks to a 
thick batter. Add to the yolks four tablespoonfuls of milk, pepper and 
salt ; and, lastly, stir in the whites lightly. Put a piece of butter nearly 
half the size of an egg into the heated pan ; turn it so that it will moisten 
the entire bottom, taking care that it does not scorch. Just as it be- 
gins to boil, pour in the eggs. Hold the frying pan handle in your left 
hand, and, as the eggs whiten, carefully, with a spoon, draw up lightly 
from the bottom, letting the raw part run out on the pan, till all be 
equally cooked ; shake with your left hand, till the omelet be free from 
the pan, then turn with a spoon one half of the omelet over the other ; let 
it remain a moment, but continue shaking, lest it adhere ; toss to a warm 
platter held in the right hand, or lift with a flat, broad shovel ; the omelet 
will be firm around the edge, but creamy and light inside. 

MEAT OR FISH OMELETS. 

TAKE cold meat, fish, game or poultry of any kind; remove all skin, 
sinew, etc., and either cut it small or pound it to a paste in a mortar, 



EGGS AND OMELETS. 219 

together with a proper proportion of spices and salt; then either toss it in 
a buttered frying pan over a clear fire till it begins to brown and pour 
beaten eggs upon it, or beat it up with the eggs, or spread it upon them 
after they have begun to set in the pan. In any case serve hot, with or 
without a sauce, but garnish with crisp herbs in branches, pickles, or sliced 
lemon. The right proportion is one tablespoonful of meat to four eggs. A 
little milk, gravy, water, or white wine, may be advantageously added to 
the eggs while they are being beaten. 

Potted meats make admirable omelets in the above manner. 

VEGETABLE OMELET. 

MAKE a puree by mashing up ready-dressed vegetables, together with a 
little milk, cream or gravy and some seasoning. The most suitable 
vegetables are cucumbers, artichokes, onions, sorrel, green peas, tomatoes, 
lentils, mushrooms, asparagus tops, potatoes, truffles or turnips. Prepare 
some eggs by beating them very light. Pour them into a nice hot frying 
pan, containing a spoonful of butter; spread the puree upon the upper side; 
and when perfectly hot, turn or fold the omelet together and serve. Or 
cold vegetables may be merely chopped small, then tossed in a little but- 
ter, and some beaten and seasoned eggs poured over. 

OMELET OF HERBS. 

PARSLEY, thyme and sweet marjoram mixed gives the famous omelette 
aux fines herbes so popular at every wayside inn in the most remote corner 
of sunny France. An omelet "jardiniere" is two tablespoonfuls of mixed 
parsley, onion, chives, shallots and a few leaves each of sorrel and chevril, 
minced fine and stirred into the beaten eggs before cooking. It will take 
a little more butter to fry it than a plain one. 

CHEESE OMELET. 

BEAT up three eggs, and add to them a tablespoonful of milk and a 
tablespoonful of grated cheese; add a little more cheese before folding; 
turn it out on a hot dish; grate a little cheese over it before serving. 

ASPARAGUS OMELET. 

BOIL with a little salt, and until about half cooked, eight or ten stalks 
of asparagus, and cut the eatable part into rather small pieces; beat the 
eggs and mix the asparagus with them. Make the omelet as above 
directed, Omelet with parsley is made by adding a little chopped parsley. 



220 EGGS AND OMELETS. 

TOMATO OMELET. No. 1. 

PEEL a couple of tomatoes, which split into four pieces; remove the 
seeds and cut them into small dice; then fry them with a little butter 
until nearly done, adding salt and pepper. Beat the eggs and mix the to- 
matoes with them, and make the omelet as usual. Or stew a few tomatoes 
in the usual way and spread over before folding. 

TOMATO OMELET. No. 2. 

CUT in slices and place in a stewpan six peeled tomatoes; add a table- 
spoonful of cold water, a little pepper and salt. When they begin to sim- 
mer, break in six eggs, stir well, stirring one way, until the eggs are cooked, 
but not too hard. Serve warm. 

RICE OMELET. 

TAKE a cupful of cold boiled rice, turn over it a cupful of warm milk, 
add a tablespoonful of butter melted, a level teaspoonful of salt, a dash of 
pepper; mix well, then add three well-beaten eggs. Put a tablespoonful of 
butter in a hot frying pan, and when it begins to boil pour in the omelet 
and set the pan in a hot oven. As soon as it is cooked through, fold it 
double, turn it out on a hot dish, and serve at once. Very good. 

HAM OMELET. 

CUT raw ham into dice, fry with butter and when cooked enough, turn 
the beaten egg over it and cook as a plain omelet. 

If boiled ham is used, mince it and mix with the eggs after they are 
beaten. Bacon may be used instead of raw ham. 

CHICKEN OMELET. 

MINCE rather fine one cupful of cooked chicken, warm in a teacupful of 
cream or rich milk a tablespoonful of butter, salt and pepper; thicken 
with a large tablespoonful of flour. Make a plain omelet, then add this 
mixture just before turning it over. This is much better than the dry 
minced chicken. Tongue is equally good. 

MUSHROOM OMELET. 

CLEAN a cupful of large button mushrooms, canned ones may be used; 
cut them into bits. Put into a stewpan an ounce of butter and let it melt; 
add the mushrooms, a teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper and 



EGGS AND OMELETS. 221 

half a cupful of cream or milk. Stir in a teaspoonful of flour, dissolved in a 
little milk or water to thicken, if needed. Boil ten minutes, and set aside 
until the omelet is ready. 

Make a plain omelet the usual way, and just before doubling it, turn 
the mushrooms over the centre and serve hot. 

OYSTER OMELET. 

PARBOIL a dozen oysters in their own liquor, skim them out and let 
them cool; add them to the beaten eggs, either whole or minced. Cook 
the same as a plain omelet. 

Thicken the liquid with butter rolled in flour; season with salt, cay- 
enne pepper and a teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Chop up the oysters 
and add to the sauce. Put a few spoonfuls in the centre of the omelet 
before folding; when dished, pour the remainder of the sauce around it. 

FISH OMELET, 

MAKE a plain omelet, and when ready to fold, spread over it fish pre- 
pared as follows: Add to a cupful of any kind of cold fish, broken fine, 
cream enough to moisten it, seasoned with a tablespoonf ul of butter; then 
pepper and salt to taste. Warm together. 

ONION OMELET. 

MAKE a plain omelet, and when ready to turn spread over it a teaspoon- 
ful each of chopped onion and minced parsley; then fold, or, if prepared, 
mix the minces into the eggs before cocking. 

JELLY OMELET. 

MAKE a plain omelet, and just before folding together, spread with some 
kind of jelly. Turn out on a warm platter. Dust it with powdered sugar 

BREAD OMELET. No. 1. 

BREAK four eggs into a basin and carefully remove the treadles; have 
ready a tablespoonf ul of grated and sifted bread; soak it in either milk, 
water, cream, white wine, gravy, lemon juice, brandy or rum, according as 
the omelet is intended to be sweet or savory. Well beat the eggs together 
with a little nutmeg, pepper and salt; add the bread, and, beating con- 
stantly (or the omelet will be crumbly), get ready a frying pan, buttered 
and made thoroughly hot; put in the omelet; do it on one side only; turn 
it upon a dish, and fold it double to prevent the steam from condensing. 



222 EGGS AND OMELETS. 

Stale sponge-cake, grated biscuit, or pound cake, may replace the bread 
for a sweet omelet, when pounded loaf sugar should be sifted over it, and 
the dish decorated with lumps of currant jelly. This makes a nice dessert. 

BREAD OMELET. No. 2. 

LET one teacup of milk come to a boil, pour it over one teacupful of 
bread crumbs and let it stand a few minutes. Break six eggs into a bowl, 
stir (not beat) till well mixed; then add the milk and bread, season with 
pepper and salt, mix all well together and turn into a hot frying pan, 
containing a large spoonful of butter boiling hot. Fry the omelet slowly, 
and when brown on the bottom cut in squares and turn again, fry to a del- 
icate brown and serve hot. 

Cracker omelet may be made by substituting three or four rolled 
crackers in place of bread. 

BAKED OMELET. 

BEAT the whites and yolks of four or six eggs separately; add to the 
yolks a small cup of milk, a tablespoonful of flour or cornstarch, a tea- 
spoonful of baking powder, one-half teaspoonful of salt, and, lastly, the 
stiff-beaten whites. Bake in a well buttered pie-tin or plate about half 
an hour in a steady oven. It should be served the moment it is taken 
from the oven, as it is liable to fall. 

OMELET SOUFFLE. 

BREAK six eggs into separate cups; beat four of the yolks, mix with 
them one teaspoonful of flour, three tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, 
very little salt. Flavor with extract lemon or any other of the flavors 
that may be preferred. Whisk the whites of six eggs to a firm froth; mix 
them lightly with the yolks; pour the mixture into a greased pan or dish; 
bake in a quick oven. When well-risen and lightly browned on the top, 
it is done; roll out in warm dish, sift pulverized sugar over, and send to 
table. 

RUM OMELET. 

PUT a small quantity of lard into the pan; let it simmer a few minutes 
and remove it; wipe the pan dry with a towel, and put in a little fresh 
lard in which the omelet may be fried. Care should be taken that the 
lard does not burn, which would spoil the color of the omelet. Break 
three eggs separately; put them into a bowl and whisk them thoroughly 



EGGS AND OMELETS. 

with a fork. The longer they are beaten, the lighter will the omelet be. 
Beat up a teaspoonful of milk with the eggs and continue to beat until the 
last moment before pouring into the pan, which should be over a hot fire. 
As soon as the omelet sets, remove the pan from the hottest part of the 
fire. Slip a knife under it to prevent sticking to the pan. When the cen- 
tre is almost firm, slant the pan, work the omelet in shape to fold easily 
and neatly, and when slightly browned, hold a platter against the edge of 
the pan and deftly turn it out on to the hot dish. Dust a liberal quantity 
of powdered sugar over it, and singe the sugar into neat stripes with a hot 
iron rod, heated in the coals; pour a glass of warm Jamaica rum around 
it, and when it is placed on the table set fire to the rum. With a table- 
spoon dash the burning rum over the omelet, put out the fire and serve. 
Salt mixed with the eggs prevents them from rising, and when it is so used 
the omelet will look flabby, yet without- salt it will taste insipid. Add a 
little salt to it just before folding it and turning out on the dish. 

" The Cook." 




SANDWICHES. 

* * * 

HAM SANDWICHES. 

AKE a dressing of half a cup of butter, one tablespoonful of mixed 
mustard, one of salad oil, a little red or white pepper, a pinch of 
salt and the yolk of an egg ; rub the butter to a cream, add the 
other ingredients and mix thoroughly ; then stir in as much 
chopped ham as will make it consistent and spread between thin slices of 
bread. Omit salad oil and substitute melted butter if preferred. 



M 



HAM SANDWICHES, PLAIN. 

TRIM the crusts from thin slices of bread; butter them and lay between 
every two some thin slices of cold boiled ham. Spread the meat with a 
little mustard if liked 

CHICKEN SANDWICHES. 

MINCE up fine any cold boiled or roasted chicken ; put it into a sauce- 
pan with gravy, water or cream enough to soften it ; add a good piece of 
butter, a pinch of pepper ; work it very smooth while it is heating until it 
looks almost like a paste. Then spread it on a plate to cool. Spread it 
between slices of buttered bread. 

SARDINE SANDWICHES. 

TAKE two boxes of sardines and throw the contents into hot water, 
having first drained away all the oil. A few minutes will free the sardines 
from grease. Pour away the water and dry the fish in a cloth ; then 
scrape away the skins and pound the sardines in a mortar till reduced to 
paste ; add pepper, salt and some tiny pieces of lettuce, and spread on the 
sandwiches, which have been previously cut as above. The lettuce adds 
very much to the flavor of the sardines. 

Or chop the sardines up fine and squeeze a few drops of lemon juice 
into them, and spread between buttered bread or cold biscuits. 

(224) 



SANDWICHES. 225 

WATER CRESS SANDWICHES. 

WASH well some water cress and then dry them in a cloth, pressing out 
every atom of moisture as far as possible; then mix with the cress hard- 
boiled eggs chopped fine, and seasoned with salt and pepper. Have a stale 
loaf and some fresh butter, and with a sharp knife cut as many thin slices 
as will be required for two dozen sandwiches; then cut the cress into small 
pieces, removing the stems; place it between each slice of bread and but- 
ter, with a slight sprinkling of lemon juice; press down the slices hard, 
and cut them sharply on a board into small squares, leaving no crust. 

Nanlasket Beach. 
EGG SANDWICHES. 

HAKD boil some very fresh eggs and when cold cut them into moder- 
ately thin slices and lay them between some bread and butter cut as thin 
as possible; season them with pepper, salt and nutmeg. For picnic parties, 
or when one is traveling, these sandwiches are far preferable to hard-boiled 
eggs au naturel. 

MUSHROOM SANDWICHES. 

MINCE beef tongue and boiled mushrooms together, add French mustard 
and spread between buttered bread. 

CHEESE SANDWICHES. 

THESE are extremely nice and are very easily made. Take one hard- 
boiled egg, a quarter of a pound of common cheese grated, half a teaspoon- 
ful of salt, half a teaspoonfut of pepper, half a teaspoonful of mustard, one 
tablespoonful of melted butter, and one tablespoonful of vinegar or cold 
water. Take the yolk of the egg and put it into a small bowl and crumble 
it down, put into it the butter and mix it smooth with a spoon, then add 
the salt, pepper, mustard and the cheese, mixing each well. Then put in 
the tablespoonful of vinegar, which will make it the proper thickness. If 
vinegar is not relished, then use cold water instead. Spread this between 
two biscuits or pieces of oat-cake, and you could not require a better sand- 
wich. Some people will prefer the sandwiches less highly seasoned. In 
that case, season to taste. 



15 



BREAD. 

* * * 

AMONG all civilized people bread has become an article of food of 
the first necessity; and properly so, for it constitutes of itself a 
complete life sustainer, the gluten, starch and sugar which it 
contains representing ozotized and hydro-carbonated nutrients, 
and combining the sustaining powers of the animal and vegetable king- 
doms in one product. As there is no one article of food that enters so 
largely into our daily fare as bread, so no degree of skill in preparing 
other articles can compensate for lack of knowledge in the art of making 
good, palatable and nutritious bread. A little earnest attention to the 
subject will enable any one to comprehend the theory, and then ordinary 
care in practice will make one familiar with the process. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

THE first thing required for making wholesome bread is the utmost 
cleanliness ; the next is the soundness and sweetness of all the ingredients 
used for it; and, in addition to these, there must be attention and care 
through the whole process. 

Salt is always used in bread-making, not only on account of its flavor, 
which destroys the insipid raw state of the flour, but because it makes 
the dough rise better. 

In mixing with milk, the milk should be boiled not simply scalded, 
but heated to boiling over hot water then set aside to cool before mix- 
ing. Simple heating will not prevent bread from turning sour in the 
rising, while boiling will act as a preventative. So the milk should be 
thoroughly scalded, and should be used when it is just blood warm. 

Too small a proportion of yeast, or insufficient time allowed for the 
dough to rise, will cause the bread to be heavy. 

The yeast must be good and fresh if the bread is to be digestible and 
nice. Stale yeast produces, instead of vinous fermentation, an acetous 
fermentation, which flavors the bread and makes it disagreeable. A 
poor, thin yeast produces an imperfect fermentation, the result being a 
heavy, unwholesome loaf. 

(226) 



BREAD. 227 

If either the sponge or the dough be permitted to overwork itself - 
that is to say, if the mixing and kneading be neglected when it has 
reached the proper point for either sour bread will probably be the con- 
sequence in warm weather, and bad bread in any. The goodness will 
also be endangered by placing it so near a fire as to make any part of 
it hot, instead of maintaining the gentle and equal degree of heat required 
for its due fermentation. 

Heavy bread will also most likely be the result of making the dough 
very hard and letting it become quite cold, particularly in winter. 

An almost certain way of spoiling dough is to leave it half made, and 
to allow it to become cold before it is finished. The other most common 
causes of failure are using yeast which is no longer sweet, or which has 
been frozen, or has had hot liquid poured over it. 

As a general rule, the oven for baking bread should be rather quick 
and the heat so regulated as to penetrate the dough without hardening 
the outside. The oven door should not be opened after the bread is put in 
until the dough is set or has become firm, as the cool air admitted will 
have an unfavorable effect on it. 

The dough should rise and the bread begin to brown after about fifteen 
minutes, but only slightly. Bake from fifty to sixty minutes and have it 
brown, not black or whitey brown, but brown all over when well baked. 

When the bread is baked, remove the loaves immediately from the 
pans and place them where the air will circulate freely around them, and 
thus carry off the gas which has been formed, but is no longer needed. 

Never leave the bread in the pan or on a pine table to absorb the odor 
of the wood. If you like crusts that are crisp do not cover the loaves; but 
to give the soft, tender, wafer-like consistency which many prefer, wrap 
them while still hot in several thicknesses of bread-cloth. When cold put 
them in a stone jar, removing the cloth, as that absorbs the moisture and 
gives the bread an unpleasant taste and odor. Keep the jar well covered 
and carefully cleansed from crumbs and stale pieces. Scald and dry it 
thoroughly every two or three days. A yard and a half square of coarse 
table linen makes the best bread-cloth. Keep in good supply ; use them 
for no other purpose. 

Some people use scalding water in making wheat bread ; in that case 
the flour must be scalded and allowed to cool before the yeast is added - 
then proceed as above. Bread made in this manner keeps moist in sum- 
mer much longer than when made in the usual mode. 



228 BREAD. 

Home-made yeast is generally preferred to any other. Compressed 
yeast, as now sold in most grocery stores, makes fine light, sweet bread, 
and is a much quicker process, and can always be had fresh, being made 
fresh every day. 

WHEAT BREAD. 

SIFT the flour into a large bread-pan or bowl ; make a hole in the mid- 
dle of it, and pour in the yeast in the ratio of half a teacupful of yeast to 
two quarts of flour ; stir the yeast lightly, then pour in your " wetting," 
either milk or water, as you choose, which use warm in winter and cold 
in summer ; if you use water as "wetting," dissolve in it a bit of butter of 
the size of an egg, if you use milk, no butter is necessary ; stir in the 
"wetting" very lightly, but do not mix all the flour into it; then cover 
the pan with a thick blanket or towel, and set it, in winter, in a warm 
place to rise, this is called "putting the bread in sponge" In summer the 
bread should not be wet over night. In the morning add a teaspoonful of 
salt and mix all the flour in the pan with the sponge, kneading it well ; 
then let it stand two hours or more until it has risen quite light ; then 
remove the dough to the molding-board and mold it for a long time, cut- 
ting it in pieces and molding them together again and again, until the 
dough is elastic under the pressure of your hand, using as little flour as 
possible ; then make it into loaves, put the loaves into baking-tins. The 
loaves should come half-way up the pan, and they should be allowed to 
rise until the bulk is doubled. When the loaves are ready to put into the 
oven, the oven should be ready to receive them. It should be hot enough 
to brown a teaspoonful of flour in five minutes. The heat should be 
greater at the bottom than at the top of the oven, and the fire so arranged 
as to give sufficient strength of heat through the baking without being 
replenished. Let them stand ten or fifteen minutes, prick them three or 
four times with a fork, bake in a quick oven from forty-five to sixty 
minutes. 

If these directions are followed, you will obtain sweet, tender and 
wholesome bread. If by any mistake the dough becomes sour before you 
are ready to bake it, you can rectify it by adding a little dry supercarbon- 
ate of soda, molding the dough a long time to distribute the soda equally 
throughout the mass. All bread is better, if naturally sweet, without the 
soda ; but sour bread you should never eat, if you desire good health. 

Keep well covered in a tin box or large stone crock, which should be 



BREAD. 229 

wiped out everyday or two, and scalded and dried thoroughly in the sun 
once a week. 

COMPRESSED YEAST BREAD. 

USE for two loaves of bread three quarts of sifted flour, nearly a quart 
of warm water, a level tablespoonful of salt and an ounce of compressed 
yeast. Dissolve the yeast in a pint of lukewarm water; then stir into it 
enough flour to make a thick batter. Cover the bowl containing the bat- 
ter or sponge with a thick folded cloth and set it in a warm place to rise; 
if the temperature of heat is properly attended to, the sponge will be 
foamy and light in half an hour. Now stir into this sponge the salt dis- 
solved in a little warm water, add the rest of the flour and sufficient warm 
water to make the dough stiff enough to knead; then knead it from five to 
ten minutes, divide it into loaves, knead again each loaf and put them into 
buttered baking tins; cover them with a double thick cloth and set again 
in a warm place to rise twice their height, then bake the same as any bread. 
This bread has the advantage of that made of home-made yeast as it is 
made inside of three hours, whereas the other requires from twelve to four- 
teen hours. 

HOME-MADE YEAST. 

BOIL six large potatoes in three pints of water. Tie a handful of hops 
in a small muslin bag and boil with the potatoes; when thoroughly cooked 
drain the water on enough flour to make a thin batter; set this on the 
stove or range and scald it enough to cook the flour (this makes the yeast 
keep longer); remove it from the fire and when cool enough, add the pota- 
toes mashed, also half a cup of sugar, half a tablespoonful of ginger, two 
of salt and a teacupf ul of yeast. Let it stand in a warm place, until it has 
thoroughly risen, then put it in a large mouthed jug and cork tightly; set 
away in a cool place. The jug should be scalded before putting in the 
yeast. 

Two-thirds of a coffeecupful of this yeast will make four loaves. 

UNRIVALED YEAST. 

ON ONE morning boil two ounces of the best hops in four quarts of water 
half an hour; strain it, and let the liquor cool to the consistency of new 
milk; then put it in an earthen bowl and add half a cupful of salt and half 
a cupful of brown sugar; beat up one quart of flour with some of the 
liquor; then mix all well together, and let it stand till the third day after; 



230 BREAD. 

then add six medium-sized potatoes, boiled and mashed through a colander; 
let it stand a day, then strain and bottle and it is fit for use. It must be 
stirred frequently while it is making, and kept near a fire. One advan- 
tage of this yeast is its spontaneous fermentation, requiring the help of no 
old yeast; if care be taken to let it ferment well in the bowl, it may imme- 
diately be corked tightly. Be careful to keep it in a cool place. Before 
using it shake the bottle up well. It will keep in a cool place two months, 
and is best the latter part of the time. Use about the same quantity as of 
other yeast. 

DRIED YEAST OR YEAST CAKES. 

MAKE a pan of yeast the same as "Home-Made Yeast;" mix in with it 
corn meal that has been sifted and dried, kneading it well until it is thick 
enough to roll out, when it can be cut into cakes or crumble up. Spread 
out and dry thoroughly in the shade; keep in a dry place. 

When it is convenient to get compressed yeast, it is much better and 
cheaper than to make your own, a saving of time and trouble. Almost all 
groceries keep it, delivered to them fresh made daily. 

SALT-RAISING BREAD. 

WHILE getting breakfast in the morning, as soon as the tea-kettle has 
boiled, take a quart tin cup or an earthen quart milk pitcher, scald it, then 
fill one-third full of water about as warm as the finger could be held in ; 
then to this add a teaspoonful of salt, a pinch of brown sugar and coarse 
flour enough to make a batter of about the right consistency for griddle- 
cakes. Set the cup, with the spoon in it, in a closed vessel half-filled with 
water moderately hot, but not scalding. Keep the temperature as nearly 
even as possible and add a teaspoonful of flour once or twice during the 
process of fermentation. The yeast ought to reach to the top of the bowl 
in about five hours. Sift your flour into a pan, make an opening in the 
centre and pour in your yeast. Have ready a pitcher of warm milk, salted, 
or milk and water (not too hot, or you will scald the yeast germs), and stir 
rapidly into a pulpy mass with a spoon. Cover this sponge closely and 
keep warm for an hour, then knead into loaves, adding flour to make the 
proper consistency. Place in warm, well-greased pans, cover closely and 
leave till it is light. Bake in a steady oven, and when done let all the hot 
steam escape. Wrap closely in damp towels and keep in closed earthen 
jars until it is wanted. 



BREAD. 231 

This, in our grandmothers' time, used to be considered the prize bread, 
on account of its being sweet and wholesome and required no prepared 
yeast to make it. Nowadays yeast-bread is made with very little trouble, 
as the yeast can be procured at almost any grocery. 

BREAD FROM MILK YEAST. 

AT NOON the day before baking, take half a cup of corn meal and pour 
over it enough sweet milk boiling hot to make it the thickness of batter- 
cakes. In the winter place it where it will keep warm. The next morn- 
ing before breakfast pour into a pitcher a pint of boiling water ; add one 
teaspoonful of soda and one of salt. When cool enough so that it will not 
scald the flour, add enough to make a stiff batter ; then add the cup of 
meal set the day before. This will be full of little bubbles. Then place 
the pitcher in a kettle of warm water, cover the top with a folded towel 
and put it where it will keep warm, and you will be surprised to find how 
soon the yeast will be at the top of the pitcher. Then pour the yeast into 
a bread-pan ; add a pint and a half of warm water, or half water and half 
milk, and flour enough to knead into loaves. Knead but little harder than 
for biscuit and bake as soon as it rises to the top of the tin. This recipe 
makes five large loaves. Do not allow it to get too light before baking, 
for it will make the bread dry and crumbling. A cup of this milk yeast is 
excellent to raise buckwheat cakes. 

GRAHAM BREAD. 

ONE teacupf ul of wheat flour, one-half teacupful of Porto Rico molasses, 
one-half cupful of good yeast, one teaspoonful of salt, one pint of warm 
water; add sufficient Graham flour to make the dough as stiff as can be 
stirred with a strong spoon; this is to be mixed at night; in the morning, 
add one teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a little water; mix well, and pour 
into two medium-sized pans; they will be about half full; let it stand in a 
warm place until it rises to the top of the pans, then bake one hour in a 
pretty hot oven. 

This should be covered about twenty minutes when first put into the 
oven with a thick brown paper, or an old tin cover; it prevents the upper 
crust hardening before the loaf is well-risen. If these directions are cor- 
rectly followed the bread will not be heavy or sodden, as it has been tried 
for years and never failed. 



232 BREAD. 

GRAHAM BREAD. (Unfermented.) 

STIR together three heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder, three cups 
of Graham flour and one cup of white flour; then add a large teaspoonful 
of salt and half a cup of sugar. Mix all thoroughly with milk or water 
into as stiff a batter as can be stirred with a spoon. If water is used, a 
lump of butter as large as a walnut may be melted and stirred into it. 
Bake immediately in well-greased pans. 

BOSTON BROWN BREAD. 

ONE pint 01 rye flour, one quart of corn meal, one teacupful of Graham 
flour, all fresh; half a teacupful of molasses or brown sugar, a teaspoonful 
of salt, and two-thirds of a teacupful of home-made yeast. Mix into as 
stiff a dough as can be stirred with a spoon, using warm water for wetting. 
Let it rise several hours, or over night; in the morning, or when light, add 
a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a spoonful of warm water; beat it well 
and turn it into well-greased, deep bread-pans, and let it rise again. 
Bake in a moderate oven from three to four hours. 

Palmer House, Chicago. 

BOSTON BROWN BREAD. (TTnfennented.) 

ONE cupful of rye flour, two cupfuls of corn meal, one cupful of white 
flour, half a teacupful of molasses or sugar, a teaspoonful of salt. Stir all 
together thoroughly, and wet up with sour milk ; then add a level tea- 
spoonful of soda dissolved in a tablespoonful of water. The same can be 
made of sweet milk by substituting baking powder for soda. The batter 
to be stirred as thick as can be with a spoon, and turned into well-greased 
pans. 

VIRGINIA BROWN BREAD. 

ONE pint of corn meal; pour over enough boiling water to thoroughly 
scald it ; when cool add one pint of light, white bread sponge, mix well 
together, add one cupful of molasses, and Graham flour enough to mold ; 
this will make two loaves ; when light, bake in a moderate oven one and 
a half hours. 

RHODE ISLAND BROWN BREAD. 

Two AND one-half cupfuls of corn meal, one and one-half cupfuls of 
rye meal, one egg, one cup of molasses, two teaspoonfuls of cream of tar- 
tar, one teaspoonful of soda, a little salt and one quart of milk. Bake in 



BREAD. 233 

a covered dish, either earthen or iron, in a moderately hot oven three 

hours. 

STEAMED BROWN BREAD. 

ONE cup of white flour, two of Graham flour, two of Indian meal, one 
teaspoonful of soda, one cup of molasses, three and a half cups of milk, a 
little salt. Beat well and steam for four hours. This is for sour milk ; 
when sweet milk is used, use baking powder in place of soda. 

This is improved by setting it into the oven fifteen minutes after it is 
slipped from the mold. To be eaten warm with butter. Most excellent. 

RYE BREAD. 

To A quart of warm water stir as much wheat flour as will make a 
smooth batter ; stir into it half a gill of home-made yeast, and set it in a 
warm place to rise ; this is called setting a sponge ; let it be mixed in 
some vessel which will contain twice the quantity ; in the morning, put 
three pounds and a half of rye flour into a bowl or tray, make a hollow in 
the centre, pour in the sponge, add a dessertspoonful of salt, and half a 
small teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a little water ; make the whole into 
a smooth dough, with as much warm water as may be necessary ; knead it 
well, cover it, and let it set in a warm place for three hours ; then knead 
it again, and make it into two or three loaves ; bake in a quick oven one 
hour, if made in two loaves, or less if the loaves are smaller. 

RYE AND CORN BREAD. 

ONE quart of rye meal or rye flour, two quarts of Indian meal, scalded 
(by placing in a pan and pouring over it just enough boiling water to 
merely wet it, but not enough to make it into a batter, stirring constantly 
with a spoon), one-half cup of molasses, two teaspoonfuls salt, one teacup 
yeast, make it as stiff as can be stirred with a spoon, mixing with warm 
water and let rise all night. In the morning add a level teaspoonful of 
soda dissolved in a little water; then put it in a large pan, smooth the 
top with the hand dipped in cold water; let it stand a short time and bake 
five or six hours. If put in the oven late in the day, let it remain all 
night. 

Graham may be used instead of rye, and baked as above. 

This is similar to the "Rye and Injun" of our grandmotbc?;^' days, but 
that was placed in a kettle, allowed to rise, then placed inV covered iron 
pan upon the hearth before the fire, with coals heaped upon the lid, to 
bake all night. 



234 BREAD. 

FRENCH BREAD. 

BEAT together one pint of milk, four tablespoonfuls of melted butter, 
or half butter and half lard, half a cupful of yeast, one teaspoonful of 
salt and two eggs. Stir into this two quarts of flour. When this dough is 
risen, make into two large rolls and bake as any bread. Cut across the 
top diagonal gashes just before putting into the oven. 

TWIST BREAD. 

LET the bread be made as directed for wheat bread, then take three 
pieces as large as a pint bowl each; strew a little flour over the paste- 
board or table, roll each piece under your hands to twelve inches length, 
making it smaller in circumference at the ends than in the middle; having 
rolled the three in this way, take a baking-tin, lay one part on it, join one 
end of each of the other two to it, and braid them together the length of 
the rolls and join the ends by pressing them together; dip a brush in milk 
and pass it over the top of the loaf; after ten minutes or so, set it in a 
quick oven and bake for nearly an hour. 

NEW ENGLAND CORN CAKE. 

ONE quart of milk; one pint of corn meal, one teacupful of wheat flour, 
a teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls of melted butter. Scald the milk 
and gradually pour it on the meal; when cool add the butter and salt, also 
a half cup of yeast. Do this at night; in the morning beat thoroughly and 
add two well-beaten eggs, and a half teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a 
spoonful of water. JPour the mixture into buttered deep earthen plates, let 
it stand fifteen minutes to rise again, then bake from twenty to thirty 
minutes. 

GERMAN BREAD. 

ONE pint of milk well boiled, one teacupful of sugar, two tablespoonfuiS 
of nice lard or butter, two-thirds of a teacupful of baker's yeast. Make a 
rising with the milk and yeast; when light, mix in the sugar and shorten- 
ing, with flour enough to make as soft a dough as can be handled. Flour 
the paste-board well, roll out about one-half inch thick; put this quantity 
into two large pans; make about a dozen indentures with the finger on the 
top; put a small piece of butter in each, and sift over the whole one table- 
spoonful of sugar mixed with one teaspoonful of cinnamon. Let this stand 
for a second rising; when perfectly light, bake in a quick oven fifteen or 
twenty minutes. 



BREAD. 235 

CORN BREAD. 

Two CUPS of sifted meal, half a cup of flour, two cups of sour milk, two 
well-beaten eggs, half a cup of molasses or sugar, a teaspoonful of salt, two 
tablespoonfuls of melted butter. Mix the meal and flour smoothly and 
gradually with the milk, then the butter, molasses and salt, then the 
beaten eggs, and lastly dissolve a level teaspoonful of baking soda in a lit- 
tle milk and beat thoroughly altogether. Bake nearly an hour in well- 
buttered tins, not very shallow. This recipe can be made with sweet milk 
by using baking powder in place of soda. 

St. Charles Hotel, New Orleans. 

VIRGINIA CORN BREAD. 

THREE cups of white corn meal, one cup of flour, one tablespoonful of 
sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder, 
one tablespoonful of lard, three cups of milk and three eggs. Sift together 
the flour, corn meal, sugar, salt and baking powder; rub in the lard cold, 
add the eggs well beaten and then the milk. Mix into a moderately stiff 
batter; pour it into well-greased, shallow baking pans (pie-tins are suit- 
able). Bake from thirty to forty minutes. 

BOSTON CORN BREAD. 

ONE cup of sweet milk, two of sour milk, two-thirds of a cup of molasses, 
one of wheat flour, four of corn meal and one teaspoonful of soda; steam 
for three hours, and brown a few minutes in the oven. The same made of 

sweet milk and baking powder is equally as good. 


INDIAN LOAF CAKE. 

Mix a teacupful of powdered white sugar with a quart of rich milk, 
and cut up in the milk two ounces of butter, adding a saltspoonful of salt. 
Put this mixture into a covered pan or skillet, and set it on the fire till it 
is scalding hot. Then take it off, and scald with it as much yellow Indian 
meal (previously sifted) as will make it of the consistency of thick boiled 
mush. Beat the whole very hard for a quarter of an hour, and then set it 
away to cool. 

While it is cooling, beat three eggs very light, and stir them gradually 
into the mixture when it is about as warm as new milk. Add a teacupful 
of good strong yeast and beat the whole another quarter of an hour, for 
much of the goodness of this cake depends on its being long 'and well 
beaten. Then have ready a tin mold or earthen pan with a pipe in the 



236 BREAD. 

centre (to diffuse the heat through the middle of the cake). The pan must 
be very well-buttered as Indian meal is apt to stick. Put in the mixture, 
cover it and set it in a warm place to rise. It should be light in about 
four hours. Then bake it two hours in a moderate oven. When done, 
turn it out with the broad surface downwards and send it to table hot 
and whole. Cut it into slices and eat it with butter. 

This will be found an excellent cake. If wanted for breakfast, mix it 
and set it to rise the night before. If properly made, standing all night 
will not injure it. Like all Indian cakes (of which this is one of the best), 
it should be ea-ten warm. 

St. Charles Hotel, New Orleans. 
JOHNNIE CAKE. 

SIFT one quart of Indian meal into a pan; make a hole in the middle 
and pour in a pint of warm water, adding one teaspoonful of salt; with a 
spoon mix the meal and water gradually into a soft dough; stir it very 
briskly for a quarter of an hour or more, till it becomes light and spongy; 
then spread the dough smoothly and evenly on a straight, flat board (a piece 
of the head of a flour-barrel will serve for this purpose); place the board 
nearly upright before an open fire and put an iron against the back to sup- 
port it; bake it well; when done, cut it in squares; send it hot to table, split 
and buttered. 

Old Plantation Style. 
SPIDER CORN-CAKE. 

BEAT two eggs and one-fourth cup sugar together. Then add one cup 
sweet milk and one cup of sour milk in which you have dissolved one tea- 
spoonful soda. Add a teaspoonful of salt. Then mix one and twothirds 
cups of granulated corn meal and one-third cup flour with this. Put a 
spider or skillet on the range and when it is hot melt in two tablespoon- 
fuls of butter. Turn the spider so that the butter can run up on the sides 
of the pan. Pour in the corn-cake mixture and add one more cup of 
sweet milk, but do not stir afterwards. Put this in the oven and bake 
from twenty to thirty-five minutes. When done, there should be a streak 
of custard through it. 

SOUTHERN CORN MEAL PONE OR CORN DODGERS. 

Mix with cold water into a soft dough one quart of southern corn meal, 
sifted, a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of butter- or lard melted. 
Mold into oval cakes with the hands and bake in a very hot oven, in 
well-greased pans. To be eaten hot. The crust should be brown. 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFIN'S, ETC. 237 

RAISED POTATO-CAKE. 

POTATO-CAKES, to be served with roast lamb or with game, are made of 
equal quantities of mashed potatoes and of flour, say one quart of each, 
two tablespoonfuls of butter, a little salt and milk enough to make a bat- 
ter as for griddle-cakes; to this allow half a teacupful of fresh yeast; let it 
rise till it is light and bubbles of air form; then dissolve half a teaspoonful 
of soda in a spoonful of warm water and add to the batter; bake in muffin 
tins. These are good also with fricasseed chicken; take them from the 
tins and drop in the gravy just before sending to the table. 



BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC 

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS. 

9 

IN MAKING batter-cakes, the ingredients should be put together over 
night to rise, and the eggs and butter added in the morning ; the butter 
melted and eggs well beaten. If the batter appears sour in 'the least, dis- 
solve a little soda and stir into it ; this should be done early enough to 
rise some time before baking. 

Water can be used in place of milk in all raised dough, and the dough 
should be thoroughly light before making into loaves or biscuits; then 
when molding them use as little flour as possible; the kneading to be 
done when first made from the sponge, and should be done well and for 
some length of time, as this makes the pores fine, the bread cut smooth 
and tender. Care should be taken not to get the dough too stiff. 

Where any recipe calls for baking powder, and you do not have it, you 
can use cream of tartar and soda, in the proportion of one level teaspoon- 
ful of soda to two of cream of tartar. 

When the recipe calls for sweet milk or cream, and you do not have it, 
you may use in place of it sour milk or cream, and, in that case, baking 
powder or cream of tartar must not be used, but baking-soda, using a level 
teaspoonful to a quart of sour milk ; the milk is always best when just 
turned, so that it is solid, and not sour enough to whey or to be watery. 

When making biscuits or bread with baking powder or soda and cream 
of tartar, the oven should be prepared first ; the dough handled quickly and 
put into the oven immediately, as soon as it becomes the proper lightness, 



238 SEE AD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

to ensure good success. If the oven is too slotv, the article baked will be 
heavy and hard. 

As in beating cake, never stir ingredients into batter, but beat them in, 
by beating down from the bottom, and up, and over again. This laps the 
air into the batter which produces little air-cells and causes the dough to 
puff and swell as it comes in contact with the heat while cooking. 

TO RENEW STALE ROLLS. 

To FRESHEN stale biscuits or rolls, put them into a steamer for ten 
minutes, then dry them off in a hot oven ; or dip each roll for an instant 
in cold water and heat them crisp in the oven. 

WARM BREAD FOR BREAKFAST. 

DOUGH after it has become once sufficiently raised and perfectly light, 
cannot afterwards be injured by setting aside in any cold place where 
it cannot freeze; therefore, biscuits, rolls, etc., can be made late the day 
before wanted for breakfast. Prepare them ready for baking by mold- 
ing them out late in the evening ; lay them a little apart on buttered tins ; 
cover the tins with a cloth, then fold around that a newspaper, so as to 
exclude the air, as that has a tendency to cause the crust to be hard and 
thick when baked. The best place in summer is to place them in the ice- 
box, then all you have to do in the morning (an hour before breakfast 
time, and while the oven is heating) is to bring them from the ice-box, 
take off the cloth and warm it, and place it over them again ; then set 
the tins in a warm place near the fire. This will give them time to rise 
and bake when needed. If these directions are followed rightly, you 
will find it makes no difference with their lightness and goodness, and 
you can always be sure of warm raised biscuits for breakfast in one 
hour's time. 

Stale rolls may be made light and flakey by dipping for a moment 
in cold water, and placing immediately in a very hot oven to be made 
crisp and hot. 

SODA BISCUIT. 

ONE quart of sifted flour, one teaspoonful of soda, two teaspoonfuls Bf 
cream of tartar, one teaspoonful of salt ; mix thoroughly, and rub in two 
tablespoonfuls of butter and wet with one pint of sweet milk. Bake in a 
quick oven. 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 239 

BAKING POWDER BISCUIT. 

Two PINTS of flour, butter the size of an egg, three heaping teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder and one teaspoonful of salt ; make a soft dough of sweet 
milk or water, knead as little as possible, cut out with the usual biscuit- 
cutter and bake in rather a quick oven. 

SOUR MILK BISCUIT. 

KUB into a quart of sifted flour a piece of butter the size of an egg, one 
teaspoonful of salt ; stir into this a pint of sour milk, dissolve one tea- 
spoonful of soda and stir into the milk just as you add it to the flour ; 
knead it up quickly, roll it out nearly half an inch thick and cut out with 
a biscuit-cutter ; bake immediately in a quick oven. 

Very nice biscuit may be made with sour cream without the butter by 
the same process. 

RAISED BISCUIT. 

SIFT two quarts of flour in a mixing-pan, make a hole in the middle of 
the flour, pour into this one pint of warm water or new milk, one tea- 
spoonful of salt, half a cup of melted lard or butter, stir in a little flour, 
then add half a cupful of yeast, after which stir in as much flour as you 
can conveniently with your hand, let it rise over night ; in the morning 
add nearly a teaspoonful of soda, and more flour as is needed to make a 
rather soft dough ; then mold fifteen to twenty minutes, the longer the 
better ; let it rise until light again, roll this out about half an inch thick 
and cut out with a biscuit-cutter, or make it into little balls with your 
hands ; cover and set in a warm place to rise. When light, bake a light 
brown in a moderate oven. Rub a little warm butter or sweet lard on the 
sides of the biscuits when you place them on the tins, to prevent their 
sticking together when baked. 

LIGHT BISCUIT. No. 1. 

TAKE a piece of bread dough that will make about as many biscuits as 
you wish; lay it out rather flat in a bowl; break into it two eggs, half a 
cup of sugar, half a cup of butter; mix this thoroughly with enough flour 
to keep it from sticking to the hands and board. Knead it well for about 
fifteen or twenty minutes, make into small biscuits, place in a greased pan, 
and let them rise until about even with the top of the pan. Bake in a 
quick oven for about half an hour. 

These can be made in the form of rolls, which some prefer. 



240 BEE AD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

LIGHT BISCUIT. No. 2. 

WHEN you bake take a pint of sponge, one tablespoonful of melted but- 
ter, one tablespoonful of sugar, the white of one egg beaten to a foam. 
Let rise until light, mold into biscuits, and when light bake. 

GRAHAM BISCUITS, WITH YEAST, 

TAKE one pint of water or milk, one large tablespoonful of butter, two 
tablespoonfuls of sugar, a half cup of yeast and a pinch of salt; take 
enough wheat flour to use up the water, making it the consistency of bat- 
ter-cakes; add the rest of the ingredients and as much Graham flour as can 
be stirred in with a spoon; set it away till morning; in the morning grease 
a pan, flour your hands, take a lump of dough the size of an egg, roll it 
lightly between the palms of your hands, let them rise twenty minutes, 
and bake in a tolerably hot oven. 

EGG BISCUIT. 

SIFT together a quart of dry flour and three heaping teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder. Rub into this thoroughly a piece of butter the size of an 
egg; add two well-beaten eggs, a tablespoonful of sugar, a teaspoonful of 
salt. Mix all together quickly into a soft dough, with one cup of milk, or 
more if needed. Roll out nearly half of an inch thick. Cut into biscuits, 
and bake immediately in a quick oven from fifteen to twenty minutes. 

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS. 

ONE pint of milk, boiled and cooled, a piece of butter the size of an 
egg, one-half cupful of fresh yeast, one tablespoonful of sugar, one pinch 
of salt, and two quarts of sifted flour. 

Melt the butter in the warm milk, then add the sugar, salt and flour, 
and let it rise over night. Mix rather soft. In the morning, add to this 
half of a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a spoonful of water. Mix in 
enough flour to make the same stiffness as any biscuit dough ; roll out 
not more than a quarter of an inch thick. Cut with a Urge round cutter ; 
spread soft butter over the tops and fold one-half over the other by 
doubling it. Place them apart a little so that there will be room to 
rise. Cover and place them near the fire for fifteen or twenty minutes 
before baking. Bake in rather a quick oven. 

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS. (Unfermented.) 

THESE rolls are made with baking powder, and are much sooner made, 
although the preceding recipe is the old original one from the "Parker 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 241 

House." Stir into a quart of sifted flour three large teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder, a tablespoonful of cold butter, a teaspoonful of salt and one of 
sugar, and a well-beaten egg ; rub all well into the flour, pour in a pint 
of cold milk, mix up quickly into a smooth dough, roll it out less than 
half an inch thick, cut with a large biscuit-cutter, spread soft butter 
over the top of each; fold one-half over the other by doubling it, lay 
them a little apart on greased tins. Set them immediately in a pretty 
hot oven. Rub over the tops with sweet milk before putting in the 
oven, to give them a glaze. 

FRENCH ROLLS. 

THREE cups of sweet milk, one cup of butter and lard, mixed in equal 
proportions, one-half cup of good yeast, or half a cake of compressed 
yeast, and a teaspoonful of salt. Add flour enough to make a stiff dough. 
Let it rise over night ; in the morning, add two well-beaten eggs ; knead 
thoroughly and let it rise again. With the hands, make it into balls 
as large as an egg; then roll between the hands to make long rolls (about 
three inches). Place close together in even rows on well-buttered pans. 
Cover and let them rise again, then bake in a quick oven to a delicate 
brown. 

BEATEN BISCUIT. 

Two QUARTS of sifted flour, a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of 
sweet lard, one egg ; make up with half a pint of milk, or if milk is not 
to be had, plain water will answer ; beat well until the dough blisters and 
cracks ; pull off a two-inch square of the dough ; roll it into a ball with 
the hand ; flatten, stick with a fork, and bake in a quick oven. 

It is not beating hard that makes the biscuit nice, but the regularity of 
the motion. Beating hard, the old cooks say, kills the dough. 

An old-Jashioned Southern Recipe 
POTATO BISCUIT. 

BOIL six good-sized potatoes with their jackets on ; take them out with 
a skimmer, drain and squeeze with a towel to ensure being dry ; then re- 
move the skin, mash them perfectly free from lumps, add a tablespoon- 
ful of butter, one egg and a pint of sweet milk. When cool, beat in 
half a cup of yeast. Put in just enough flour to make a stiff dough. 
When this rises, make into small cakes. Let them rise the same as bis- 
cuit and bake a delicate brown. 

This dough is very fine dropped into meat soups for pot-pie. 

16 



242 BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFltfS, ETC. 

VINEGAR BISCUITS. 

TAKE two quarts of flour, one large tablespoonful of lard or butter, one 
tablespoonful and a half of vinegar and one teaspoonful of soda; put the 
soda in the vinegar and stir it well ; stir in the flour ; beat two eggs very 
light and add to it ; make a dough with warm water stiff enough to roll 
out, and cut with a biscuit-cutter one inch thick and bake in a quick oven. 

GRAFTON MILK BISCUITS. 

BOIL and mash two white potatoes; add two teaspoonfuls of brown 
sugar; pour boiling water over these, enough to soften them. When tepid, 
add one small teacupful of yeast; when light, warm three ounces of but- 
ter in one pint of milk, a little salt, a third of a teaspoonful of soda and 
flour enough to make stiff sponge; when risen, work it on the board, 
put it back in the tray to rise again; when risen, roll into cakes and 
let them stand half an hour. Bake in a quick oven. These biscuits are 
fine. 

SALLY LUNN. 

WARM one-half cupful of butter in a pint of milk; add a teaspoonful of 
salt, a tablespoonful of sugar, and seven cupfuls of sifted flour; beat thor- 
oughly and when the mixture is blood warm, add four beaten eggs and 
last of all, half a cup of good lively yeast. Beat hard until the batter 
breaks in blisters. Set it to rise over night. In the morning, dissolve 
half a teaspoonful of soda, stir it into the batter and turn it into a well- 
buttered, shallow dish to rise again about fifteen or twenty minutes. Bake 
about fifteen to twenty minutes. 

The cake should be torn apart, not cut; cutting with a knife makes 
warm bread heavy. Bake a light brown. This cake is frequently seen on 
Southern tables. 

SALLY LUNN. (Unfermented.) 

RUB a piece of butter as large as an egg into a quart of flour; add a 
tumbler of milk, two eggs, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, three teaspoon- 
fuls of baking powder and a teaspoonful of salt. Scatter the baking 
powder, salt and sugar into the flour; add the eggs, the butter, melted, the 
milk. Stir 11 together and bake in well-greased round pans. Eat warm 
with butter. 

LONDON HOT-CROSS BUNS. 

THREE cups of milk, one cup of yeast, or one cake of compressed yeast 
dissolved in a cup of tepid water, and flour enough to make a thick batter; 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 243 

set this as a sponge over night. In the morning add half a cup of melted 
butter, one cup of sugar, half a nutmeg grated, one saltspoonful of salt, 
half a teaspoonf ul of soda, and flour enough to roll out like biscuit. Knead 
well and set to rise for five hours. Roll the dough half an inch thick ; cut 
in round cakes and lay in rows in a buttered baking-pan, and let the cakes 
stand half an hour, or until light ; then put them in the oven, having first 
made a deep cross on each with a knife. Bake a light brown and brush 
over with white of egg beaten stiff with powdered sugar. 

RUSKS, WITH YEAST. 

IN ONE large coffeecup of warm milk dissolve half a cake of compressed 
yeast, or three tablespoonf uls of home-made yeast ; to this add three well- 
beaten eggs, a small cup of sugar and a teaspoonf ul of salt; beat these 
together. Use flour enough to make a smooth, light dough, let it stand 
until very light, then knead it in the form of biscuits ; place them on but- 
tered tins and let them rise until they are almost up to the edge of the tins; 
pierce the top of each one and bake in a quick oven. Glaze the top of 
each with sugar and milk, or the white of an egg, before baking. Some 
add dried currants, well-washed and dried in the oven. 

RUSKS. 

Two CUPS of raised dough, one of sugar, half a cup of butter, two well- 
beaten eggs, flour enough to make a stiff dough ; set to rise, and when 
light mold into high biscuit and let rise again; rub damp sugar and cinna- 
mon over the top and place in the oven. Bake about twenty minutes. 

RUSKS. (Unfermented.) 

THREE cups of flour sifted, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one 
teaspoonful of salt, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of 
butter, three eggs, half a nutmeg grated and a teaspoonful of ground cin- 
namon, two small cups of milk ; sift together salt, flour, sugar and baking 
powder; rub in the butter cold; add the milk, beaten eggs and spices; 
mix into a soft dough, break off pieces about as large as an egg, roll them 
under the hands into round balls, rub the tops with sugar and water mixed, 
and then sprinkle dry sugar over them. Bake immediately. 

SCOTCH SCONES. 

THOROUGHLY mix, while dry, one quart of sifted flour, loosely measured, 
with two heaping teaspoonfuls of- baking powder; then rub into it a 



244 BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

tablespoonful of cold butter and a teaspoonful of salt. Be sure that the 
butter is well worked in. Add sweet milk enough to make a very soft paste. 
Roll out the paste about a quarter of an inch thick, using plenty of flour 
on the paste-board and rolling pin. Cut it into triangular pieces, each 
side about four inches long. Flour the sides and bottom of a biscuit tin, 
and place the pieces on it. Bake immediately in a quick oven from 
twenty to thirty minutes. When half done, brush over with sweet milk. 
Some cooks prefer to bake them on a floured griddle, and cut them a 
round shape the size of a saucer, then scarred across to form four 
quarters. 

CRACKNELS. 

Two CUPS of rich milk, four tablespoonfuls of butter and a gill of yeast, 
a teaspoonful of salt; mix warm, add flour enough to make a light dough. 
When light, roll thin and cut in long pieces three inches wide, prick well 
with a fork and bake in a slow oven. They are to be mixed rather hard 
and rolled very thin, like soda crackers. 

RAISED MUFFINS. No. 1. 

MAKE a batter of one pint of sweet milk, one teaspoonful of sugar, one 
of salt, a tablespoonful of butter or sweet lard and a half cup of yeast; add 
flour enough to make it moderately thick; keep it in a warm, not hot, place 
until it is quite light, then stir in one or two well-beaten eggs, and half a 
teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a little warm water. Let the batter stand 
twenty-five or thirty minutes longer to rise a little, turn into well-greased 
muffin-rings or gem-pans, and bake in a quick oven. 

To be served hot and torn open, instead of cut with a knife. 

RAISED MUFFINS. No. 2. 

THREE pints of flour, three eggs, a piece of butter the size of an egg, 
two heaping teaspoonfuls of white sugar, one-half cake of compressed 
yeast and a quart of milk; warm the milk with the butter in it; cool a lit- 
tle, stir in the sugar and add a little salt; stir this gradually into the flour, 
then add the eggs well beaten; dissolve the yeast in half a cup of luke- 
warm water and add to the other ingredients; if the muffins are wanted 
for luncheon, mix them about eight o'clock in the morning; if for break- 
fast, set them at ten o'clock at night; when ready for baking, stir in half a 
te&spoonful of soda dissolved in a teaspoonful of hot water; butter the 
muffin-rings or gem-irons and bake in a quick oven. 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 245 

EGG MUFFINS. (Fine.) 

ONE quart of flour, sifted twice; three eggs, the whites and yolks 
beaten separately, three .teacups of sweet milk, a teaspoonful of salt, a 
tablespoonful of sugar, a large tablespoonf ul of lard or butter and two 
heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Sift together flour, sugar, salt 
and baking powder; rub in the lard cold, add the beaten eggs and milk; 
mix quickly into a smooth batter, a little firmer than for griddle-cakes. 
Grease well some muffin-pans and fill them two-thirds full. Bake in a hot 
oven fifteen or twenty minutes. These made of cream, omitting the but- 
ter, are excellent. 

PLAIN MUFFINS. 

ONE egg well beaten, a tablespoonful of butter and a tablespoonful of 
sugar, with a teaspoonful of salt, all beaten until very light. One cup of 
milk, three of sifted flour and three teaspoonfuls of baking powder. One- 
half Graham and one-half rye meal may be used instead of wheat flour, or 
two cups of corn meal and one of flour. 

Drop on well-greased patty-pans and bake twenty minutes in a rather 
quick oven, or bake on a griddle in muffin-rings. 

MUFFINS WITHOUT EGGS. 

ONE quart of buttermilk, a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in the milk, a 
little salt, and flour enough to make a stiff batter. Drop in Tiot gem-pans 
and bake in a quick oven. Two or three tablespoonfuls of sour cream will 
make them a little richer. 

TENNESSEE MUFFINS. 

ONE pint of corn meal, one pint of flour, one tablespoonful of sugar, 
one teaspoonful of salt, three of baking powder, one tablespoonful of lard 
or butter, two eggs and a pint of milk. Sift together corn meal, flour, 
sugar, salt and powder ; rub in lard or butter cold, and eggs beaten and 
milk ; mix^into batter of consistency of cup-cake ; muffin-rings to be cold 
and well greased, then fill two-thirds full. Bake in hot oven fifteen 
minutes. 

CORN MEAL MUFFINS. (Without Eggs.) 

ONE cup of flour, one cup of corn meal, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, 
water to make a thick batter, or sour milk is better ; mix at night ; in the 
morning add two tablespoonfuls melted butter and one teaspoonful of 
soda ; bake in cake rounds. 



246 SHE AD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

HOMINY MUFFINS. 

Two CUPS of boiled hominy ; beat it smooth, stir in three cups of sour 
milk, half a cup of melted butter, two teaspoonf uls of salt, two tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar; add three eggs well beaten, one teaspoonf ul of soda dissolved 
in hot water, two cups of flour. Bake quickly. 

Rice muffins may be made in the same manner. 

GRAHAM GEMS. No. 1. 

Two CUPFULS of Graham flour, one cupful of wheat flour, two teaspoon- 
fuls of baking powder, a tablespoonful of sugar, one of salt and one 
well-beaten egg. 

Mix with sweet milk to make a thin batter ; beat it well. Bake in 
gem-irons; have the irons well greased; fill two-thirds full and bake in 
a hot oven. Will bake in from fifteen to twenty minutes. 

GRAHAM GEMS. No. 2. 

THREE cups of sour milk, one teaspoonful of soda, one of salt, one 
tablespoonful of brown sugar, one of melted lard or butter, one or two 
beaten eggs; to the egg add tho milk, then the sugar and salt, then the 
Graham flour (with the F^-la mixed in), together with the lard or but- 
ter; make a stiff batter, so tiiat lo will drop, not pour, from the spoon. 
Have the gem-pans very hot, fill and bake fifteen minutes in a hot oven. 

The same can be made of sweet milk, using three teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder instead of soda, and if you use sweet milk, put in no short- 
ening. Excellent. 

Muffins of all kinds should only be cut just around the edge, then 
pulled open with the fingers. 

PLAIN GRAHAM GEMS. 

Two CUPFULS of the best Graham meal, two of water, fresh and cold, 
or milk and water, and a little salt. Stir briskly for a minute or two. 
Have the gem-pan, hot and well greased, on the top of the stove while 
pouring in the batter. Then place in a very hot oven and bake forty 
minutes. It is best to check the heat a little when they are nearly done, 
As the best prepared gems may be spoiled if the heat is not sufficient, care 
and judgment must be used in order to secure this most healthful as well 
as delicious bread. 



BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 247 

WAFFLES. 

TAKE a quart of flour and wet it with a little sweet milk that has been 
boiled and cooled, then stir in enough of the milk to form a thick batter. 
Add a tablespoonful of melted butter, a teaspoonful of salt, and yeast to 
raise it. When light add two well-beaten eggs, heat your waffle-iron, 
grease it well and fill it with the batter. Two or three minutes will suffice 
to bake on one side ; then turn the iron over, and when brown on both 
sides the cake is done. Serve immediately. 

CONTINENTAL HOTEL WAFFLES. 

PUT into one quart of sifted flour three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, 
one teaspoonful of salt, one of sugar, all thoroughly stirred and sifted 
together ; add a tablespoonful of melted butter, six well-beaten eggs and a 
pint of sweet milk; cook in waffle-irons heated and well greased. Serve 

hot. 

NEWPORT WAFFLES. 

MAKE one pint of Indian meal into mush in the usual way. While 
hot,, put in a small lump of butter and a dessertspoonful of salt. Set 
the mush aside to cool. Meanwhile, beat separately till very light the 
whites and yolks of four eggs. Add the eggs to the mush, and cream 
in gradually one quart of wheaten flour. AddVbalf a pint of buttermilk, 
or sour cream, in which has been dissolved:- half a teaspoonful of car- 
bonate of soda. Lastly, bring to the consistency of thin batter by the 
addition of sweet milk. Waffle-irons should be put on to heat an hour 
in advance, that they may be in the proper condition for baking as soon 
as the batter is ready. Have a brisk fire, butter the irons thoroughly, 
but with nicety, and bake quickly. Fill the irons only half full of bat- 
ter, that the waffles may have room to rise. 

CREAM WAFFLES. 

ONE pint of sour cream, two eggs, one pint of flour, one tablespoon- 
ful of corn meal, one teaspoonful of soda, half a teaspoonful of salt. 
Beat the eggs separately, mix the cream with the beaten yolks, stir in 
the flour, corn meal and salt ; add the soda dissolved in a little sweet 
milk, and, lastly, the whites beaten to a stiff froth. 

RICE WAFFLES. No. 1. 

ONE quart of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, 
two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one large tablespoonful of butter, two 



248 BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFIN'S, ETC. 

eggs, one and a half pints of milk, one cupful of hot boiled rice. Sift the 
flour, salt, sugar and baking powder well together ; rub the butter into 
the flour ; beat the eggs well, separately, and add the stiff whites last of all. 

RICE WAFFLES. No. 2. 

RUB through a sieve one pint of boiled rice, add it to a tablespoonful 
of dry flour, two-thirds of a teaspoonful of salt, two teaspoonfuls of bak- 
ing powder. Beat separately the yolks and whites of three eggs ; add to 
the yolks a cup and a half of milk, work it into the flour, then add an 
ounce of melted butter ; beat the whites of eggs thoroughly ; mix the 
whole together. Heat the waffle-iron and grease it evenly ; pour the bat- 
ter into the half of the iron over the range until nearly two-thirds full, 
cover, allow to cook a moment, then turn and brown slightly on the other 

side. 

GERMAN RICE WAFFLES. 

BOIL a half pound of rice in milk until it becomes thoroughly soft. 
Then remove it from the fire, stirring it constantly, and adding, a little at 
a time, one quart of sifted flour, five beaten eggs, two spoonfuls of yeast, a 
half pound of melted butter, a little salt and a teacupful of warm milk. 
Set the batter in a warm place, and, when risen, bake in the ordinary way. 

BERRY TEA-CAKES. 

NICE little tea-cakes to be baked in muffin-rings are made of one cup 
of sugar, two eggs, one and a half cups of milk, one heaping teaspoonful of 
baking powder, a piece of butter the size of an egg and flour sufficient to 
make a stiff batter. In this batter stir a pint bowl of fruit any fresh are 
nice or canned berries with the juice poured off. Serve while warm 
and they are a dainty addition to the tea-table. Eaten with butter. 

RYE DROP-CAKES. 

ONE pint of warm milk, with half a teaspoonful of soda dissolved 
in it, a little salt, four eggs well beaten, and rye flour enough to make 
a thin batter; bake in small cups, buttered, and in a hot oven, or ir 
small cakes upon a hot griddle. 

WHEAT DROP-CAKES. 

ONE pint of cream, six eggs well beaten, a little salt, and wheat flour 
enough to make a thin batter; bake in little cups buttered and in a 
hot oven fifteen minutes. 











V.V 






BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFIN'S, ETC. 249 

POP-OVERS. 

Two CUPS of flour, two cups of sweet milk, two eggs, one teaspoon- 
ful of butter, one teaspoonful of salt, bake in cups in a quick oven fif- 
teen minutes. Serve hot with a sweet sauce. 

FLANNEL CAKES. (With Yeast.) 

HEAT a pint of sweet milk and into it put two heaping tablespoon- 
fuls of butter, let it melt, then add a pint of cold milk and the well* 
beaten yolks of four eggs placing the whites in a cool place; also, a 
teaspoonful of salt, four tablespoonfuls of home-made yeast and suffi- 
cient flour to make a stiff batter; set it in a warm place to rise; let ic 
stand three hours or over night; before baking add the beaten whites; 
bake like any other griddle-cakes. Be sure to make the batter stiff 
enough, for flour must not be added after it has risen, unless it is 
allowed to rise again. These, half corn meal and half wheat, are very 

nice. 

FEATHER GRIDDLE-CAKES. (With Yeast.) 

MAKE a batter, at night, of a pint of water or milk, a teaspoonful 
of salt, and half a teacupful of yeast; in the morning, add to it one 
teacupful of thick, sour milk, two eggs well beaten, a level tablespoon- 
ful of melted butter, a level teaspoonful of soda and flour enough to make 
the consistency of pan-cake batter; let stand twenty minutes, then bake. 

This is a convenient way, when making sponge for bread over night, 
using some of the sponge. 

WHEAT GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

THREE cups of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, three teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder sifted together; beat three eggs and add to three cupfuls 
of sweet milk, also a tablespoonful of melted butter; mix all into a 
smooth batter, as thick as will run in a stream from the lips of a pitcher. 
Bake on a well-greased, hot griddle, a nice light brown. Very good. 

SOUR MILK GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

MAKE a batter of a quart of sour milk and as much sifted flour as 
is needed to thicken so that it will run from the dish; add two well- 
beaten eggs, a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of melted butter, 
and a level teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little milk or cold water, 
added last; then bake on a hot griddle, well greased, brown on both 
sides. 



250 BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFIN'S, ETC. 

CORN MEAL GRIDDLE-CAKES. (With Yeast.) 

STIR into one quart of boiling milk three cups of corn meal; after it 
cools add one cup of white flour, a teaspoonful of salt and three table- 
spoonfuls of home-made yeast. Mix this over night. In the morning add 
one tablespoonful of melted butter or lard, two beaten eggs and a tea^ 
spoonful of soda dissolved in a little water. 

This batter should stand a few minutes, after adding the butter and 
soda, that it should have time to rise a little; in the meantime the griddle 
could be heating. Take a small stick like a good-sized skewer, wind a bit 
of cloth around the end of it, fasten it by winding a piece of thread around 
that and tying it firm. Melt together a tablespoonful of butter and lard. 
Grease the griddle with this. Between each batch of cakes, wipe the grid- 
dle off with a clean paper or cloth and grease afresh. Put the cakes on 
by spoonfuls, or pour them carefully from a pitcher, trying to get them as 
near the same size as possible. As soon as they begin to bubble all over 
turn them, and cook on the other side till they stop puffing. The second 
lot always cooks better than the first, as the griddle becomes evenly 
heated. 

CORN MEAL GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

SCALD two cups of sifted meal, mix with a cup of wheat flour and a tea- 
spoonful of salt. Add three well-beaten eggs; thin the whole with sour 
milk enough to make it the right consistency. Beat the whole till very 
light and add a teaspoonful of baking soda dissolved in a little water. If 
you use sweet milk, use two large teaspoonfuls of baking powder instead 
of soda. 

GRIDDLE-CAKES. (Very Good.) 

ONE quart of Graham flour, half a pint of Indian meal, one gill of yeast, 
a teaspoonful of salt; mix the flour and meal, pour on enough warm water 
to make batter rather thicker than that for buckwheat cakes, add the 
yeast, and when light bake on griddle not too hot. 

GRAHAM GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

Mix together dry two cups of Graham flour, one cup wheat flour, two 
heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder and one teaspoonful of salt. Then 
add three eggs well beaten, one tablespoonful of lard or butter melted and 
three cups of sweet milk. Cook immediately on a hot griddle. 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 251 

BREAD GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

ONE quart of milk, boiling hot ; two cups fine bread crumbs, three 
eggs, one tablespoonful melted butter, one-half teaspoonful salt, one-half 
teaspoonful soda dissolved in warm water ; break the bread into the boil- 
ing milk, and let stand for ten minutes in a covered bowl, then beat to 
a smooth paste ; add the yolks of the eggs well whipped, the butter, salt, 
soda, and finally the whites of the eggs previously whipped stiff, and add 
half of a cupful of flour. These can also be made of sour milk, soaking 
the bread in it over night and using a little more soda. 

RICE GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

Two CUPFULS of cold boiled rice, one pint of flour, one teaspoonful 
sugar, one-half teaspoonful salt, one and one-half teaspoonfuls baking 
powder, one egg, a little more than half a pint of milk. Sift together 
flour, sugar, salt and powder ; add rice free from lumps, diluted with 
beaten egg and milk ; mix into smooth batter. Have griddle well heated, 
make cakes large, bake nicely brown, and serve with maple syrup. 

POTATO GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

TWELVE large potatoes, three heaping tablespoonfuls of flour, one tea- 
spoonful of baking powder, one-half teaspoonful salt, one or two eggs, two 
teacupfuls of boiling milk. The potatoes are peeled, washed and grated 
into a little cold water (which keeps them white), then strain off water 
and pour on boiling milk, stir in eggs, salt and flour, mixed with the bak- 
ing powder ; if agreeable, flavor with a little fine chopped onion ; bake 
like any other pan-cakes, allowing a little more lard or butter. Serve 
with stewed or preserved fruit, especially with huckleberries. 

GREEN CORN GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

ONE pint of milk, two cups grated green corn, a little salt, two eggs, 
a teaspoonful of baking powder, flour sufficient to make a batter to fry 
on the griddle. Butter them hot and serve. 

HUCKLEBERRY GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

MADE the same as above, leaving out one cup of milk, adding one 
tablespoonful of sugar and a pint of huckleberries rolled in flour. Black- 
berries or raspberries can be used in the same manner. 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

FRENCH GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

BEAT together until smooth six eggs and a pint sifted flour ; melt 
one ounce of butter and add to the batter, with one ounce of sugar and 
a cup of milk ; beat until smooth ; put a tablespoonful at a time into 
a frying pan slightly greased, spreading the batter evenly over the sur- 
face by tipping the pan about; fry to a light brown; spread with jelly, 
roll up, dust with powdered sugar and serve hot. 

RAISED BUCKWHEAT CAKES. 

TAKE a small crock or large earthen pitcher, put into it a quart of 
warm water or half water and milk, one heaping teaspoonf ul of salt ; 
then stir in as much buckwheat flour as will thicken it to rather a stiff 
batter; lastly, add half a cup of yeast; make it smooth, cover it up warm 
to rise over night; in the morning add a small, level teaspoonful of 
soda dissolved in a little warm water ; this will remove any sour taste, 
if any, and increase the lightness. 

Not a few object to eating buckwheat, as its tendency is to thicken 
the blood, and also to produce constipation ; this can be remedied by 
making the batter one-third corn meal and two-thirds buckwheat, which 
makes the cakes equally as good. Many prefer them in this way. 

BUCKWHEAT CAKES WITHOUT YEAST. 

Two CUPS of buckwheat flour, one of wheat flour, a little salt, three 
teaspoonfuls baking powder; mix thoroughly and add about equal parts 
of milk and water until the batter is of the right consistency then stir 
until free from lumps. If they do not brown well, add a little molasses. 

BUCKWHEAT CAKES. 

HALF a pint of buckwheat flour, a quarter of a pint of corn meal, a 
quarter of a pint of wheat flour, a little salt, two eggs beaten very light, 
one quart of new milk (made a little warm and mixed with the eggs 
before the flour is put in), one tablespoonful of butter or sweet lard, 
two large tablespoonfuls of yeast. Set it to rise at night for the morn- 
ing. If in the least sour, stir in before baking just enough soda to 
correct the acidity. A very nic6, but more expensive, recipe. 

SWEDISH GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

ONE pint of white flour, sifted; six eggs, whites and yolks beaten 
separately to the utmost; one saltspoonful of salt; one saltspoonful of 
soda dissolved in vinegar; milk to make a thin batter. 



SEE AD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 253 

Beat the yolks light, add the salt, soda, two cupfuls of milk, then 
the flour and beaten whites alternately; thin with more milk if 'neces- 
sary. 

CORN MEAL FRITTERS. 

ONE pint of sour milk, one teaspoonful of salt, three eggs, one table- 
spoonful of molasses or sugar, one handful of flour, and corn meal enough 
to make a stiff batter; lastly, stir in a small teaspoonful of soda, dis- 
solved in a little warm water. 

This recipe is very nice made of rye flour. 

CREAM FRITTERS. 

ONE cup of cream, five eggs the whites only, two full cups prepared 
flour, one saltspoonful of nutmeg, a pinch of salt. Stir the whites into 
the cream in turn with the flour, put in nutmeg and salt, beat all up 
hard for two minutes. The batter should be rather thick. Fry in plenty 
of hot, sweet lard, a spoonful of batter for each fritter. Drain, and serve 
upon a hot, clean napkin. Eat with jelly sauce. Pull, not cut, them 
open. Very nice. 

CURRANT FRITTERS. 

Two CUPFULS dry, fine bread crumbs, two tablespoonfuls of prepared 
flour, two cups of milk, one-half pound currants, washed and well dried, 
five eggs whipped very light, one-half cup powdered sugar, one table- 
spoonful butter, one-half teaspoonful mixed cinnamon and nutmeg. Boil 
the milk and pour over the bread. Mix and put in the butter. Let it get 
cold. Beat in next the yolks and sugar, the seasoning, flour and stiff 
whites; finally, the currants dredged whitely with flour. The batter 
should be thick. Drop in great spoonfuls into the hot lard and fry. Drain 
them and send hot to table. Eat with a mixture of wine and powdered 
sugar. 

WHEAT FRITTERS. 

THREE eggs, one and a half cups of milk, three teaspoonfuls baking 
powder, salt, and flour enough to make quite stiff, thicker than batter 
cakes. Drop into hot lard and fry like doughnuts. 

A Good Sauce for the Above. One cup of sugar, two tablespoonfuls 
of butter, one teaspoonful of flour beaten together; half a cup boiling 
water; flavor with extract lemon and boil until clear. Or serve with 
maple syrup. 



254 EKE AD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

APPLE FRITTERS. 

MAKE a batter in the proportion of one cup sweet milk to two cups 
flour, a heaping teaspoonful of baking powder, two eggs beaten separately, 
one tablespoonful of sugar and a saltspoon of salt; heat the milk a little 
more than milk-warm, add it slowly to the beaten yolks and sugar; then 
add flour and whites of the eggs; stir all together and throw in thin slices 
of good sour apples, dipping the batter up over them; drop into boiling 
hot lard in large spoonfuls with pieces of apple in each, and fry to a light 
brown. Serve with maple syrup, or a nice syrup made with clarified 
sugar. 

Bananas, peaches, sliced oranges and other fruits can be used in the 

same batter. 

PINEAPPLE FRITTERS. 

MAKE a batter as for apple fritters ; then pare one large pineapple, 
cut it in slices a quarter of an inch thick, cut the slices in halves, dip 
them into the batter and fry them, and serve them as above. 

PEACH FRITTERS. 

PEEL the peaches, split each in two and take out the stones; dust a 
little powdered sugar over them ; dip each piece in the batter and fry 
in hot fat. A sauce to be served with them may be made as follows: 
Put an ounce of butter in a saucepan and whisk it to a cream ; add 
four ounces of sugar gradually. Beat the yolks of two eggs ; add to 
them a dash of nutmeg and a gill each of cold water and rum ; stir 
this into the luke-warm batter and allow it to heat gradually. Stir 
constantly until of a smooth, creamy consistency, and serve. The bat- 
ter is made as follows : Beat the yolks of three eggs ; add to them a 
gill of milk, or half of a cupful, a saltspoonful of salt, four ounces of 
flour; mix. If old flour is used a little more milk may be found neces- 
sary. 

GOLDEN-BALL FRITTERS. 

PUT into a stewpan a pint of water, a piece of butter as large as an 
egg and a tablespoonful of sugar. When it boils stir into it one pint 
of sifted flour, stirring briskly and thoroughly. Remove from the fire, 
and when nearly cooled beat into it six eggs, each one beaten sepa- 
rately and added one at a time, beating the batter between each. Drop 
the stiff dough into boiling lard by teaspoonfuls. Eat with syrup, or 
melted sugar and butter flavored. 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 255 

Stirring the boiling lard around and around, so that it whirls when 
you drop in the fritters, causes them to assume a round shape like balls,, 

CANNELONS, OR FRIED PUFFS. 

HALF a pound of puff paste, apricot or any kind of preserve that may 
be preferred, hot lard. 

Cannelons, which are made of puff paste rolled very thin, with jam en- 
closed, and cut out in long, narrow rolls or puffs, make a very pretty and 
elegant dish. Make some good puff paste, roll it out very thin, and cut it 
into pieces of an equal size, about two inches wide and eight inches long; 
place upon each piece a spoonful of jam, wet the edges with the white of 
egg and fold the paste over twice; slightly press the edges together, that 
the jam may not escape in the frying, and when all are prepared, fry them 
in boiling lard until of a nice brown, letting them remain by the side of 
the fire after they are colored, that the paste may be thoroughly done. 
Drain them before the fire, dish on a d'oyley, sprinkle over them sifted 
sugar and serve. These cannelons are very delicious made with fresh 
instead of preserved fruit, such as strawberries, raspberries or currants; 
they should be laid in the paste, plenty of pounded sugar -sprinkled over 
and folded and fried in the same manner as stated above. 

GERMAN FRITTERS. 

TAKE slices of stale bread cut in rounds or stale cake; fry them in hot 
lard, like crullers, to a light brown. Dip each slice when fried in boiling 
milk, to remove the grease; drain quickly, dust with powdered sugar or 
spread with preserves. Pile on a hot plate and serve. Sweet wine sauce 
poured over them is very nice. 

HOMINY FRITTERS. 

TAKE one pint of hot boiled hominy, two eggs, half a teaspoonful of 
salt and a tablespoonful of flour; thin it a little with cold milk; when cold 
add a teaspoonful of baking powder, mix thoroughly, drop tablespoonf uls 
of it into hot fat and fry to a delicate brown. 

PARSNIP FRITTERS. 

TAKE three or four good-sized parsnips. Boil them until tender. 
Mash and season with a little butter, a pinch of salt and a slight sprink- 
ling of pepper. Have ready a plate with some sifted flour on it. Drop 
a tablespoonful of the parsnip in the flour and roll it about until well 



256 BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

coated and formed into a ball. When you have a sufficient number 
ready, drop them into boiling drippings or lard, as you would a fritter; 
fry a delicate brown and serve hot. Do not put them in a covered dish, 
for that would steam them and deprive them of their crispness, which 
is one of their great charms. 

These are also very good fried in a frying pan with a small quantity of 
lard and butter mixed, turning them over so as to fry both sides brown. 

GREEN CORN FRITTERS. 

ONE pint of grated, young and tender, green corn, three eggs, two 
tablespoonfuls of milk or cream, one tablespoonful of melted butter, if 
milk is used, a teaspoonful of salt. Beat the eggs well, add the corn by 
degrees, also the milk and butter; thicken with just enough flour to 
hold them together, adding a teaspoonful of baking powder to the flour. 
Have ready a kettle of hot lard, drop the corn from the spoon into the 
fat and fry a light brown. They are also nice fried in butter and lard 
mixed, the same as fried eggs. 

CREAM SHORT-CAKE. 

SIFT one quart of fine white flour, rub into it three tablespoonfuls 
of cold butter, a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of white sugar. 
Add a beaten egg to a cup of sour cream, turn it into the other ingre- 
dients, dissolve a teaspoonful of soda in a spoonful of water, mix all to- 
gether, handling as little as possible; roll lightly into two round sheets, 
place on pie-tins and bake from twenty to twenty-five minutes in a 
quick oven. 

This crust is delicious for fruit short-cakes. 

STRAWBERRY SHORT-CAKE. 

MAKE a rule of baking powder biscuit, with the exception of a little 
more shortening ; divide the dough in half ; lay one-half on the molding- 
board (half the dough makes one short-cake), divide this half again, and 
roll each piece large enough to cover a biscuit-tin, or a large-sized pie-tin ; 
spread soft butter over the lower one and place the other on top of that ; 
proceed with the other lump of dough the same, by cutting it in halves, 
and putting on another tin. Set them in the oven ; when sufficiently 
baked take them out, separate each one by running a large knife through 
where the cold soft butter was spread. Then butter plentifully each crust, 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 257 

lay the bottom of each on earthen platters or dining-plates ; cover thickly 
with a quart of strawberries that have been previously prepared with 
sugar, lay the top crusts on the fruit. If there is any juice left, pour it 
around the cake. This makes a delicious short-cake. 

Peaches, raspberries, blackberries and huckleberries can be substituted 
for strawberries. Always send to the table with a pitcher of sweet cream. 

ORANGE SHORT-CAKE, 

PEEL two largo oranges, chop them fine, remove the seeds, add half a 
peeled lemon and one cup of sugar. Spread between the layers of short- 
cake while it is hot. 

LEMON SHORT-CAKE. 

MAKE a rich biscuit dough, same as above recipe. While baking, take 
a cup and a quarter of water, a cup and a half of sugar, and two lemons, 
peel, juice and pulp, throwing away the tough part of the rind; boil this 
for some little time; then stir in three crackers rolled fine; split the 
short-cakes while hot, spread with butter, then with the mixture. To be 
eaten warm. 

HUCKLEBERRY SHORT-CAKE. 

Two CUPFULS of sugar, half a cupful f butter, one pint of sweet 
milk, one tablespoonful of salt, two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking pow- 
der sifted into a quart of flour, or enough to form a thick batter ; add 
a quart of the huckleberries; to be baked in a dripper; cut into squares 
for the table and served hot with butter. Blackberries may be used the 
same. 

FRIED DINNER-ROLLS. 

WHEN making light raised bread, save out a piece of dough nearly 
the size of a small loaf, roll it out on the board, spread a tablespoon- 
ful of melted butter over it; dissolve a quarter of a teaspoonful of soda 
in a tablespoonful of water and pour that also over it; work it all well 
into the dough, roll it out into a sheet not quite half an inch thick. 
Cut it in strips three inches long and one inch wide. Lay them on 
buttered tins, cover with a cloth and set away in a cool place until an 
hour before dinner time ; then set them by the fire where they will 
become light. While they are rising, put into a frying pan a table- 
spoonful of cold butter and one of lard; when it boils clear and is hof, 

lay as many of the rolls in as will fry nicely. As soon as they brown 
17 



258 BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, FTC. 

on one side turn them over and brown the other ; then turn them on 
the edges and brown the sides. Add fresh grease as is needed. Eat 
them warm in place of bread. Mce with warm meat dinner. 

NEWPORT BREAKFAST-CAKES. 

TAKE one quart of dough from the bread at an early hour in the 
morning ; break three eggs, separating yolks and whites, both to be 
whipped to a light froth ; mix them into the dough and gradually add 
two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, one of sugar, one teaspoonful of 
soda, and enough warm milk with it until it is a batter the consistency 
of buckwheat cakes ; beat it well and let it rise until breakfast time. 
Have the griddle hot and nicely greased, pour on the batter in small 
round cakes and bake a light brown, the same as any griddle cake. 

PUFF BALLS. 

A PIECE of butter as large as an egg stirred until soft ; add three 
well-beaten eggs, a pinch of salt and half a teacupful of sour cream. 
Stir well together, then add enough flour to make a very thick batter. 
Drop a spoonful of this into boiling water. Cook until the puffs rise 
to the surface. Dish them hot with melted butter turned over them. 
Nice accompaniment to a meat dinner as a side-dish similar to plain 
macaroni. 

BREAKFAST PUFFS. 

Two CUPS of sour milk, one teaspoonful of soda, one teaspoonful of salt, 
one egg and flour enough to roll out like biscuit dough. Cut into narrow 
strips an inch wide and three inches long; fry brown in hot lard like 
doughnuts. Serve hot; excellent with coffee. Or fry in a spider with an 
ounce each of lard and butter, turning and browning all four of the sides. 

ENGLISH CRUMPETS. 

ONE quart of warm milk, half a cup of yeast, one teaspoonful of salt, 
flour enough to make a stiff batter; when light, add half a cupful of melted 
butter, a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little water and a very little 
more flour; let it stand twenty minutes or until light. Grease some muffin- 
rings, place them on a hot griddle and fill them half full of the batter; 
when done on one side turn and bake the other side. Butter them while 
hot; pile one on another and serve immediately. 



BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 259 

PLAIN CRUMPETS. 

Mix together thoroughly while dry one quart of sifted flour, loosely 
measured, two heaping teaspoonfuls baking powder and a little salt; then 
add two tablespoonfuls of melted butter and sweet milk enough to make a 
thin dough. Bake quickly in muffin-rings or patty-pans. 

PREPARED BREAD CRUMBS. 

TAKE pieces of stale bread, break them in small bits, put them on a 
baking pan and place them in a moderate oven, watching closely that 
they do not scorch; then take them while hot and crisp and roll them, 
crushing them. Sift them, using the fine crumbs for breading cutlets, 
fish, croquettes, etc. The coarse ones may be used for puddings, pan- 
cakes, etc. 

CRACKERS. 

SIFT into a pint of flour a heaping teaspoonful of baking powder, four 
tablespoonfuls of melted butter, half a teaspoonful salt and the white of 
an egg beaten and one cup of milk; mix it with more flour, enough to 
make a very stiff dough, as stiff as can be rolled out; pounded and kneaded 
a long time. Roll very thin like pie crust and cut out either round or 
square. Bake a light brown. 

Stale crackers are made crisp and better by placing them in the oven 
a few moments before they are needed for the table. 

FRENCH CRACKERS. 

Six eggs, twelve tablespoonfuls of sweet milk, six tablespoonfuls of 
butter, half a teaspoonful of soda; mold with flour, pounding and work- 
ing half an hour; roll it thin. Bake with rather quick fire. 

CORN MEAL MUSH OR HASTY PUDDING. 

PUT two quarts of water into a clean dinner-pot or stewpan, cover 
it and let it become boiling hot over the fire; then add a tablespoonful 
of salt, take off the light scum from the top, have sweet, fresh yellow 
or white corn meal; take a handful of the meal with the left hand and 
a pudding stick in the right, then with the stick, stir the water around 
and by degrees let fall the meal; when one handful is exhausted, refill 
it; continue to stir and add meal until it is as thick as you can stir 
easily, or until the stick will stand in it; stir it awhile longer; let the 



260 BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

fire be gentle; when it is sufficiently cooked, which will be in half an 
hour, it will bubble or puff up; turn it into a deep basin. This is eaten 
cold or hot, with milk or with butter and syrup or sugar, or with meat 
and gravy, the same as potatoes or rice. 

FRIED MTJSH. 

MAKE it like the above recipe, turn it into bread tins and when cold 
slice it, dip each piece in flour and fry it in lard and butter mixed in 
the frying pan, turning to brown well both sides. Must be served hot. 

GRAHAM MUSH. 

SIFT Graham meal slowly into boiling salted water, stirring briskly 
until thick as can be stirred with one hand; serve with milk or cream 
and sugar, or butter and syrup. It will be improved by removing from 
the kettle to a pan, as soon as thoroughly mixed, and steaming three 
or four hours. It may also be eaten cold, or sliced and fried, like corn 
meal mush. 

OATMEAL. 

SOAK one cup of oatmeal in a quart of water over night, boil half an 
hour in the morning, salted to taste. It is better to cook it in a dish 
set into a dish of boiling water. 

RICE CROOUETTES. 

BOIL for thirty minutes one cup of well-washed rice in a pint of 
milk; whip into the hot rice the following ingredients: Two ounces of 
butter, two ounces of sugar, some salt, and when slightly cool add the 
yolks of two eggs well beaten; if too stiff pour in a little more milk; 
when cold, roll into small balls and dip in beaten eggs, roll in fine 
cracker or bread crumbs, and fry same as doughnuts. Or they may be 
fried in the frying pan, with a tablespoonful each of butter and lard 
mixed, turning and frying both sides brown. Serve very hot. 

HOMINY. 

THIS form of cereal is very little known and consequently little 
appreciated in most Northern households. "Big hominy" and "little 
hominy," as they are called in the South, are staple dishes there and 
generally take the place of oatmeal, which is apt to be too heating for 
the climate. The former is called " samp " here. It must be boiled for 



BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 261 

at least eight hours to be properly cooked, and may then be kept on hand 
for two or three days and warmed over, made into croquettes or balls, 
or fried in cakes. The fine hominy takes two or three hours for proper 
cooking, and should be cooked in a dish set into another of boiling water, 
and kept steadily boiling until thoroughly soft. 

HOMINY CROQUETTES. 

To A cupful of cold boiled hominy, add a teaspoonful of melted 
butter, and stir it well, adding by degrees a cupful of milk, till all is 
made into a soft, light paste ; add a teaspoonful of white sugar, a pinch 
of salt, and one well-beaten egg. Roll it into oval balls with floured 
hands, dipped in beaten egg, then rolled in cracker crumbs, and fry in 
hot lard. 

The hominy is best boiled the day or morning before using. 

BOILED RICE. 

TAKE half or quarter of a pound of the best quality of rice ; wash it in 
a strainer, and put it in a saucepan, with a quart of clean water and a 
pinch of salt ; let it boil slowly till the water is all evaporated see that it 
does not burn then pour in a teacupf ul of new milk ; stir carefully from 
the bottom of the saucepan, so that the upper grain may go under, but do 
not smash it ; close the lid on your saucepan carefully down, and set it on 
a cooler part of the fire, where it will not boil; as soon as it has absorbed 
the added milk, serve it up with fresh new milk, adding fruit and sugar 
for those who like them. 

Another nice way to cook rice is to take -one teacupf ul of rice and one 
quart of milk, place in a steamer, and steam from two to three hours ; 
when nearly done, stir in a piece of butter as large as the yolk of an egg, 
and a pinch of salt. You can use sugar if you like. The difference in the 
time of cooking depends on your rice the older the rice, the longer time 
it takes to cook. 

SAMP, OR HULLED CORN. 

AN OLD-FASHIONED way of preparing hulled corn was to put a peck of 
old, dry, ripe corn into a pot filled with water, and with it a bag of hard- 
wood ashes, say a quart. After soaking awhile it was boiled until the 
skins or hulls came off easily. The corn was then washed in cold water 
to get rid of the taste of potash, and then boiled until the kernels were 
soft. Another way was to take the lye from the leaches where potash was 



262 BREAD BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

made, dilute it, and boil the corn in this until the skins or hulls came off. 
It makes a delicious dish, eaten with milk or cream. 

CRACKED WHEAT. 

SOAK the wheat over night in cold water, about a quart of water to 
a cup of wheat ; cook it as directed for oatmeal ; should be thoroughly 
done. Eaten with sugar and cream. 

OAT FLAKES. 

THIS healthful oat preparation may be procured from the leading 
grocers and is prepared as follows : Put into a double saucepan or 
porcelain-lined pan a quart of boiling water, add a saltspoonful of salt, 
and when it is boiling add, or rather stir in gradually, three ounces of 
flakes. Keep stirring to prevent burning. Let it boil from fifteen to 
twenty minutes and serve with cream and sugar. 

Ordinary oatmeal requires two hours' steady cooking to make it 
palatable and digestible. Wheaten grits and hominy one hour, but a 
half hour longer cooking will not injure them and makes them easier 
of digestion. Never be afraid of cooking cereals or preparations from 
cereals too long, no matter what the directions on the package may be. 

STEAMED OATMEAL. 

To ONE teacupful oatmeal add a quart of cold water, a teaspoonful 
of salt ; put in a steamer over a kettle of cold water, gradually heat 
and steam an hour and a half after it begins to cook. 

HOMINY. 

HOMINY is a preparation of Indian corn, broken or ground, either 
large or small, and is an excellent breakfast dish in winter or summer. 
Wash the hominy thoroughly in one or two waters, then cover it with 
twice its depth of cold water and let it come to a boil slowly. If it be 
the large hominy, simmer six hours ; if the small hominy, simmer two 
hours. When the water evaporates add hot water ; when done it may 
be eaten with cream, or allowed to become cold and warmed up in the 
frying pan, using a little butter to prevent burning. 



TOAST. 263 



TOAST. 

TOAST should be made of stale bread, or at least of bread that has 
been baked a day. Cut smoothly in slices, not more than half an inch 
thick; if the crust is baked very hard, trim the edges and brown very 
evenly, but if it happens to burn, that should be scraped off. Toast 
that is to be served with anything turned over it, should have the slices 
first dipped quickly in a dish of hot water turned from the boiling tea- 
kettle, with a little salt thrown in. Cold biscuits cut in halves, and 
the under crust sliced off, then browned evenly on both sides, make 
equally as good toast. The following preparations of toast are almost 
all of them very nice dishes, served with a family breakfast. 

MILK TOAST. 

PUT over the fire a quart of milk, put into it a tablespoonful of cold 
butter, stir a heaping teaspoonful of flour into half a gill of milk; as 
soon as the milk on the fire boils, stir in the flour, add a teaspoonful 
of salt; let all boil up once, remove from the fire, and dip in this slices 
of toasted bread. When all are used up, pour what is left of the scalded 
milk over the toast. Cover and send to the table hot. 

CEEAM TOAST. 

HEAT a pint of milk to boiling and add a piece of butter the size of 
an egg; stir a tablespoonful of flour smoothly into a cup of rich cream, 
and add some of the boiling milk to this; heat it gradually and prevent 
the flour from lumping; then stir into the boiling milk and let it cook 
a few moments; salt to taste. After taking from the fire stir in a beaten 
egg; strain the mixture on to toast lightly buttered. 

AMERICAN TOAST, 

To ONE egg thoroughly beaten, put one cup of sweet milk and a 
little salt. Slice light bread and dip into the mixture, allowing each slice 
to absorb some of the milk; then brown on a hot buttered griddle or 
thick-bottomed frying pan; spread with butter and serve hot. 

NUNS' TOAST. 

CUT four or five hard-boiled eggs into slices. Put a piece of butter half 
the size of an egg into a saucepan and when it begins to bubble add a 



264 BREAD TOAST. 

finely chopped onion. Let the onion cook a little without taking color^ 
then stir in a teaspoonful of flour. Add a cupful of milk and stir until it 
becomes smooth; then put in the slices of eggs and let them get hot. Pour 
over neatly trimmed slices of hot buttered toast. The sauce must be sea- 
soned to taste with pepper and salt. 

CHEESE TOAST. No. 1. 

TOAST thin slices of bread an even, crisp brown. Place on a warm 
plate, allowing one small slice to each person, and pour on enough melted 
cheese to cover them. Rich new cheese is best. Serve while warm. Many 
prefer a little prepared mustard spread over the toast before putting on 
the cheese. 

CHEESE TOAST. No. 2. 

PUT half an ounce of butter in a frying pan; when hot add gradually 
four ounces of mild American cheese. Whisk it thoroughly until melted. 
Beat together half a pint of cream and two eggs; whisk into the cheese, 
add a little salt, pour over the crisp toast, and serve. 

The two above recipes are usually called " Welsh Rarebit." 

OYSTER TOAST. 

SELECT the large ones, used for frying, and first dip them in beaten egg, 
then in either cracker or bread crumbs and cook upon a fine wire gridiron, 
over a quick fire. Toast should be made ready in advance, and a rich 
cream sauce poured over the whole. After pouring on the sauce, finely 
cut celery strewn over the top adds to their delicacy. 

Or wash oysters in the shell and put them on hot coals, or upon the top 
of a hot stove, or bake them in a hot oven; open the shells with an oyster- 
knife, taking care to lose none of the liquor. Dip the toast into hot, salted 
water quickly and turn out the oyster and liquor over the toast; season 
with salt and pepper and a teaspoonful of melted butter over each. 

Oysters steamed in the shell are equally as good. 

MUSHROOMS ON TOAST. 

PEEL a quart of mushrooms and cut off a little of the root end. 
Melt an ounce of butter in the frying pan and fry in it half a pound 
of raw minced steak; add two saltspoonfuls of salt, a pinch of cayenne 
and a gill of hot water; fry until the juices are extracted from the 
meat; tilt the pan and squeeze the meat with the back of the spoon 



BEE AD TOAST. 265 

until there is nothing left but dry meat, then remove it; add the mush- 
rooms to the liquid and if there is not enough of it, add more butter; 
toss them about a moment and pour out on hot toast. 

Some add a little sherry to the dish before removing from the 
fire. 

TOMATO TOAST. 

PAKE and stew a quart of ripe tomatoes until smooth. Season with 
salt, pepper and a tablespoonful of butter. When done, add one cup 
sweet cream and a little flour. Let it scald, but not boil ; remove at 
once. Pour over slices of dipped toast, well buttered. 

EGGS ON TOAST. 

VARIOUS preparations of eggs can be served on toast, first dipping 
slices of well-toasted bread quickly in hot salted water, then turning 
over them scrambled, poached or creamed eggs, all found in the recipes 
among EGGS. 

BAKED EGGS ON TOAST. 

TOAST six slices of stale bread, dip them in hot salted water and but- 
ter them lightly. After arranging them on a platter or deep plate, 
break enough eggs to cover them, breaking one at a time and slip over 
the toast so that they do not break; sprinkle over them salt and pep- 
per and turn over all some kind of thickened gravy either chicken or 
lamb, cream or a cream sauce made the same as "White Sauce"; turn 
this over the toast and eggs and bake in a hot oven until the eggs are 
set, or about five minutes. Serve at once. 

HAM TOAST. 

TAKE a quarter of a pound of either boiled or fried ham, chop it fine, 
mix it with the yolks of two eggs, well beaten, a tablespoonful of butter, 
and enough cream or rich milk to make it soft, a dash of pepper. Stir it 
over the fire until it thickens. Dip the toast for an instant in hot salted 
water ; spread over some melted butter, then turn over the ham mixture. 

Serve hot. 

REED BIRDS ON TOAST. 

REMOVE the feathers and legs of a dozen reed birds, split them down 
the back, remove the entrails, and place them on a double broiler ; brush 
a little melted butter over them and broil the inner side thoroughly first ; 
then lightly broil the other side. Melt one quarter of a pound of butter, 



266 BREAD TOAST. 

season it nicely with salt and pepper, dip the birds in it, and arrange them 
nicely on slices of toast. 

MINCED FOWLS ON TOAST. 

REMOVE from the bones all the meat of either cold roast or boiled fowls. 
Clean it from the skin, and keep covered from the air until ready for use. 
Boil the bones and skin with three-fourths of a pint of water until reduced 
quite half. Strain the gravy and let it cool. Next, having skimmed off 
the fat, put it into a clean saucepan with half a cup of cream, three table- 
spoonfuls of butter, well mixed with a tablespoonful of flour. Keep these 
stirred until they boil. Then put in the fowl finely minced, with three 
hard-boiled eggs, chopped, and sufficient salt and pepper to season. Shake 
the mince over the fire until just ready to serve. Dish it over hot toast 
and serve. 

HASHED BEEF ON TOAST. 

CHOP a quantity of cold roast beef rather fine and season it well with 
pepper and salt. For each pint of meat add a level tablespoonful of 
flour. Stir well and add a small teacupful of soup-stock or water. Put 
the mixture into a small stewpan and, after covering it, simmer for 
twenty minutes. Meanwhile, toast half a dozen slices of bread nicely and 
at the end of the twenty minutes spread the meat upon them. Serve at 
once on a hot dish. In case water be used instead of soup-stock, add 
a tablespoonful of butter just before spreading the beef upon the toast. 
Any kind of cold meat may be prepared in a similar manner. 

Maria Parloa. 
VEAL HASH ON TOAST. 

TAKE a teacupful of boiling water in a saucepan, stir in an even tea- 
spoonful of flour, wet in a tablespoonful of cold water, and let it boil five 
minutes; add one-half teaspoonful of black pepper, as much salt and two 
tablespoonfuls of butter, and let it keep hot, but not boil. Chop the veal 
fine and mix with it half as much stale bread crumbs. Put it in a pan 
and pour the gravy over it, then let it simmer ten minutes. Serve this on 
buttered toast. 

CODFISH ON TOAST. (Cuban Style.) 

TAKE a teacupful of freshened codfish picked up fine. Fry a sliced 
onion in a tablespoonful of butter; when it has turned a light brown, put 
in the fish with water enough to cover it; add half a can of tomatoes, or 



BEE AD TOAST. 267 

half a dozen of fresh ones. Cook all nearly an hour, seasoning with a lit- 
tle pepper. Serve on slices of dipped toast, hot. Very fine. 
Plain creamed codfish is very nice turned over dipped toast. 

HALIBUT ON TOAST. 

PUT into boiling salted water one pound of fresh halibut; cook slowly 
for fifteen minutes, or until done; remove from the water and chop it fine; 
then add half a cup of melted butter and eight eggs well beaten. Season 
with salt and pepper. 

Place over the fire a thick-bottomed frying pan containing a table- 
spoonful of cold butter; when it begins to melt, tip the pan so as to grease 
the sides; then put in the fish and eggs and stir one way until the eggs are 
cooked, but not too hard. Turn over toast dipped in hot salted water. 

CHICKEN HASH WITH RICE TOAST. 

BOIL a cup of rice the night before; put it into a square, narrow bread- 
pan, set it in the ice-box. Next morning cut it in half inch slices, rub 
over each slice a little warm butter and toast them on a broiler to a deli- 
cate brown. Arrange the toast on a warm platter and turn over the whole 
a chicken hash made from the remains of cold fowl, the meat picked from 
the bones, chopped fine, put into the frying pan with butter and a little 
water to moisten it, adding pepper and salt. Heat hot all through. Serve 
immediately. 

APPLE TOAST. 

CUT six apples into quarters, take the core out, peel and cut them in 
slices; put in the saucepan an ounce of butter, then throw over the apples 
about two ounces of white powdered sugar and two tablespoonfuls of 
water; put the saucepan on the fire, let it stew quickly, toss them up, or 
stir with a spoon; a few minutes will do them. When tender cut two or 
three slices of bread half an inch thick; put in a frying pan two ounces of 
butter, put on the fire; when the butter is melted put in your bread, which 
fry of a nice yellowish color; when nice and crisp take them out, place 
them on a dish, a little white sugar over, the apples about an inch thick. 
Serve hot. 



CAKES. 



SUGGESTIONS IN REGARD TO CAKE-MAKING. 

USE NONE but the best materials, and all the ingredients should 
be properly prepared before commencing to mix any of them. 
Eggs beat up much lighter and sooner by being placed in a 
cold place sometime before using them; a small pinch of soda 
sometimes has the same effect. Flour should always be sifted before using 
it. Cream of tartar or baking powder should be thoroughly mixed with 
the flour ; butter be placed where it will become moderately soft, but 
not melted in the least, or the cake will be sodden and heavy. Sugar 
should be rolled and sifted ; spices ground or pounded ; raisins or any 
other fruit looked over and prepared ; currants, especially, should be 
nicely washed, picked, dried in a cloth and then carefully examined, 
that no pieces of grit or stone may be left amongst them. They should 
then be laid on a dish before the fire to become thoroughly dry; as, if 
added damp to the other ingredients, cakes will be liable to be heavy. 

Eggs should be well beaten, the whites and yolks separately, the 
yolks to a thick cream, the whites until they are a stiff froth. Always 
stir the butter and sugar to a cream, then add the beaten yolks, then 
the milk, the flavoring, then the beaten whites, and, lastly, the flour. If 
fruit is to be used, measure and dredge with a little sifted flour, stir in 
gradually and thoroughly. 

Pour all in well-buttered cake-pans. While the cake is baking care 
should be taken that no cold air enters the oven, only when necessary 
to see that the cake is baking properly ; the oven should be an even, 
moderate heat, not too cold or too hot; much depends on this for 
success. 

Cake is often spoiled by being looked at too often when first put 
into the oven. The heat should be tested before the cake is put in, 
which can be done by throwing on the floor of the oven a tablespoon- 
ful of new flour. If the flour takes fire, or assumes a dark brown color, 
the temperature is too high and the oven must be allowed to cool ; if 

(268) 



CAKES S UGGES TIONS. 269 

the flour remains white after the lapse of a few seconds, the tempera- 
ture is too low. When the oven is of the proper temperature the flour 
will slightly brown and look slightly scorched. 

Another good way to test the heat, is to drop a few spoonfuls of 
the cake batter on a small piece of buttered letter paper, and place it 
in the oven during the finishing of the cake, so that the piece will be 
baked before putting in the whole cake; if the little drop of cake batter 
bakes evenly without burning around the edge, it will be safe to put the 
whole cake in the oven. Then, again, if the oven seems too hot, fold a 
thick brown paper double, and lay on the bottom of the oven; then 
after the cake has risen, put a thick brown paper over the top, or butter 
well a thick white paper and lay carefully over the top. 

If, after the cake is put in, it seems to bake too fast, put a brown paper 
loosely over the top of the pan, care being taken that it does not touch 
the cake, and do not open the door for five minutes at least; the cake 
should then be quickly examined, and the door shut carefully, or the 
rush of cold air will cause it to fall. Setting a small dish of hot water 
in the oven, will also prevent the cake from scorching. 

To ascertain when the cake is done, run a broom straw into the middle 
of it; if it comes out clean and smooth, the cake will do to take out. 

Where the recipe calls for baking powder, and you have none, you 
can use cream of tartar and soda in proportion to one level teaspoonful 
of soda, two heaping teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar. 

When sour milk is called for in the recipe, use only soda. Cakes made 
with ro,olasses burn much more easily than those made with sugar. 

Never stir cake after the butter and sugar is creamed, but beat it 
down from the bottom, up and over; this laps air into the cake batter 
and produces .little air cells, which cause the dough to puff and swell 
when it comes in contact with the heat while cooking. 

When making most cakes, especially sponge cake, the flour should 
be added by degrees, stirred very slowly and lightly, for if stirred hard 
and fast it will make it porous and tough. 

Cakes should be kept in tight tin cake-cans, or earthern jars, in a 
cool, dry place. 

Cookies, jumbles, ginger-snaps, etc., require a quick oven; if they 
become moist or soft by keeping, put again into the oven a few minutes. 

To remove a cake from a tin after it is baked, so that it will not crack, 
break or fall, first butter the tin well all around the sides and bottom ; 



270 CAKES FROSTING OR ICING. 

then cut a piece of letter paper to exactly fit the tin, butter that on both 
sides, placing it smoothly on the bottom and sides of the tin. When the 
cake is baked, let it remain in the tin until it is cold ; then set it in the 
oven a minute, or just long enough to warm the tin through. Remove it 
from the oven ; turn it upside down on your hand, tap the edge of the tin 
on the table and it will slip out with ease, leaving it whole. 

If a cake-pan is too shallow for holding the quantity of cake to be 
baked, for fear of its being so light as to rise above the pan, that can be 
remedied by thoroughly greasing a piece of thick glazed letter paper with 
soft butter. Place or fit it around the sides of the buttered tin, allowing 
it to reach an inch or more above the top. If the oven heat is moderate, 
the butter will preserve the paper from burning. 



FROSTING OR ICING. 

IN THE first place, the eggs should be cold, and the platter on which 
they are to be beaten also cold. Allow, for the white of one egg, one 
small teacupful of powdered sugar. Break the eggs and throw a small 
handful of the sugar on them as soon as you begin beating; keep add- 
ing it at intervals until it is all used up. The eggs must not be beaten 
until the sugar has been added in this way, which gives a smooth, ten- 
der frosting, and one that will dry much sooner than the old way. 

Spread with a broad knife evenly over the cake, and if it seems too 
thin, beat in a little more sugar. Cover the cake with two coats, the 
second after the first has become dry, or nearly so. If the icing gets 
too dry or stiff before the last coat is needed, it can be thinned suffi- 
ciently with a little water, enough to make it work smoothly. 

A little lemon juice, or half a teaspoonful of tartaric acid, added to 
the frosting while being beaten, makes it white and more frothy. 

The flavors mostly used are lemon, vanilla, almond, rose, choco- 
late and orange. If you wish to ornament with figures or flowers, 
make up rather more icing, keep about one-third out until that on the 
cake is dried; then, with a clean glass syringe, apply it in such forms as 
you desire and dry as before; what you keep out to ornament with may 
be tinted pink with cochineal, blue with indigo, yellow with saffron 
or the grated rind of an orange strained through a cloth, green with 
spinach juice and brown with chocolate, purple with cochineal and 
indigo. Strawberry, or currant and cranberry juices color a delicate pink. 



CAKES FROSTING OR ICING. 271 

Set the cake in a cool oven with the door open to dry, or in a 
draught in an open window. 

ALMOND FROSTING. 

THE whites of three eggs, beaten up with three cups of fine, white 
sugar. Blanch a pound of sweet almonds, pound them in a mortar with a 
little sugar, until a fine paste, then add the whites of eggs, sugar and 
vanilla extract. Pound a few minutes to thoroughly mix. Cover the 
cake with a very thick coating of this, set in a cool oven to dry, after- 
wards cover with a plain icing. 

CHOCOLATE FROSTING. 

THE whites of four eggs, three cups of powdered sugar and nearly a 
cup of grated chocolate. Beat the whites a very little, they must not be- 
come white, stir in the chocolate, then put in the sugar gradually, beating 

to mix it well. 

PLAIN CHOCOLATE ICING. 

PUT into a shallow pan four tablespoonfuls of scraped chocolate, and 
place it where it will melt gradually, but. not scorch ; when melted, stir in 
three tablespoonfuls of milk or cream and one of water; mix all well 
together, and add one scant teacupful of sugar ; boil about five minutes, 
and while hot, and when the cakes are nearly cold, spread some evenly 
over the surface of one of the cakes ; put a second one on top, alternating 
the mixture and cakes ; then cover top and sides, and set in a warm oven 
to harden. All who have tried recipe after recipe, vainly hoping to find 
one where the chocolate sticks to the cake and not to the fingers, will 
appreciate the above. In making those most palatable of cakes, " Choco- 
late Eclairs," the recipe just given will be found very satisfactory. 

TUTTI FRTJTTI ICING. 

Mix with boiled icing one ounce each of chopped citron, candied cher- 
ries, seedless raisins, candied pineapple and blanched almonds. 

SUGAR ICING. 

To ONE pound of extra refined sugar add one ounce of fine white 
starch ; pound finely together and then sift them through gauze ; then 
beat the whites of three eggs to a froth. The secret of success is to 
beat the eggs long enough, and always one way ; add the powdered 
sugar by degrees, or it will spoil the froth of the eggs. When all the 



272 CAKES FROSTING OR ICING. 

sugar is stirred in continue the whipping for half an hour longer, add- 
ing more sugar if the ice is too thin. Take a little of the icing and 
lay it aside for ornamenting afterward. When the cake comes out of 
the oven, spread the sugar icing smoothly over it with a knife and dry 
it at once in a cool oven. For ornamenting the cake the icing may be 
tinged any color preferred. For pink, use a few drops of cochineal; for 
yellow, 'a pinch of saffron dissolved ; for green, the juice of some 
chopped spinach. Whichever is chosen, let the coloring be first mixed 
with a little colorless spirit and then stirred into the white icing until 
the tint is deep enough. To ornament the cake with it, make a cone 
of stiff writing paper and squeeze the colored icing through it, so as 
to form leaves, beading or letters, as the case may be. It requires 
nicety and care to do it with success. 

BOILED FROSTING. 

To ONE pound of finest pulverized sugar add three wine-glassfuls of 
clear water. Let it stand until it dissolves; then boil it until it is per- 
fectly clear and threads from the spoon. Beat well the whites of four 
eggs. Pour the sugar into the dish with the eggs, but do not mix them 
until the syrup is luke-warm ; then beat all well together for one-half 
hour. 

Season to your taste with vanilla, rose-water, or lemon juice. The 
first coating may be put on the cake as soon as it is well mixed. Rub 
the cake with a little flour before you apply the icing. While the first 
coat is drying continue to beat the remainder ; you will not have to 
wait long if the cake is set in a warm place near the fire. This is 
said to be a most excellent recipe for icing. 

FROSTING WITHOUT EGGS. 

AN EXCELLENT frosting may be made without eggs or gelatine, which 
will keep longer and cut more easily, causing no breakage or crumbling 
and withal is very economical. 

Take one cup of granulated sugar; dampen it with one-fourth of a 
cup of milk, or five tablespoonfuls; place it on the fire in a suitable 
dish and stir it until it boils; then let it boil for five minutes without 
stirring; remove it from the fire and set the dish in another of cold 
water; add flavoring. While it is cooling, stir or beat it constantly and 
it will become a thick, creamy frosting. 



CAKES FILLINGS. 273 

GELATINE FROSTING. 

SOAK one teaspoonful of gelatine in one tablespoonful of cold water 
half an hour, dissolve in two tablespoonfuls of hot water; add one cup 
of powdered sugar and stir until smooth. 

GOLDEN FROSTING. 

A VERY delicious and handsome frosting can be made by using the 
yolks of eggs instead of the whites. Proceed exactly as for ordinary 
frosting. It will harden just as nicely as that does. This is partic- 
ularly good for orange cake, harmonizing with the color of the cake in 
a way to please those who love rich coloring. 



FILLINGS FOR LAYER CAKES. 

No. 1. CREAM FILLING. 

CREAM filling is made with one pint of new milk, two eggs, three table- 
spoonfuls of sifted flour (or half cup of cornstarch), one cup of sugar. Put 
two-thirds of the milk on the stove to boil, stir the sugar, flour and eggs 
in what is left. When the milk boils, put into it the whole and cook it until 
it is as thick as custard ; when cool, add vanilla extract. This custard is 
nice with a cup of hickory nuts, kernels chopped fine and stirred into it. 
Spread between the layers of cake. This custard can be made of the yolks 
of the eggs only, saving the whites for the cake part. 

No. 2. ANOTHER CREAM FILLING. 

ONE cup powdered sugar, one-fourth cup hot water. Let them simmer. 
Beat white of an egg and mix with the above ; when cold, add one-half 
cup chopped raisins, one-half cup chopped walnuts, one tablespoonful of 
grated cocoanut. 

No. 3. ICE-CREAM FILLING. 

MAKE an icing as follows : Three cups of sugar, one of water ; boil to 
a thick, clear syrup, or until it begins to be brittle ; pour this, boiling hot, 
over the well-beaten whites of three eggs ; stir the mixture very briskly, 
and pour the sugar in slowly ; beat it, when all in, until cool. Flavor with 
lemon or vanilla extract. This, spread between any white cake layers, 
answers for "Ice-Cream Cake." 

18 



274 CAKES FILLINGS. 

No. 4. APPLE FILLING. 

PEEL and slice green tart apples, put them on the fire with sugar to 
suit ; when tender, remove, rub them through a fine sieve and add a small 
piece of butter. When cold, use to spread between the layers ; cover the 
cake with plenty of sugar. 

No. 5. ANOTHER APPLE FILLING. 

ONE coffeecup of sugar, one egg, three large apples grated, one lemon 
grated, juice and outside of the rind ; beat together and cook till quite 
thick. To be cooled before putting on the cake. Spread between layers 
of cake. 

No. 6. CREAM FROSTING. 

A CUP of sweet thick cream whipped, sweetened and flavored with 
vanilla ; cut a loaf of cake in two, spread the frosting between and on the 
top ; this tastes like Charlotte Russe. 

No. 7. PEACH-CREAM FILLING. 

CUT peaches into thin slices, or chop them and prepare cream by whip- 
ping and sweetening. Put a layer of peaches between the layers of cake 
and pour cream over each layer and over the top. Bananas, strawberries 
or other fruits may be used in the same way, mashing strawberries and 
stewing thick with powdered sugar. 

No. 8. CHOCOLATE CREAM FOR FILLING. 

FIVE tablespoonf uls of grated chocolate, enough cream or milk to wet 
it, one cupful of sugar, one egg, one teaspoonful vanilla flavoring. Stir 
the ingredients over the fire until thoroughly mixed, having beaten the 
egg well before adding it; then add the vanilla flavoring after it is 
removed from the fire. 

No. 9. ANOTHER CHOCOLATE FILLING. 

THE whites of three eggs beaten stiff, one cup of sugar and one cup of 
grated chocolate, put between the layers and on top. 

No. 10. BANANA FILLING. 

MAKE an icing of the whites of two eggs and one cup and a half of 
powdered sugar. Spread this on the layers, and then cover thickly and 
and entirely with bananas sliced thin or chopped fine. This cake may 
be flavored with vanilla. The top should be simply frosted. 



CAKES FILLINGS. 275 

No. 11. LEMON JELLY FILLING. 

GRATE the yellow from the rind of two lemons and squeeze out the 
juice; two cupfuls of sugar, the yolks and whites of two eggs beaten 
separately. Mix the sugar and yolks, then add the whites and then the 
lemons. Now pour on a cupful of boiling water; stir into this two table- 
spoonfuls of sifted flour, rubbed smooth in half a cup of water; then add a 
tablespoonful of melted butter; cook until it thickens. When cold, spread 
between the layers of cake. Oranges can be used in place of lemons. 

Another filling of lemon (without cooking) is made of the grated rind 
and juice of two lemons and the whites of two eggs beaten with one cup 
of sugar. 

No. 12. ORANGE CAKE FILLING. 

PEEL two large oranges, remove the seeds, chop them fine, add half 
a peeled lemon, one cup of sugar and the well-beaten white of an egg. 
Spread between the layers of " Silver Cake " recipe. 

No. 13. FIG FILLING. 

TAKE a pound of figs, chop fine, and put into a stewpan on the stove; 
pour over them a teacupful of water and add a half cup of sugar. Cook 
all together until soft and smooth. When cold spread between layers of 
cake. 

No. 14. FRUIT FILLING. 

FOUR tablespoonfuls of very finely chopped citron, four tablespoonfuls 
of finely chopped seeded raisins, half of a cupful of blanched almonds 
chopped fine, also a quarter of a pound of finely chopped figs. Beat the 
whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, adding half of a cupful of sugar; then 
mix thoroughly into this the whole of the chopped ingredients. Put it 
between the layers of cake when the cake is hot, so that it will cook the 
egg a little. This will be found delicious. 



BREAD OR RAISED CAKE. 

Two CUPFULS of raised dough; beat into it two-thirds of a cup of 
butter and two cups of sugar creamed together, three eggs, well beaten, 
one even teaspoonful of soda dissolved in two tablespoonfuls of milk, 
half a nutmeg grated, one tablespoonful of cinnamon, a teaspoonful of 
cloves, one cup of raisins. Mix all well together, put in the beaten 
whites of eggs and raisins last; beat all hard for several minutes; put 



276 CAKES. 

in buttered pans and let it stand half an hour to rise again before 
baking. Bake in a moderate oven. Half a glass of brandy is an im- 
provement, if you have it convenient. 

FRUIT CAKE. (Superior.) 

THREE pounds dry flour, one pound sweet butter, one pound sugar, 
three pounds stoned raisins, two pounds currants, three-quarters of a 
pound sweet almonds blanched, one pound citron, twelve eggs, one table- 
spoonful allspice, one teaspoonful cloves, two tablespoonfuls cinnamon, 
two nutmegs, one wine-glass of wine, one wine-glass of brandy, one coffee- 
cupful molasses with the spices in it; steep this gently twenty or thirty 
minutes, not boiling hot; beat the eggs very lightly; put the fruit in 
last, stirring it gradually, also a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a table- 
spoonful of water; the fruit should be well floured; if necessary add flour 
after the fruit is in; butter a sheet of paper and lay it in the pan. Lay 
in some slices of citron, then a layer of the mixture, then of citron again, 
etc., till the pan is nearly full. Bake three or four hours, according to 
the thickness of the loaves, in a tolerably hot oven, and with steady heat. 
Let it cool in the oven gradually. Ice when cold. It improves this 
cake very much to add three teaspoonfuls of baking powder to the flour. 
A fine wedding cake recipe. 

FRUIT CAKE BY MEASURE. (Excellent.) 

Two SCANT teacupfuls of butter, three cupfuls of ^ark brown sugar, 
six eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, one pound of raisins, seeded, 
one of currants, washed and dried, and half a pound of citron cut in 
thin strips; also half a cupful of cooking molasses and half a cupful of 
sour milk. Stir the butter and sugar to a cream, add to that half a grated 
nutmeg, one tablespoonful of ground cinnamon, one teaspoonful of cloves, 
one teaspoonful of mace, add the molasses and sour milk. Stir all well; 
then put in the beaten yolks of eggs, a wine-glass of brandy; stir again 
all thoroughly, and then add four cupfuls of sifted flour alternately with 
the beaten whites of eggs. Now dissolve a level teaspoonful of soda 
and stir in thoroughly. Mix the fruit together and stir into it two heap- 
ing tablespoonfuls of flour; then stir it in the cake. Butter two common- 
sized baking tins carefully, line them with letter paper well buttered, and 
bake in a moderate oven two hours. After it is baked, let it cool in the 
pan. Afterward put it into a tight can, or let it remain in the pans and 

COVer tightly. Best recipe Of all. Mrs. S. A. Camp, Grand Rapids, Mich. 



CAKES. 277 

WHITE FRUIT CAKE. 

ONE cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one cup of sweet milk, two and 
one-half cups of flour, the whites of seven eggs, two even teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, one pound each of seeded raisins, figs and blanched al- 
monds, and one quarter of a pound of citron, all chopped fine. Mix all 
thoroughly before adding the fruit ; add a teaspoonful of lemon extract. 
Put baking powder in the flour and mix it well before adding it to the 
other ingredients. Sift a little flour over the fruit before stirring it in. 
Bake slowly two hours and try with a splint to see when it is done. A 
cup of grated cocoanut is a nice addition to this cake. 

MOLASSES FRUIT CAKE. 

ONE teacupful of butter, one teacupful of brown sugar, worked well 
together ; next, two teacupf uls of cooking molasses, one cupful of milk with 
a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in it, one tablespoonful of ginger, one 
tablespoonful of cinnamon and one teaspoonful of cloves, a little grated 
nutmeg. Now add four eggs well beaten and five cups of sifted flour, or 
enough to make a stiff batter. Flour a cup of raisins and one of currants; 
add last. Bake in a. very moderate oven one hour. If well covered will 
keep six months. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

SEPARATE the whites and yolks of six eggs. Beat the yolks to a cream, 
to which add two' teacupfuls of powdered sugar, beating again from five 
to ten minutes, then add two tablespoonfuls of milk or water, a pinch of 
salt and flavoring. Now add part of the beaten whites ; then two cups of 
flour in which you have sifted two teaspoonfuls of baking powder ; mix 
gradually into the above ingredients, stirring slowly and lightly, only 
enough to mix them well ; lastly add the remainder of the whites of the 
eggs. Line the tins with buttered paper and fill two-thirds full. 

WHITE SPONGE CAKE. 

WHITES of five eggs, one cup of flour, one cup sugar, one teaspoonful 
baking powder ; flavor with vanilla. Bake in a quick oven. 

ALMOND SPONGE CAKE. 

THE addition of almonds makes this cake very superior to the usual 
sponge cake. Sift one pint of fine flour ; blanch in scalding water two 
ounces of sweet and two ounces of bitter almonds, renewing the hot 



278 CAKES. 

water when expedient; when the skins are all off wash the almonds in 
cold water (mixing the sweet and bitter) and wipe them dry ; pound them 
to a fine, smooth paste (one at a time), adding, as you proceed, water or 
white of egg to prevent their boiling. Set them in a cool place ; beat ten 
eggs, the whites and yolks separately, till very smooth and thick, and 
then beat into them gradually two cups powdered sugar in turn with the 
pounded almonds ; lastly, add the flour, stirring it round slowly and 
lightly on the surface of the mixture, as in common sponge cake ; have 
ready buttered a deep square pan ; put the mixture carefully into it, set 
into the oven and bake till thoroughly done and risen very high ; when 
cool, cover it with plain white icing flavored with rose-water, or with 
almond icing. With sweet almonds always use a small portion of bitter ; 
without them, sweet almonds have little or no taste, though they add to 
the richness of the cake. 

Use two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder in the flour. 

OLD-FASHIONED SPONGE CAKE. 

Two CUPS of sifted white sugar, two cups of flour measured before sift- 
ing, ten eggs. Stir the yolks and sugar together until perfectly light; add 
a pinch of salt ; beat the whites of the eggs to a very stiff froth and add 
them with the flour, after beating together lightly ; flavor with lemon. 
Bake in a moderate oven about forty-five minutes. Baking powder is an 
improvement to this cake, using two large teaspoonfuls. 

LEMON SPONGE CAKE. 

INTO one level cup of flour put a level teaspoonful of baking powder 
and sift it. Grate off the yellow rind of a lemon. Separate the whites 
from the yolks of four eggs. Measure a scant cup of white granulated 
sugar and beat it to a cream with the yolks, then add the grated rind and 
a tablespoonful of the juice of the lemon. Stir together until thick and 
creamy; now beat the whites to a stiff froth; then quickly and lightly mix 
without beating a third of the flour with the yolks ; then a third of the 
whites ; then more flour and whites until all are used. The mode of mix- 
ing must be very light, rather cutting down 1 through the cake batter than 
beating it ; beating the eggs makes them light, but beating the batter 
makes the cake tough. Bake immediately until a straw run into it can be 
withdrawn clean. 

This recipe is especially nice for Charlotte Russe, being so light and 
porous. 



CAKES. 279 

PLAIN SPONGE CAKE. 

BEAT the yolks of four eggs together with two cups of fine powdered 
sugar. Stir in gradually one cup of sifted flour and the whites of four 
eggs beaten to a stiff froth, then a cup of sifted flour in which two tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder have been stirred, and, lastly, a scant teacup- 
ful of boiling water, stirred in a little at a time. Flavor, add salt and, 
however thin the mixture may seem, do not add any more flour. Bake 
in shallow tins. 

BRIDE'S CAKE. 

CREAM together one scant cup of butter and three cups of sugar; add 
one cup of milk, then the beaten whites of twelve eggs; sift three tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder into one cup of cornstarch mixed with three 
cups of sifted flour and beat in gradually with the rest; flavor to taste. 
Beat all thoroughly, then put in buttered tins lined with letter paper well 
buttered; bake slowly in a moderate oven. A beautiful white cake. Ice 
the top. Double the recipe if more is required. 

ENGLISH POUND CAKE. 

ONE pound of butter, one and one-quarter pounds of flour, one pound of 
pounded loaf sugar, one pound of currants, nine eggs, two ounces of can- 
died peel, one-half ounce of citron, one-half ounce of sweet almonds; when 
liked, a little pounded mace. Work the butter to a cream; add the sugar, 
then the well-beaten yolks of eggs, next the flour, currants, candied peel, 
which should be cut into neat slices, and the almonds, which should be 
blanched and chopped, and mix all these well together; whisk the whites 
of eggs and let them be thoroughly blended with the other ingredients. 
Beat the cake well for twenty minutes and put it into a round tin, lined 
at the bottom and sides with strips of white buttered paper. Bake it from 
two hours to two and a half, and let the oven be well heated when the 
cake is first put in, as, if this is not the case, the currants will all sink to 
the bottom of it. A glass of wine is usually added to the mixture, but 
this is scarcely necessary, as the cake will be found quite rich enough 
without it. 

PLAIN POUND CAKE. 

THIS is the old-fashioned recipe that our mothers used to make, and it 
can be kept for weeks in an earthern jar, closely covered, first dipping 
letter paper in brandy and placing over the top of the cake before cover- 
ing the jar. 



280 CAKES. 

Beat to a cream one pound of butter with one pound of sugar, after 
mixing well with the beaten yolks of twelve eggs, one grated nutmeg, one 
glass of wine, one glass of rose-water. Then stir in one pound of sifted 
flour and the well-beaten whites of the eggs. Bake a nice light brown. 

COCOANUT POUND CAKE. 

ONE-HALF cupful of butter, two cupfuls of sugar, one cupful of milk, 
and five eggs, beaten to a stiff froth ; one teaspoonful of soda and two of 
cream of tartar, stirred into four cups of sifted flour. Beat the butter and 
sugar until very light ; to which add the beaten yolks, then the milk, the 
beaten whites of eggs, then the flour by degrees. After beating all well to- 
gether, add a small cocoanut grated. Line the cake-pans with paper well 
buttered, fill rather more than half full and bake in a moderate oven. 
Spread over the top a thin frosting, sprinkled thickly with grated cocoanut. 

CITRON POUND CAKE. 

STIR two cups of butter to a cream, then beat in the following ingredients 
each one in succession : one pint of powdered sugar, one quart of flour, a 
teaspoonful of salt, eight eggs, the yolks and whites beaten separately, and 
a wine-glass of brandy ; then last of all add a quarter of a pound of citron 
cut into thin slices and floured. Line two cake pans with buttered paper 
and turn the cake batter in. Bake in a moderate oven about three-quarters 
of an hour. 

CITRON CAKE. 

THREE cups of white sugar and one cup of butter creamed together; one 
cup of sweet milk, six eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, one tea- 
spoonful of vanilla or lemon extract, two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder, sifted with four cups and a half of flour. One cup and a half of 
citron, sliced thin and dredged with flour. Divide into two cakes and 
bake in tins lined with buttered letter paper. 

LEMON CAKE. 

THREE teacupfuls of sugar, one cupful of butter, five eggs, a level tea- 
spoonful of soda dissolved in a cup of sweet milk, four full cups of sifted 
flour and lastly the grated peel and juice of a lemon, the juice to be added 
the very last. Bake in two shallow tins. When cold ice with lemon icing 
and cut into squares. 



CAKES. 281 

DELICATE CAKE. 

ONE cup of cornstarch, one of butter, two of sugar, one of sweet milk, 
two of flour, the whites of seven eggs; rub butter and sugar to a cream; 
mix one teaspoonful cream of tartar with the flour and cornstarch; one- 
half teaspoonful soda with the sweet milk; add the milk and soda to the 
sugar and butter, then add flour, then the whites of eggs; flavor to taste. 
Never fails to be good. 

SILVER, OR DELICATE CAKE. 

WHITES of six eggs, one cupful of sweet milk, two cupfuls of sugar, four 
cupfuls of sifted flour, two-thirds of a cup of butter, flavoring and two tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder. Stir the sugar and butter to a cream, then 
add the milk and flavoring, part of the flour, the beaten whites of eggs, 
then the rest of the flour. Bake carefully in tins lined with buttered 
white paper. 

When using the whites of eggs for nice cake, the yolks need not be 
wasted; keep them in a cool place and scramble them. Serve on toast or 
with chipped beef. 

GOLD CAKE. 

AFTER beating to a cream one cup and a half of butter and two 
cups of white sugar, stir in the well-whipped yolks of one dozen eggs, 
four cupfuls of sifted floor, one teaspoonful of baking powder. Flavor 
with lemon. Line the bake-pans with buttered paper and bake in a mod- 
erate oven for one hour. 

GOLD OR LEMON CAKE. 

Two CUPS of sugar, half a cup of butter, the yolks of six eggs and one 
whole one, the grated rind and juice of a lemon or orange, half a teaspoon- 
ful of soda dissolved in half a cup of sweet milk, four cups of sifted flour, 
sifted twice ; cream the butter and sugar, then add the beaten yolks and 
the flour, beating hard for several minutes. Lastly, add the lemon or 
orange and bake, frosting if liked. This makes a more suitable lemon cake 
than if made with the white parts of eggs added. 

SNOW CAKE. (Delicious.) 

ONE pound of arrowroot, quarter of a pound of pounded white sugar, 
half a pound of butter, the whites of six eggs, flavoring to taste of essence 
of almonds, or vanilla, or lemon ; beat the butter to a cream ; stir in the 
sugar and arrowroot gradually, at the same time beating the mixture ; 



282 CAKES. 

whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth ; add them to the other ingre- 
dients and beat well for twenty minutes ; put in whichever of the above 
flavorings may be preferred ; pour the cake into a buttered mold or tin 
and bake it in a moderate oven from one to one and a half hours. This is 
a genuine Scotch recipe. 

MARBLE CAKE. 

White Part. Whites of four eggs, one cup of white sugar, half a cup of 
butter, half a cup of sweet milk, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one 
teaspoonful of vanilla or lemon and two and a half cups of sifted flour. 

Dark Part. Yolks of four eggs, one cup of brown sugar, half a cup of 
cooking molasses, half a cup of butter, half a cup of sour milk, one tea- 
spoonful of ground cloves, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of 
mace, one nutmeg grated, one teaspoonful of soda, the soda to be dissolved 
in a little milk and added after part of the flour is stirred in, one and a 
half cups of sifted flour. 

Drop a spoonful of each kind in a well-buttered cake-dish, first the 
light part, then the dark, alternately. Try to drop it so that the cake 
shall be well-streaked through, so that it has the appearance of marble. 

SUPERIOR LOAF CAKE. 

Two CUPS of butter, three cups of sugar, two small cups of milk, sever* 
cups of sifted flour; four eggs, the whites and yolks separately beaten; one 
teacupful of seeded raisins, one teacupful of well-washed and dried cur- 
rants, one teacupful of sliced citron, one tablespoonful of powdered cinna- 
mon, one teaspoonful of mace, one teaspoonful of soda and one teacupful 
of home-made yeast. 

Take part of the buttejpnd w T arm it with the milk; stir in part of the 
flour and the yeast and let it rise; then add the other ingredients with a 
wine-glass of wine or brandy. Turn all into well-buttered cake-tins and 
let rise again. Bake slowly in a moderate oven for two hours. 

FRENCH CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

THE whites of seven eggs, two cups of sugar, two-thirds of a cup of 
butter, one cup of milk and three of flour and three teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder. The chocolate part of the cake is made just the same, 
only use the yolks of the eggs with a cup of grated chocolate stirred into 
it. Bake it in layers the layers being light and dark; then spread a 
custard between them, which is made with two eggs, one pint of milk, 



CAKES. 283 

one-half cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of flour or cornstarch; when cool 
flavor with vanilla, two teaspoonfuls. Fine. 

CHOCOLATE CAKE. No. 1. 

ONE cup of butter and two cups of sugar stirred to a cream, with the 
yolks of five eggs added after they have been well beaten. Then stir into 
that one cup of milk, beat the whites of two of the eggs to a stiff froth 
and add that also; now put in three cups and a half of sifted flour, two 
heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder having been stirred into it. Bake 
in jelly-cake tins. 

Mixture for Filling. Take the remaining three whites of the eggs 
beaten very stiff, two cupfuls of sugar boiled to almost candy or until it 
becomes stringy or almost brittle; take it hot from the fire and pour it 
very slowly on the beaten whites of egg, beating quite fast; add one-half 
cake of grated chocolate, a teaspoon ful of vanilla extract. Stir it all until 
cool, then spread between each cake and over the top and sides. This, 
when well made, is the premium cake of its kind. 

CHOCOLATE CAKE. No. 2. 

ONE-HALF cup butter, two cups sugar, three-quarters of a cup sweet 
milk, two and one-half cups flour, whites of eight eggs, one teaspoonf ul of 
cream of tartar, one-half teaspoonf ul soda; bake in shallow pans. 

For the Frosting. Take the whites of three eggs, ohree tablespoonfuls 
of sugar and one tablespoonful of grated chocolate (confectioners') to one 
egg; put the cake together with the frosting, then frost the top of the 
cake with the same. 

CHOCOLATE CAKE. No. 3. 

Two CUPS sugar, one cup butter, yolks of five eggs and whites of two 
and one cup milk. Thoroughly mix two teaspoonfuls baking powder with 
three and one-half cups flour while dry; then mix all together. Bake in 
jelly tins. 

Mixture for Filling. Whites of three eggs, one and one-half cups of 
sugar, three tablespoonfuls of grated chocolate, one teaspoonful of vanilla. 
Beat together and spread between the layers and on top of the cake. 

COCOANTJT CAKE. 

CREAM together three-quarters of a cup of butter and two of white 
sugar; then add one cup of sweet milk, four eggs, whites and yolks 



284 CAKES. 

separately beaten, the yolks added first to the butter and sugar, then the 
whites; flavor with lemon or vanilla; mix three heaping teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder in three cups of sifted flour and add last; bake in jelly pans. 
For Filling. Make an icing by beating the whites of three eggs and a 
cup of powdered sugar to a stiff froth. When the cake is cooled, spread 
a thick layer of this frosting over each cake, and sprinkle very thickly 
with grated cocoanut. 

COCOANUT AND ALMOND CAKE. 

Two AND one-half cups powdered sugar, one cup butter, four full cups 
prepared flour, whites of seven eggs whisked stiff, one small cup of milk, 
with a mere pinch of soda, one grated cocoanut, one-half teaspoonful nut- 
meg, the juice and half the grated peel of one lemon ; cream butter and 
sugar ; stir in lemon and nutmeg ; mix well ; add the milk and whites 
and flour alternately. Lastly, stir in the grated cocoanut swiftly and 
lightly. Bake in four jelly-cake tins. 

Filling. One pound sweet almonds, whites of four eggs whisked stiff, 
one heaping cup powdered sugar, two teaspoonfuls rose-water. Blanch 
the almonds. Let them get cold and dry ; then pound in a Wedgewood 
mortar, adding rose-water as you go. Save about two dozen to shred for 
the top. Stir the paste into the icing after it is made ; spread between 
the cooled cakes ; make that for the top a trifle thicker and lay it on 
heavily. When it has stiffened somewhat, stick the shred almonds closely 
over it. Set in the oven to harden, but do not let it scorch. 

COFFEE CAKE. 

ONE cup of brown sugar, one cup of butter, two eggs, one-half cup of 
molasses, one cup of strong, cold coffee, one teaspoonful of soda, two tea- 
spoonfuls of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of cloves, one cup of raisins or 
currants and five cups of sifted flour. Add the fruit last, rubbed in a little 
of the flour. Bake about one hour. 

FEATHER CAKE. 

ONE egg, one cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of cold butter, half a cup 
of milk, one and one-half cups of flour, one teaspoonful of cream of tar- 
tar, half a teaspoonful of soda. A nice plain cake to be eaten while it 
is fresh. A spoonful of dried apple sauce or of peach sauce, a spoonful of 
jelly, the same of lemon extract, nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves and spice 
ground or half a cupful of raisins might be added for a change. 



CAKES. 285 

ELECTION CAKE. 

THREE cups milk, two cups sugar, one cup yeast; stir to a batter 
and let stand over night; in the morning add two cups sugar, two cups 
butter, three eggs, half a nutmeg, one tablespoon! ul cinnamon, one pound 
raisins, a gill of brandy. 

Brown sugar is much better than white for this kind of cake, and it 
is improved by dissolving a half-teaspoonful of soda in a tablespoonful of 
milk in the morning. It should stand in the greased pans and rise some 
time until quite light before baking. 

CREAM CAKE. 

FOUR eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, two teacups of sugar, 
one cup of sweet cream, two heaping cupfuls of flour, one teaspoonful of 
soda, mix two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar in the flour before sifting. 
Add the whites the last thing before the flour and stir that in gently 
without beating. 

GOLDEN CREAM CAKE. 

YOLKS of eight eggs beaten to the lightest possible cream, two cupfuls 
of sugar, a pinch of salt, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder sifted 
well with flour. Bake in three jelly-cake pans. Make an icing of the 
whites of three eggs and one pound of sugar. Spread it between the 
cakes and sprinkle grated cocoanut thickly over each layer. It is deli- 
cious when properly made. 

DRIED APPLE FRUIT CAKE. 

SOAK three cupfuls of dried apples over night in cold water enough to 
swell them; chop them in the morning and put them on the fire with 
three cups of molasses; stew until almost soft; add a cupful of nice raisins 
(seedless, if possible) and stew a few moments; when cold, add three cup- 
fuls of flour, one cupful of butter, three eggs and a teaspoonful of soda; 
bake in a steady oven. This will make two good-sized panfuls of splendid 
cake; the apples will cook like citron and taste deliciously. Raisins may 
be omitted; also spices to taste may be added. This is not a dear but a 
delicious cake. 

CAKE WITHOUT EGGS. 

BEAT together one teacupful of butter and three teacupfuls of sugar, 
and when quite light stir in one pint of sifted flour. Add to this one 



286 CAKES. 

pound of raisins seeded and chopped, then mixed with a cup of sifted 
flour one teaspoonful of nutmeg, one teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon 
and lastly one pint of thick sour cream or milk in which a teaspoonful 
of soda is dissolved. Bake immediately in buttered tins one hour in a 
moderate oven. 

WHITE MOUNTAIN CAKE. No. 1. 

Two CUPS of sugar, two-thirds cup of butter, the whites of seven eggs 
well beaten, two-thirds cup of sweet mitk, two cups of flour, one cup of 
cornstarch, two teaspoonfuls baking powder. Bake in jelly-cake tins. 

Frosting. Whites of three eggs and some sugar beaten together not 
quite as stiff as usual for frosting; spread over the cake, add some grated 
cocoanut, then put your cakes together; put cocoanut and frosting on top. 

WHITE MOUNTAIN CAKE. No. 2. 

CREAM three cupfuls of sugar and one of butter, making it very light, 
then add a cupful of milk. Beat the whites of eight eggs very stiff, add 
half of those to the other ingredients. Mix well into four cups of sifted 
flour one tablespoonful of baking powder; stir this into the cake, add 
flavoring, then the remaining beaten whites of egg. Bake in layers like 
jelly cake. Make an icing for the filling, using the whites of four eggs 
beaten to a very stiff froth, with two cups of fine white sugar and the 
juice of half a lemon. Spread each layer of the cake thickly with this 
icing, place one on another, then ice all over the top and sides. The yolks 
left from this cake may be used to make a spice cake from the recipe of 
"Golden Spice Cake." ' 

QUEEN'S CAKE. 

BEAT well together one cupful of butter and three cupfuls of white 
sugar, add the yolks of six eggs and one cupful of milk, two teaspoonfuls 
of vanilla or lemon extract. Mix all thoroughly. To four cupfuls of flour 
add two heaping teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar and sift gently over the 
cake stirring all the time. To this add one even teaspoonful of soda dis- 
solved in one tablespoonful of warm water. Mix it well. Stir in gently 
the whites of six eggs beaten to a stiff foam. Bake slowly. It should be 
put in the oven as soon as possible after putting in the soda and whites 
of eggs. 

This is the same recipe as the one for " Citron Cake," only omitting the 
citron. 



CAKES. , 287 

ANGEL CAKE, 

PUT into one tumbler of flour one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, then 
sift it five times. Sift also one glass and a half of white powdered sugar. 
Beat to a stiff froth the whites of eleven eggs ; stir the sugar into the eggs 
by degrees, very lightly and carefully, adding three teaspoonfuls of vanilla 
extract. After this add the flour, stirring quickly and lightly. Pour it 
into a clean, bright tin cake-dish, which should not be buttered or lined. 
Bake at once in a moderate oven about forty minutes, testing it with a 
broom splint. When done let it remain in the cake-tin, turning it upside 
down, with the sides resting on the tops of two saucers, so that a cur- 
rent of air will pass under and over it. 

This is the best recipe found after trying several. A perfection cake. 

WASHINGTON LOAF CAKE. 

THREE cups of sugar, two scant cups of butter, one cup of sour milk, 
five eggs and one teaspoonful of soda, three tablespoonfuls of cinnamon, 
half a nutmeg grated and two cups of raisins, one of currants and four 
cups of sifted flour. 

Mix as usual and stir the fruit in at the last, dredged in flour. Line 
the cake-pans with paper well buttered. This cake will take longer to 
bake than plain; the heat of the oven must be kept at an even tempera- 
ture. 

RIBBON CAKE. 

THIS cake is made from the same recipe as marble cake, only make 
double the quantity of the white part, and divide it in one-half; put into 
it a very little cochineal. It will be a delicate pink. Bake in jelly-cake 
tins and lay first the white, then the dark, then the pink one on top of the 
others; put together with frosting between. It makes quite a fancy cake. 
Frost the top when cool. 

GOLDEN SPICE CAKE. 

THIS cake can be made to advantage when you have the yolks of eggs 
left, after having used the whites in making white cake. 

Take the yolks of seven eggs and one whole egg, two cupfuls of brown 
sugar, one cupful of molasses, one cupful of butter, one large coffeecupful 
of sour milk, one teaspoonful of soda (just even full) and five cupfuls of 
flour, one teaspoonful of ground cloves, two teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, 
two teaspoonfuls of ginger, one nutmeg and a small pinch of cayenne 
pepper; beat eggs, sugar and butter to a light batter before putting in the 



288 CAKES. 

molasses; then add the molasses, flour and milk; beat it well together and 
bake in a moderate oven; if fruit is used, take two cupfuls of raisins, flour 
them well and put them in last. 

ALMOND CAKE. 

ONE-HALF cupful butter, two cupfuls sugar, four eggs, one-half cupful 
almonds, blanched by pouring water on them until skins easily slip off 
and cut in fine shreds, one-half teaspoonful extract bitter almonds, one 
pint flour, one and one-half teaspoonful baking powder, one glass brandy, 
one-half cupful milk. Rub butter and sugar to a smooth white cream; 
add eggs, one at a time, beating three or four minutes between each. Sift 
flour and powder together, add to the butter, etc., with almonds, extract 
of bitter almonds, brandy and milk; mix into a smooth, medium batter; 
bake carefully in a rather hot oven twenty minutes. 

ROCHESTER JELLY CAKE. 

ONE and one-half cups sugar, two eggs, one-half cup butter, three- 
fourths cup milk, two heaping cups flour with one teaspoonful cream of 
tartar, one-half teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in the milk. Put half the 
above mixture in a small shallow tin, and to the remainder add one 
teaspoonful molasses, one-half cup raisins (chopped) or currants, one-half 
teaspoonful cinnamon, cloves, allspice, a little nutmeg and one table- 
spoonful flour. Bake this in same kind of tins. Put the sheets of cake 
together, while warm, with jelly between. 

FRUIT LAYER CAKE. 

THIS is a delicious novelty in cake-making. Take one cup of sugar, 
half a cup of butter, one cup and a half of flour, half a cup of wine, one 
cup of raisins, two eggs and half a teaspoonful of soda; put these ingredi- 
ents together with care, just as if it were a very rich cake; bake it in three 
layers and put frosting between the frosting to be made of the whites of 
two eggs with enough powdered sugar to make it thick. The top of the 
cake may be frosted if you choose. 

WHIPPED CREAM CAKE. 

ONE cup of sugar and two tablespoonfuls of soft butter stirred together; 
add the yolks of two eggs well beaten, then add four tablespoonfuls of 
milk, some flavoring, then the beaten whites of the eggs. Mix a teaspoon- 
ful of cream of tartar and half a teaspoon of soda in a cup of flour, sift 



CAKES. 289 

it into the cake batter and stir in lightly. Bake in a small dripping-pan. 
When the cake is cool, have ready half of a pint of sweet cream sweet- 
ened and whipped to a stiff froth, also flavored. Spread it over the cake 
while fresh. To whip the cream easily, set it on ice before whipping. 

ROLLED JELLY CAKE. 

THREE eggs, one teacup of fine sugar, one teacup of flour; beat the yolks 
until light, then add the sugar, then add two tablespoonfuls of water, 
a pinch of salt; lastly stir in the flour, in which there should be a heaping 
teaspoonful of baking powder. The flour added gradually. Bake in long, 
shallow biscuit-tins, well greased. Turn out on a damp towel on a bread- 
board, cover the top with jelly, and roll up while warm. 

TO CUT LAYER CAKE. 

WHEN cutting Layer Cakes, it is better to first make a round hole in 
the cake with a knife or tin tube about an inch and a quarter in diameter. 
This prevents the edge of the cake from crumbling when cutting it. 

When making custard filling for Layer Cake always set the dish 
containing the custard in another dish of boiling water over the fire ; 
this prevents its burning, which would destroy its flavor. 

LAYER JELLY CAKE. 

ALMOST any soft cake recipe can be used for jelly cake. The following 
is excellent : One cup of sugar, half a cup of butter, three eggs, half a 
cup of sweet milk, two cups of flour, two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder, flavoring. 

For white, delicate cake the rule for " Silver Cake " is fine; care should 
be taken, however, that the oven is just right for this cake, as it browns 
very easily. To be baked in jelly-cake tins in layers, with filling put 
between when done. 

CUSTARD OR CREAM CAKE. 

CREAM together two cups of sugar and half a cup of butter ; add half a 
cup of sweet milk in which is dissolved half a teaspoonful of soda. Beat 
the whites of six eggs to a stiff froth and add to the mixture. Have one 
heaping teaspoonful of cream of tartar stirred thoroughly into three cups 
of sifted flour and add quickly. Bake in a moderate oven in layers like 
jelly cake, and, when done, spread custard between. 

For the Custard. Take two cups of sweet milk, put it into a clean suit- 
able dish, set it in a dish of boiling water on the range or stove. When 

18 



290 CAKES. 

the milk comes to a boil add two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch or flour 
stirred into half a cup of sugar, adding the yolks of four eggs and a little 
cold milk. Stir this into the boiling milk and when cooked thick enough 
set aside to cool; afterwards add the flavoring, either vanilla or lemon. It 
is best to make the custard first, before making the cake part. 

HICKORY NUT OR WALNUT CAKE. 

Two CUPS of fine white sugar creamed with half a cup of butter, three 
eggs, two-thirds of a cup of sweet milk, three cups of sifted flour, one 
heaping teaspoonful of baking powder sifted through the flour; a table- 
spoonful (level) of powdered mace, a coffeecup of hickory nut or walnut 
meats chopped a little. Fill the cake-pans with a layer of the cake, then 
a layer of raisins upon that, then strew over these a handful of nuts, and 
so on until the pan is two-thirds full. Line the tins with well-buttered 
paper and bake in a steady, but not quick, oven. This is most excellent. 

CHEAP CREAM CAKE. 

ONE cup of sugar, one egg, one cup sweet milk, two cups flour, one 
tablespoonful butter, two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder; flavor 
to taste. Divide into three parts and bake in round shallow pans. 

Cream. Beat one egg and one-half cup sugar together, then add one- 
quarter cup flour, wet with a very little milk and stir this mixture into 
one-half pint of boiling milk, until thick; flavor to taste. Spread the 
cream when cool between the cakes. 

SOFT GINGER CAKE. 

STIE to a cream one cupful of butter and half a cupful of brown sugar; 
add to this two cupfuls of cooking molasses, a cupful of sweet milk, a 
tablespoonful of ginger, a teaspoonful of ground cinnamon; beat all thor- 
oughly together, then add three eggs, the whites and yolks beaten sepa- 
rately; beat into this two cups of sifted flour, then a teaspoonful of soda 
dissolved in a spoonful of water and last, two more cupfuls of sifted flour. 
Butter and paper two common square bread-pans, divide the mixture and 
pour half into each. Bake in a moderate oven. This cake requires long 
and slow baking, from forty to sixty minutes. I find that if sour milk 
is used the cakes are much lighter, but either sweet or sour is most 
excellent. 



CAKES. 291 

HAED GINGERBREAD. 

MADE the same as ''Soft Gingerbread," omitting the eggs and mixing 
hard enough to roll out like biscuit; rolled nearly half an inch thick and 
cut out like small biscuits, or it can be baked in a sheet or on a biscuit- 
tin; cut slits a quarter of an inch deep across the top of the tin from side 
to side. When baked and while hot, rub over the top with molasses and 
let it dry on. 

These two recipes are the best I have ever found among a large 
variety that I have tried, the ingredients giving the best proportion for 
flavor and excellence. 

PLAIN GINGERBREAD. 

ONE cup of dark cooking molasses, one cup of sour cream, one egg, one 
teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little warm water, a teaspoonful of salt 
and one heaping teaspoonful of ginger; make about as thick as cup cake. 
To be eaten warm. 

WHITE GINGER BISCUIT. 

ONE cup of butter, two cups of sugar, one cup of sour cream or milk, 
three eggs, one teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a tablespoonful of warm 
water, one tablespoonful of ginger, one teaspoonful of ground cinnamon 
and five cups of sifted flour, or enough to roll out soft. Cut out rather 
thick, like biscuits ; brush over the tops, while hot, with the white of an 
egg, or sprinkle with sugar while hot. 

The grated rind and the juice of an orange add much to the flavor of 
ginger cake. 

GOLD AND SILVER CAKE. 

THIS cake is baked in layers like jelly cake. Divide the silver cake 
batter and color it pink with a little cochineal ; this gives you pink, white 
and yellow layers. Put together with frosting. Frost the top. 

This can be put together like marble cake, first a spoonful of one kind, 
then another, until the dish is full. 

BOSTON CREAM CAKES. 

PUT into a large-sized saucepan half a cup of butter and one cup of hot 
water ; set it on the fire ; when the mixture begins to boil, turn in a pint 
of sifted flour at once, beat and work it well with a vegetable-masher until 
it is very smooth. Remove from the fire, and when cool enough add five 
eggs that have been well beaten, first the yolks and then the whites, also 



202 CARES. 

half a teaspoonful of soda and a teaspoonful of salt. Drop on buttered 
tins in large spoonfuls about two inches apart. Bake in a quick oven 
about fifteen minutes. When done and quite cold, open them on the side 
with a knife or scissors, and put in as much of the custard as possible. 

Cream for Filling . Made of two eggs, three tablespoonfuls of sifted flour 
(or half cup of cornstarch) and one cup of sugar. Put two-thirds of a pint 
of milk over the fire in a double boiler; in a third of a pint of milk, stir 
the sugar, flour and beaten eggs. As soon as the milk looks like boiling, 
pour in the mixture and stir briskly for three minutes, until it thickens ; 
then remove from the fire and add a teaspoonful of butter ; when cool, 
flavor with vanilla or lemon and fill your cakes. 

CHOCOLATE ECLAIRS. 

MAKE the mixture exactly like the recipe for " Boston Cream Cakes." 
Spread it on buttered pans in oblong pieces about four inches long and 
one and a half wide, to be laid about two inches apart; they must be 
baked in a rather quick oven about twenty-five minutes. As soon as 
baked ice with chocolate icing, and when this is cold split them on one 
side and fill with the same cream as " Boston Cream Cakes." 

HUCKLEBERRY CAKE. 

BEAT a cup of butter and two cups of sugar together until light, then 
add a half cup of milk, four eggs beaten separately, the yolks to a cream 
and the whites to a stiff froth, one teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, the same 
of cinnamon and two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. The baking powder 
to be rubbed into the flour. Eub one quart of huckleberries well with 
some flour and add them last, but do not mash them. Pour into buttered 
pans, about an inch thick ; dust the tops with sugar and bake. It is better 
the day after baking. 

SWEET STRAWBERRY CAKE. 

THKEE eggs, one cupful of sugar, two of flour, one tablespoonful of but- 
ter, a teaspoonful, heaped, of baking powder. Beat the butter and sugar 
together and add the eggs well beaten. Stir in the flour and baking pow- 
der well sifted together. Bake in deep tin plate. This quantity will fill 
four plates. With three pints of strawberries mix a cupful of sugar and 
mash them a little. Spread the fruit between the layers of cake. The top 
layer of strawberries may be covered with a meringue made with the 
white of an egg and a tablespoonful of powdered sugar. 



CAKES. 293 

Save out the largest berries and arrange them around in circles on 
the top in the white frosting. Makes a very fancy dish, as well as^ a 
most delicious cake. 

MOLASSES CUP CAKES. 

ONE cupful of butter, one of sugar, six eggs, five cupfuls of sifted flour, 
one tablespoonful of cinnamon, two tablespoonfuls of ginger, three teacup- 
fuls of cooking molasses and one heaping teaspoonful of soda. Stir the 
butter and sugar to a cream; beat the eggs very light, the yolks and 
whites separately, and add to it; after which put in the spices; then the 
molasses and flour in rotation, stirring the mixture all the time; beat the 
whole well before adding the soda and but little afterwards. Put into 
well-buttered patty-pan tins and bake in a very moderate oven. A baker's 
recipe. 

BAKERS' GINGER SNAPS. 

BOIL all together the following ingredients: Two cups of brown sugar, 
two cups of cooking molasses, one cup of shortening, which should be part 
butter, one large, tablespoonful of ginger, one tablespoonful of ground 
cinnamon, one teaspoonful of cloves; remove from the fire and let it cool. 
In the meantime, sift four cups of flour and stir part of it into the above 
mixture. Now dissolve a teaspoonful of soda in a tablespoonful of warm 
water and beat into this mixture, stir in the remainder of the flour and 
make stiff enough to roll into long rolls about an inch in diameter, and 
cut off from the end into half-inch pieces. Place them on well-buttered 
tins, giving plenty of room to spread. Bake in a moderate oven. Let 
them cool before taking out of the tins. 

GINGER COOKIES. 

ONE cup sugar, one cup molasses, one cup butter, one egg, one table- 
spoonful vinegar, one tablespoonful ginger, one teaspoonful soda dissolved 
in boiling water, mix like cooky dough, rather soft. 

GINGER SNAPS. 

ONE cup brown sugar, two cups molasses, one large cup butter, two tea- 
spoonfuls soda, two teaspoonfuls ginger, three pints flour to commence 
with; rub shortening and sugar together into the flour; add enough more 
flour to roll very smooth, very thin, and bake in a quick oven. The dough 
can be kept for days by putting it in the flour barrel under the flour, 
and bake a few at a time. The more flour that can be worked in and the 



294 CAKES. 

smoother they can be rolled, the better and more brittle they will be. 
Should be rolled out to wafer-like thinness. Bake quickly without burn- 
ing. They should become perfectly cold before putting aside. 

DOMINOES. 

HAVE a plain cake baked in rather thin sheets and cut into small 
oblong pieces the size and shape of a domino, a trifle larger. Frost the 
top and sides. When the frosting is hard, draw the black lines and make 
the dots with a small brush dipped in melted chocolate. These are very 
nice for children's parties. 

FANCY CAKES. 

THESE delicious little fancy cakes may be made by making a rich jum- 
ble-paste rolling out in any desired shape ; cut some paste in thick, nar- 
row strips and lay around your cakes, so as to form a deep, cup-like edge ; 
place on a well-buttered tin and bake. When done, fill with iced fruit 
prepared as follows : Take rich, ripe peaches (canned ones will do if fine 
and well drained from all juice) cut in halves; plums, strawberries, pine- 
apples cut in squares or small triangles, or any other available fruit, and 
dip in the white of an egg that has been very slightly beaten and then in 
pulverized sugar, and lay in the centre of your cakes. 

WAFERS. 

DISSOLVE four ounces of butter in half a teacup of milk ; stir together 
four ounces of white sugar, eight ounces of sifted flour and the yolk of 
one egg, adding gradually the butter and milk, a tablespoonful of orange- 
flower water and a pinch of salt ; mix it well. Heat the wafer-irons, but- 
ter their inner surfaces, put in a tablespoonful of the batter and close the 
irons immediately ; put the irons over the fire, and turn them occasion- 
ally, until the wafer is cooked ; when the wafers are all cooked roll them 
on a small round stick, stand them upon a sieve and dry them ; serve 
with ices. 

PEACH CAKES. 

TAKE the yolks and whites of five eggs and beat them separately (the 
whites to a stiff froth). Then mix the beaten yolks with half a pound of 
pulverized and sifted loaf or crushed sugar, and beat the two together 
thoroughly. Fifteen minutes will be none too long for the latter opera- 
tion if you would have excellence with your cakes, 



CAKES. 295 

Now add half a pound of fine flour, dredging it in a little at a time, and 
then put in the whites of the eggs, beating the whole together for four or 
five minutes. Then with a large spoon, drop the batter upon a baking 
tin, which has been buttered and floured, being careful to have the cakes 
as nearly the same size as possible and resembling in shape the half of 
a peach. Have a quick oven ready and bake the cakes about ten minutes, 
watching them closely so that they may only come to a light brown color. 
Then take them out, spread the flat side of each with peach jam, and stick 
them together in pairs, covering the outside with a thin coat of icing, 
which when dry can be brushed over on one side of the cake, with a little 

cochineal water. 

CUP CAKES. 

Two CUPS of sugar, one cup of butter, one cup of milk, three cups and a 
half of flour and four eggs, half a teaspoonful of soda, large spoon cream 
of tartar; stir butter and sugar together and add the beaten yolks of the 
eggs, then the milk, then flavoring and the whites. Put cream of tartar in 
flour and add last. Bake in buttered gem-pans, or drop the batter, a 
teaspoonful at a time, in rows on flat buttered tins. 

To this recipe may be added a cup of English currants or chopped 
raisins; and also another variety of cakes may be made by adding a half 
cup of citron sliced and floured, a half cupful of chopped almonds and 

lemon extract. 

VARIEGATED CAKES. 

ONE cup powdered sugar, one-half cup of butter creamed with the sugar, 
one-half cup of milk, four eggs, the whites only, whipped light,, two and 
one-half cups of prepared flour. Bitter almond flavoring, spinach .juice, 
and cochineal. Cream the butter and sugar; add the milk, flavoring, the 
whites and flour. Divide the batter into three parts. Bruise and pound a 
few leaves of spinach in a thin muslin bag until you can express the juice, 
Put a few drops of this into one portion of the batter, color another with 
cochineal, leaving the third white. Put a little of each into small, round 
pans or cups, giving a light stir to each color as you add the next. This 
will vein the cakes prettily. Put the white between the pink and green, 
that the tints may show better. If you can get pistachio nuts to pound up 
for the green, the cakes will be much nicer. Ice on sides and top. 

CORNSTARCH CAKES. 

ONE cupful each of butter and sweet milk and half a cup of cornstarch, 
two cupfuls each of sugar and flour, the whites of five eggs beaten to a 



296 CAKES. 

stiff froth, two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar and one of soda; flavor to 
taste. Bake in gem-tins or patty-pans. 

SPONGE DROPS. 

BEAT to a froth three eggs and one teacup of sugar; stir into this one 
heaping coffeecup of flour, in which one teaspoonful of cream of tartar 
and half a teaspoonful of saleratus are thoroughly mixed. Flavor with 
lemon. Butter tin sheets with washed butter and drop in teaspoonfuls 
about three inches apart. Bake instantly in a very quick oven. Watch 
closely as they will burn easily. Serve with ice cream. 

SAVORY BISCUITS OR LADY FINGERS. 

PUT nine tablespoonfuls of fine white sugar into a bowl and put the 
bowl into hot water to heat the sugar; when the sugar is thoroughly 
heated, break nine eggs into the bowl and beat them quickly until they 
become a little warm and rather thick; then take the bowl from the water 
and continue beating until it is nearly or quite cold; now stir in lightly 
nine tablespoonfuls of sifted flour; then with a paper funnel, or something 
of the kind, lay this mixture out upon papers, in biscuits three inches long 
and half an inch thick, in the form of fingers; sift sugar over the biscuits 
and bake them upon tins to a light brown; when they are done and cold, 
remove them from the papers, by wetting them on the back; dry them 
and they are ready for use. They are often used in making Charlotte 
Russe. 

PASTRY SANDWICHES. 

PUFF paste, jam of any kind, the white of an egg, sifted sugar. 

Roll the paste out thin ; put half of it on a baking sheet or tin, and 
spread equally over it apricot, greengage, or any preserve that may be 
preferred. Lay over this preserve another thin paste, press the edges 
together all round, and mark the paste in lines with a knife on the sur- 
face, to show where to cut it when baked. Bake from twenty minutes to 
half an hour ; and, a short time before being done, take the pastry out of 
the oven, brush it over with the white of an egg, sift over pounded sugar 
and put it back in the oven to color. When cold, cut it into strips ; pile 
these on a dish pyramidically and serve. 

This may be made of jelly-cake dough, and, after baking, allowed to 
cool before spreading with the preserve ; either way is good, as well as 
fanciful. 



CAKES. 297 

NEAPOLITAINES. 

ONE cup of powdered sugar, half a cup of butter, two tablespoonfuls of 
lemon juice, three whole eggs and three yolks, beaten separately, three 
cups of sifted flour. Put this all together with half a teaspoonful of soda 
dissolved in a tablespoonful of milk. If it is too stiff to roll out, add just 
enough more milk. Roll it a quarter of an inch thick and cut it out 
with any tin cutter. Place the cakes in a pan slightly greased and color 
the tops with beaten egg and milk, with some chopped almonds over them. 
Bake in a rather quick oven. 

BRUNSWICK JELLY CAKES. 

STIR one cup of powdered white sugar and one half cup of butter 
together, till perfectly light ; beat the yolks of three eggs till very thick 
and smooth ; sift three cups of flour and stir it into the beaten eggs with 
the butter and sugar ; add a teaspoonful of mixed spice (nutmeg, mace and 
cinnamon) and half a glass of rose-water or wine ; stir the whole well 
and lay it on your paste-board, which must first be sprinkled with flour ; 
if you find it so moist as to be unmanageable, throw in a little more flour ; 
spread the dough into a sheet about half an inch thick and cut it out in 
round cakes with a biscuit-cutter ; lay them in buttered pans and bake 
about five or six minutes ; when cold, spread over the surface of each cake 
a liquor of fruit jelly or marmalade ; then beat the whites of three or four 
eggs till they stand alone ; beat into the froth, by degrees, a sufficiency of 
powdered loaf sugar to make it as thick as icing ; flavor with a few drops 
of strong essence of lemon, and with a spoon heap it up on each cake, 
making it high in the centre ; put the cakes into a cool oven/ and as soon 
as the tops are colored a pale brown, take them out. 

LITTLE PLUM CAKES. 

ONE cup of sugar and half a cup of butter beaten to a smooth cream; 
add three well-beaten eggs, a teaspoonful of vanilla extract, four cups 
of sifted flour, one cup of raisins and one of currants, half of a teaspoonful 
of baking soda dissolved in a little water, and milk enough to make a stiff 
batter; drop this batter in drops on well-buttered tins and bake in a quick 
oven. 

JUMBLES. 

CREAM together two cups of sugar and one of butter, add three well- 
beaten eggs and six tablespoonfuls of sweet milk, two teaspoonfuls of 



298 CAKES. 

baking powder, flavor to taste, flour enough to make into a soft dough; do 
not roll it on the paste-board, but break off pieces of dough the size of a 
walnut and make into rings by rolling out rolls as large as your finger, 
and joining the ends ; lay them on tins to bake, an inch apart, as it rises 
and spreads ; bake in a moderate oven. These jumbles are very delicate 
and will keep a long time. 

WINE JUMBLES. 

ONE cup of butter, two of sugar, three eggs, one wine- glass of wine, one 
spoonful of vanilla and flour enough to roll out. Eoll as thin as the blade 
of a knife and cut with an oval cutter. Bake on tin-sheets in a quick 
oven until a dark brown. These will keep a year if kept in a tin box and 
in a dry place. 

COCOANUT JUMBLES. 

GRATE one large cupful of cocoanut ; rub one cupful of butter with one 
and a half cupfuls of sugar; add three beaten eggs, whites and yolks 
separately, two tablespoonfuls of milk and five cupfuls of sifted flour; 
then add by degrees the grated nut, so as to make a stiff dough, rolled 
thin and cut with a round cutter, having a hole in the middle. Bake in a 
quick oven from five to ten minutes. 

PHILADELPHIA JUMBLES. 

Two CUPS of sugar, one cup of butter, eight eggs beaten light ; essence 
of bitter almond or rose to taste ; enough flour to enable you to roll them 
out. 

Stir the sugar and butter to a light cream, then add the well-whipped 
eggs, the flavoring and flour; mix well together, roll out in powdered 
sugar in a sheet a quarter of an inch thick ; cut into rings with a jag- 
ging-iron and bake in a quick oven on buttered tins. 

ALMOND JUMBLES. 

THREE cupfuls of soft sugar, two cupfuls of flour, half a cupful of but- 
ter, one teacupf ul of loppered milk, five eggs well beaten, two tablespoon- 
fuls of rose-water, three-quarters of a pound of almonds, blanched and 
chopped very fine, one teaspoonful of soda dissolved in boiling water. 

Cream butter and sugar ; stir in the beaten yolks the milk, flour, rose- 
water, almonds and, lastly, the beaten whites very lightly and quickly; 
drop in rings on buttered paper and bake at once. 



CAKES. 299 

FRUIT JTJMBLES. 

Two CUPS of sugar, one cup of butter, five cupfuls of flour, five eggs, 
one small teacupful of milk, in which dissolve half a teaspoonful of soda; 
cream the butter, add the sugar, cream again ; then add yolks of eggs, 
the milk, beaten whites and flour ; a little cinnamon, nutmeg, allspice and 
ground cloves and one-quarter of a pound of currants, rolled in flour. 

COOKIES. 

ONE cup of butter, two cups of sugar, a small teacupful of sweet milk, 
half a grated nutmeg and five cups of sifted flour, in which there has been 
sifted with it two teaspoonfuls of baking powder ; mix into a soft dough 
and cut into round cakes ; roll the dough as thin as pie crust. Bake in a 
quick oven a light brown. These can be made of sour milk and a tea- 
spoonful of soda dissolved in it, or sour or sweet cream can be used in 
place of butter. 

Water cookies made the same as above, using water in place of milk. 
Water cookies keep longer than milk cookies. 

FAVORITE COOKIES. 

ONE cup of butter, one and a half cups of sugar, one-half cup of sour 
milk, one level teaspoonful of soda, a teaspoonful of grated nutmeg. 
Flour enough to roll ; make quite soft. Put a tablespoonful of fine sugar 
on a plate and dip the tops of each as you cut them out. Place on but- 
tered tins and bake in a quick oven a light brown. 

FRUIT COOKIES. 

ONE cupful and a half of sugar, one cupful of butter, one-half cup of 
sweet milk, one egg, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, a teaspoonful 
of grated nutmeg, three tablespoonfuls of English currants or chopped 
raisins. Mix soft and roll out, using just enough flour to stiffen suffi- 
ciently. Cut out with a large cutter, wet the tops with milk and sprinkle 
sugar over them. Bake on buttered tins in a quick oven. 

CRISP COOKIES. (Very Nice.) 

ONE cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three eggs well beaten, a tea- 
spoonful of soda and two of cream of tartar, spoonful of milk, one 
teaspoonful of nutmeg and one of cinnamon. Flour enough to make a 
soft dough just stiff enough to roll out. Try a pint of sifted flour to 



300 CAKES. 

begin with, working it in gradually. Spread a little sweet milk over 
each and sprinkle with sugar. Bake in a quick oven a light brown. 

LEMON COOKIES. 

FOUR cups of sifted flour, or enough for a stiff dough, one teacupful of 
butter, two cups of sugar, the juice of one lemon and the grated peel from 
the outside, three eggs whipped very light. Beat thoroughly each ingre- 
dient, adding, after all is in, a half teaspoonf ul of soda dissolved in a 
tablespoonful of milk. Roll out as any cookies and bake a light brown. 
Use no other wetting. 

COCOANUT COOKIES. 

ONE cup grated cocoanut, one and one-half cups sugar, three-fourths 
cup butter, one-half cup milk, two eggs, one large teaspoonf ul baking 
powder, one-half teaspoonful extract of vanilla and flour enough to roll 
out. 

DOUGHNUTS OR FRIED CAKES. 

SUCCESS in making good fried cakes depends as much on the cooking as 
the mixing. In the first place, there should be boiling lard enough to free 
them from the bottom of the kettle, so that they swim on the top, and the 
lard should never be so hot as to smoke or so cool as not to be at the boil- 
ing point ; if it is, they soak grease and are spoiled. If it is at the right 
heat, the doughnuts will in about ten minutes be of a delicate brown out- 
side and nicely cooked inside. Five or six minutes will cook a cruller. 
Try the fat by dropping a bit of the dough in first ; if it is right, the fat 
will boil up when it is dropped in. They should be turned over almost 
constantly, which causes them to rise and brown evenly. When they are 
sufficiently cooked, raise them from the hot fat and drain them until 
every drop ceases dripping. 

CRULLERS OR FRIED CAKES. 

ONE and a half cupfuls of sugar, one cupful of sour milk, two eggs, two 
scant tablespoonfuls of melted butter, half a nutmeg grated, a large 
teaspoonful of cinnamon, a teaspoonful of salt and one of soda; make 
a little stiffer than biscuit dough, roll out a quarter of an inch thick, and 
cut with a fried-cake cutter, with a hole in the centre. Fry in hot lard. 

These can be made with sweet milk and baking powder, using two 
heaping teaspoonf uls of the baking powder in place of soda, 



CAKES. i 301 

EAISED DOUGHNUTS. 

OLD-FA.SHIONED " raised doughnuts" are seldom seen nowadays, but are 
easily made. Make a sponge as for bread, using a pint of warm water 
or milk, and a large half cupful of yeast ; when the sponge is very light, 
add half a cupful of butter or sweet lard, a coffeecupful of sugar,' a 
teaspoonful of salt and one small teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little 
water, one tablespoonful of cinnamon, a little grated nutmeg ; stir in now 
two well-beaten eggs, add sifted flour until it is the consistency of biscuit 
dough, knead it well, cover and let rise; then roll the dough out into 
a sheet half an inch thick, cut out with a very small biscuit-cutter, or 
in strips half an inch wide and three inches long, place them on greased 
tins, cover them well and let them rise before frying them. Drop them in 
very hot lard. Raised cakes require longer time than cakes made with 
baking powder. Sift powdered sugar over them as fast as they are fried, 
while warm. Our grandmothers put allspice into these cakes ; that, how- 
ever, is a matter of taste. 

BAKERS' RAISED DOUGHNUTS. 

WARM a teacupful of lard in a pint of milk ; when nearly cool add 
enough flour to make a thick batter and add a small cupful of yeast ; beat 
it well and set it to rise ; when light work in gradually and carefully three 
cupfuls of sugar, the whipped whites of six eggs, half a teaspoonful of soda 
dissolved in a spoonful of milk, one teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of 
ground cinnamon and half of a nutmeg grated ; then work in gradually 
enough flour to make it stiff enough to roll out ; let it rise again and 
when very light roll it out in a sheet an inch thick ; cut into rounds ; put 
into the centre of each round a large Sultana raisin, seeded, and mold into 
perfectly round balls ; flatten a little ; let them stand a few minutes before 
boiling them ; have plenty of lard in the pot and when it boils drop in 
the cakes ; when they are a light brown take them out with a perforated 
skimmer ; drain on soft white paper and roll, while warm, in fine pow- 
dered SUgar. Pursell's Bakery, New York City. 

CRULLERS OR WONDERS. 

THREE eggs, three tablespoonfuls of melted lard or butter, three table- 
spoonfuls of sugar ; mix very hard with sifted flour, as hard as can be 
rolled, and to be rolled very thin like pie crust ; cut in squares three 
inches long and two wide, then cut several slits or lines lengthwise 
to within a quarter of an inch of the edges of the ends ; run your two 



302 CAKES. 

forefingers through every other slit; lay them down on the board edge- 
wise and dent them. These are very dainty when fried. Fry in hot 

lard a light brown. 

GERMAN DOUGHNUTS. 

ONE pint of milk, four eggs, one small tablespoonful of melted butter, 
flavoring, salt to taste ; first boil the milk and pour it, while hot, over a 
pint of flour ; beat it very smooth and when it is cool have ready the yolks 
of the eggs well beaten ; add them to the milk and flour, beaten well into 
it, then add the well-beaten whites ; then, lastly, add the salt and as much 
more flour as will make the whole into a soft dough ; flour your board, 
turn your dough upon it, roll it in pieces as thick as your finger and turn 
them in the form of a ring ; cook in plenty of boiling lard. A nice break- 
fast cake with coffee. 

NUT CAKES. (Fried.) 

BEAT two eggs well, add to them one ounce of sifted sugar, two ounces 
of warmed butter, two tablespoonfuls of yeast, a teacupful of luke-warm 
milk and a little salt. Whip all well together, then stir in by degrees one 
pound of flour, and, if requisite, more milk, making thin dough. Beat it 
until it falls from the spoon, then set it to rise. When it has risen make 
butter or lard hot in a frying pan ; cut from the light dough little pieces 
the size of a walnut, and, without molding or kneading, fry them pale 
brown. As they are done lay them on a napkin to absorb any of the fat. 

TRIFLES. 

WORK one egg and a tablespoonful of sugar to as much flour as will 
make a stiff paste; roll it as thin as a dollar piece and cut it into small 
round or square cakes ; drop two or three at a time into the boiling lard ; 
when they rise to the surface and turn over they are done ; take them out 
with a skimmer and lay them on an inverted sieve to drain. When served 
for dessert or supper put a spoonful of jelly on each. 

PUFF-BALL DOUGHNUTS. 

THESE doughnuts, eaten fresh and warm, are a delicious breakfast dish 
and are quickly made. Three eggs, one cupful of sugar, a pint of sweet 
milk, salt, nutmeg and flour enough to permit the spoon to stand upright 
in the mixture ; add two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder to the 
flour ; beat all until very light. Drop by the dessertspoonful into boiling 
lard. These will not absorb a bit of fat and are not at all rich, and conse- 
quently are the least injurious of this kind of cakes. 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

* * * 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

w r SE THE very best materials in making pastry ; the shortening 

should be fresh, sweet and hard ; the water cold (ice-water is 

best), the paste rolled on a cold board and all handled as little as 

possible. When the crust is made, it makes it much more flaky 

and puff much more to put it in a dish covered with a cloth and set in a 

very cold place for half an hour, or even an hour ; in summer, it could 

be placed in -the ice box. 

A great improvement is made in pie crust by the addition of about a 

.heaping teaspoonful of baking powder to a quart of flour, also brushing 

the paste as often as rolled out, and the pieces of butter placed thereon, 

with the white of an egg, assists it to rise in leaves or flakes. As this is the 

great beauty of puff paste, it is as well to try this method. 

If currants are to be used in pies, they should be carefully picked over 
and washed in several waters, dried in a towel and dredged with flour 
before they are suitable for use. 

Raisins, and all dried fruits for pies and cakes, should be seeded, 
stoned and dredged with flour before using. 

Almonds should be blanched by pouring boiling water upon them and 
then slipping the skin off with the fingers. In pounding them, always add 
a little rose or orange-water, with fine sugar, to prevent their becoming oily. 

Great care is requisite in heating an oven for baking pastry. If you can 
hold your hand in the heated oven while you count twenty, the oven 
has just the proper temperature and it should be kept at this temperature 
as long as the pastry is in ; this heat will bake to a light brown and will 
give the pastry a fresh and flaky appearance. If you suffer the heat to 
abate, the under crust will become heavy and clammy and the upper crust 
will fall in. 

Another good way to ascertain when the oven is heated to the proper 
degree for puff paste : put a small piece of the paste in previous to baking 
the whole, and then the heat can thus be judged of. 

(303) 



304 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

Pie crust can be kept a week, and the last be better than the first, if 
put in a tightly covered dish and set in the ice chest in summer and in a 
cool place in winter, and thus you can make a fresh pie everyday with 
little trouble. 

In baking custard, pumpkin or squash pies, it is well, in order that the 
mixture may not be absorbed by the paste, to first partly bake the paste 
before adding it, and when stewed fruit is used the filling should be per- 
fectly cool when put in, or it will make the bottom crust sodden. 

HOW TO MAKE A PIE. 

AFTER making the crust, take a portion of it, roll it out and fit it to 
a buttered pie-plate by cutting it off evenly around the edge ; gather 
up the scraps left from cutting and make into another sheet for the top 
crust ; roll it a little thinner than the under crust ; lap one-half over the 
other and cut three or four slits about a quarter of an inch from the 
folded edge (this prevents the steam from escaping through the rim of 
the pie, and causing the juices to run out from the edges). Now fill your 
pie-plate with your prepared filling, wet the top edge of the rim, lay the 
upper crust across the centre of the pie, turn back the half that is lapped 
over, seal the two edges together by slightly pressing down with your 
thumb, then notch evenly and regularly with a three-tined fork, dipping 
occasionally in flour to prevent sticking. Bake in a rather quick oven 
a light brown, and until the filling boils up through the slits in the 
upper crust. 

To prevent the juice soaking through into the crust, making it soggy, 
wet the under crust with the white of an egg, just before you put in the 
pie mixture. If the top of the pie is brushed over with the egg, it gives it 

a beautiful glaze. 

FOR ICING PASTRY. 

To ICE pastry, which is the usual method adopted for fruit tarts and 
sweet dishes of pastry, put the white of an egg on a plate and with the 
blade of a knife beat it to a stiff froth. When the pastry is nearly baked, 
brush it over with this and sift over some pounded sugar ; put it back 
into the oven to set the glaze and in a few minutes it will be done. Great 
care should be taken that the paste does not catch or burn in the oven, 
which it is very liable to do after the icing is laid on. 

Or make a meringue by adding a tablespoonful of white sugar to the 
beaten white of one egg. Spread over the top and slightly brown in the 
oven. 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 305 

FINE PUFF PASTE. 

INTO one quart of sifted flour mix two teaspoonfuls of baking powder 
and a teaspoonful of salt; then sift again. Measure out one teacupful of 
butter and one of lard, hard and cold. Take the lard and rub into the 
flour until a very fine smooth paste. Then put in just enough ice-ivater, 
say half a cupful, containing a beaten white of egg, to mix a very stiff 
dough. Roll it out into a thin sheet, spread with one-fourth of the butter, 
sprinkle over with a little flour, then roll up closely in a long roll, like 
a scroll, double the ends towards the centre, flatten and re-roll, then 
spread again with another quarter of the butter. Repeat this operation 
until the butter is used up. Put it on an earthen dish, cover it with a 
cloth and set it in a cold place, in the ice box in summer ; let it remain 
until cold; an hour or more before making out the crust. Tarts made 
with this paste cannot be cut with a knife when fresh ; they go into flakes 
at the touch. . 

You may roll this pastry in any direction, from you, towards you, side- 
ways, any way, it matters not, but you must have nice flour, ice-water and 
very little of it, and strength to roll it, if you would succeed. 

This recipe I purchased from a colored cook on one of the Lake Michi- 
gan steamers many years ago, and it is, without exception, the finest 
puff paste I have ever seen. 

PUFF PASTE FOR PIES. 

ONE quart of pastry flour, one pint of butter, one tablespoonful of salt, 
one of sugar, one and a quarter cupfuls of ice-water. Wash the hands 
with soap and water and dip them first in very hot and then in cold 
water. Rinse a large bowl or pan with boiling water and then with cold. 
Half fill it with cold water. Wash the butter in this, working it with the 
hands until it is light and waxy. This frees it from the salt and .butter- 
milk and lightens it, so that the pastry is more delicate. Shape the butter 
into two thin cakes and put in a pan of ice-water to harden. Mix the salt 
and sugar with the flour. With the hands, rub one-third of the butter 
into the flour. Add the water, stirring with a knife. Stir quickly and 
vigorously until the paste is a smooth ball. Sprinkle the board lightly 
with flour. Turn the paste on this and pound quickly and lightly with 
the rolling-pin. Do not break the paste. Roll from you and to one side; 
or if easier to roll frvm you all the time, turn the paste around. When it 

is about one-fourth of an inch thick, wipe the remaining butter, break it 
20 



306 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS, 

in bits and spread these on the paste. Sprinkle lightly with flour. Fold 
the paste, one-third from each side, so that the edges meet. Now fold 
from the ends, but do not have these meet. Double the paste, pound 
lightly and roll down to about one-third of an inch in thickness. Fold as 
before and roll down again. Eepeat this three times if for pies and six 
times if for vol-au-vents, patties, tarts, etc. Place on the ice to harden, 
when it has been rolled the last time. It should be in the ice chest at 
least an hour before being used. In hot weather, if the paste sticks when 
being rolled down, put it on a tin sheet and place on ice. As soon as it is 
chilled, it will roll easily. The less flour you use in rolling out the paste, 
the tenderer it will be. No matter how carefully every part of the work 
may be done, the paste will not be good if much flour is used. 

Maria Parloa. 
SOYER'S RECIPE FOR PUFF PASTE. 

To EVERY pound of flour allow the yolk of one egg, the juice of one 
lemon, half a saltspoonful of salt, cold water, one pound of fresh butter. 

Put the flour on to the paste-board ; make a hole in the centre, into 
which put the yolk of the egg, the lemon juice and salt ; mix the whole 
with cold water (this should be iced in summer, if convenient) into a soft, 
flexible paste with the right hand, and handle it as little as possible ; then 
squeeze all the buttermilk from the butter, wring it in a cloth and roll out 
the paste ; place the butter on this and fold the edges of the paste over, so 
as to hide it ; roll it out again to the thickness of a quarter of an inch ; 
fold over one-third, over which again pass the rolling-pin ; then fold over 
the other third, thus forming a square ; place it with the ends, top and 
bottom before you, shaking a little flour both under and over, and repeat 
the rolls and turns twice again, as before. Flour a baking-sheet, put the 
paste on this and let it remain on ice or in some cool place for half an 
hour ; then roll twice more, turning it as before ; place it again upon the 
ice for a quarter of an hour, give it two more rolls, making seven in all, 
and it is ready for use when required. 

RULE FOR UNDER CRUST. 

A GOOD rule for pie crust for a pie requiring only an under crust, as a 
custard or pumpkin pie, is : Three large tablespoon fuls of flour sifted, 
rubbing into it a large tablespoonful of cold butter, or part butter and part 
lard, and a pinch of salt, mixing with cold water enough to form a smooth, 
stiff paste, and rolled quite thin. 



PASTRY, PIES AND TAMTS. 307 

PLAIN PIE CRUST. 

Two AND a half cupfuls of sifted flour, one cupful of shortening, half 
butter and half lard cold, a pinch of salt, a heaping teaspoonful of baking 
powder sifted through the flour. Rub thoroughly the shortening into the 
flour. Mix together with half a teacupful of cold water, or enough to form 
a rather stiff dough ; mix as little as possible, just enough to get it into 
shape to roll out ; it must be handled very lightly. This rule is for two 
pies. 

When you have a little pie crust left do not throw it away; roll it 
thin, cut it in small squares and bake. Just before tea put a spoonful 
of raspberry jelly on each square. 

PUFF PASTE OF SUET. 

Two CUPFULS of flour, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of 
baking powder, one cup of chopped suet, freed of skin, and chopped very 
fine, one cupful of water. Place the flour, sifted with the powder, in a 
bowl, add suet and water ; mix into smooth, rather firm dough. 

This paste is excellent for^fruit puddings and dumplings that are 
boiled ; if it is well made, it will be light and flaky and the suet impercep- 
tible. It is also excellent for meat pies, baked or boiled. All the ingredi- 
ents should be very cold when mixing, and the suet dredged with flour 
after it is chopped, to prevent the particles from adhering to each other. 

POTATO CRUST. 

BOIL and mash a dozen medium-sized potatoes, add one good teaspoon- 
ful of salt, two tablespoonf uls of cold butter and half a cupful of milk or 
cream. Stiffen with flour sufficient to roll out. Nice for the tops of meat 
pies. 

TO MAKE PIE CRUST FLAKY, 

IN MAKING a pie, after you have rolled out your top crust, cut it about 
the right size, spread it over with butter, then shake sifted flour over the 
butter, enough to cover it well. Cut a slit in the middle, place it over the 
top of your pie, and fasten the edges as any pie. Now take the pie on 
your left hand and a dipper of cold water in your right hand ; tip the pie 
slanting a little, pour over the water sufficiently to rinse off the flour. 
Enough flour will stick to the butter to fry into the crust, to give it a fine, 
blistered, flaky look, which many cooks think is much better than rolling 
the butter into the crust. 



80S PASTJtT, PIES AtfJ) TAfiTS. 

TARTLETS. No. 1. 

TARTS of strawberry or any other kind of preserves are generally made 
of the trimmings of puff paste rolled a little thicker than for ordinary 
pies ; then cut out with a round cutter, first dipped in hot water, to make 
the edges smooth, and placed in small tart-pans, first pricking a few holes 
at the bottom with a fork before placing them in the oven. Bake from 
ten to fifteen minutes. Let the paste cool a little ; then fill it with pre- 
serve. By this manner, both the flavor and color of the jam are preserved, 
which would be lost were it baked in the oven on the paste ; and, besides, 
so much jam is not required. 

TARTLETS. No. 2. 

TARTLETS are nice made in this manner: Roll some good puff paste 
out thin, and cut it into two and a half inch squares ; brush each square 
over with the white of an egg, then fold down the corners, so that they 
all meet in the middle of each piece of paste ; slightly press the two pieces 
together, brush them over with the egg, sift over sugar and bake in a nice 
quick oven for about a quarter of an hour. When they are done, make a 
little hole in the middle of the paste and fill it up with apricot jam, mar- 
malade, or red-currant jelly. Pile them high in the centre of a dish on 
a napkin and garnish with the same preserve the tartlets are filled with. 

PATTIES, Oil SHELLS FOR TARTS. 

ROLL out a nice puff paste thin ; cut out with a glass or cooky-cut- 
ter and with a wine-glass or smaller cutter, cut out the centre of two 
out of three ; lay the rings thus made on the third, and bake at once. 
May be used for veal or oyster patties, or filled with jelly, jam or pre- 
serves, as tarts. Or shells may be made by lining patty-pans with paste. 
If the paste is light, the shells will be fine. Filled with jelly and covered 
with meringue (tablespoonful of sugar to the white of one egg) and 
browned in oven, they are very nice to serve for tea. 

If the cutters are dipped in hot water, the edges of the tartlets will rise 
much higher and smoother when baking. 

TARTS. 

LARGER pans are required for tarts proper, the size of small, shallow 
pie-tins ; then after the paste is baked and cooled and filled with the jam 
or preserve, a few stars or leaves are placed on the top, or strips of paste, 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 309 

criss-crossed on the top. all of which have been previously baked on a tin 
by themselves. 

Dried fruit, stewed until thick, makes fine tart pies, also cranberries 
stewed and well sweetened. 

GREEN APPLE PIE. 

PEEL, core and slice tart apples enough for a pie ; sprinkle over about 
three tablespoonfuls of sugar, a teaspoonful of cinnamon, a small level 
tablespoonful of sifted flour, two tablespoonfuls of water, a few bits of but- 
ter, stir all together with a spoon ; put it into a pie-tin lined with pie 
paste ; cover with a top crust and bake about forty minutes. 

The result will be a delicious, juicy pie. 

APPLE CUSTARD PIE. No. 1. 

THREE cupfuls of milk, four eggs and one cupful of sugar, two cupfuls 
of thick stewed apples, strained through a colander. Beat the whites and 
yolks of the eggs lightly and mix the yolks well with the apples, flavoring 
with nutmeg. Then beat into this the milk and, lastly, the whites. Let 
the crust partly bake before turning in this filling. To be baked with only 
the one crust, like all custard pies. 

APPLE CUSTARD PIE. No. 2. 

SELECT fair sweet apples, pare and grate them, and to every teacupf ul 
of the apple add two eggs well beaten, two tablespoonfuls of fine sugar, 
one of melted butter, the grated rind and half the juice of one lemon, half 
a wine-glass of brandy and one teacupful of milk ; mix all well and pour 
into a deep plate lined with paste ; put a strip of the paste around the 
edge of the dish and bake thirty minutes. 

APPLE CUSTARD PIE. No. 3. 

LAY a crust in your plates ; slice apples thin and half fill your plates ; 
pour over them a custard made of four eggs and one quart of milk, sweet- 
ened and seasoned to your taste. 

APPLE CUSTARD PIE. No. 4. 

PEEL sour apples and stew until soft, and not much water left in them ; 
then rub through a colander ; beat three eggs for each pie to be baked and 
put in at the rate of one cupful of butter and one of sugar for three pies ; 
season with nutmeg. 



310 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

IRISH APPLE PIE. 

PARE and take out the cores of the apples, cutting each apple into four 
or eight pieces, according to their size. Lay them neatly in a baking dish, 
seasoning them with brown sugar and any spice, such as pounded cloves 
and cinnamon, or grated lemon peel. A little quince marmalade gives 
a fine flavor to the pie. Add a little water and cover with puff paste. 
Bake for an hour. 

MOCK APPLE PIE. 

CRUSH finely with a rolling pin, one large Boston cracker ; put it into a 
bowl and pour upon it one teacupf ul of cold water ; add one teacupf ul of 
fine white sugar, the juice and pulp of one lemon, half a lemon rind 
grated and a little nutmeg ; line the pie-plate with half puff paste, pour 
in the mixture, cover with the paste and bake half an hour. 

These are proportions for one pie. 

APPLE AND PEACH MERINGUE PIE. 

STEW the apples or peaches and sweeten to taste. Mash smooth and 
season with nutmeg. Fill the crusts and bake until just done. Put on no 
top crust. Take the whites of three eggs for each pie and whip to a stiff 
froth, and sweeten with three tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. Flavor 
with rose-water or vanilla ; beat until it will stand alone ; then spread 
it on the pie one-half to one inch thick ; set it back into the oven until the 
meringue is well " set." Eat cold. 

COCOANUT PIE. No. 1. 

ONE-HALF cup desiccated cocoanut soaked in one cupful of milk, two 
eggs, one small cupful of sugar, butter the size of an egg. This is for one 
small-sized pie. Nice with a meringue on top. 

COCOANUT PIE. No. 2. 

CUT off the brown part of the cocoanut, grate the white part, mix it 
with milk and set it on the fire and let it boil slowly eight or ten minutes. 
To a pound of the grated cocoanut, allow a quart of milk, eight eggs, four 
tablespoonfuls of sifted white sugar, a glass of wine, a small cracker, 
pounded fine, two spoonfuls of melted butter and half a nutmeg. The 
eggs and sugar should be beaten together to a froth, then the wine stirred 
in. Put them into the milk and cocoanut, which should be first allowed 
to get quite cool < add the cracker and nutmeg, turn the whole into deep 



FAX TRY, PIES AND TARTS. 311 

pie plates, with a lining and rim of puff paste. Bake them as soon as 
turned into the plates. 

CHOCOLATE CUSTARD PIE. No. 1. 

ONE-QUARTER cake of Baker's chocolate, grated; one pint of boiling 
water, six eggs, one quart of milk, one-half cupful of white sugar, two tea- 
spoonfuls of vanilla. Dissolve the chocolate in a very little milk, stir into 
the boiling water and boil three minutes. When nearly cold, beat up 
with this the yolks of all the eggs and the whites of three. Stir this mix- 
ture into the milk, season and pour into shells of good paste. When the 
custard is "set"- -but not more than half done spread over it the whites 
whipped to a froth, with two tablespoonfuls of sugar. You may bake 
these custards without paste, in a pudding dish or cups set in boiling 
water. 

CHOCOLATE PIE. No. 2. 

PUT some grated chocolate into a basin and place on the back of the 
stove and let it melt (do not add any water to it) ; beat one egg and some 
sugar in it ; when melted, spread this on the top of a custard pie. Lovers 
of chocolate will like this. 

LEMON PIE. No 1. (Superior.) 

TAKE a deep dish, grate into it the outside of the rind of two lemons ; 
add to that a cup and a half of white sugar, two heaping tablespoonfuls of 
unsifted flour, or one of cornstarch ; stir it well together, then add the 
yolks of three well-beaten eggs, beat this thoroughly, then add the juice 
of the lemons, two cups of water and a piece of butter the size of a wal- 
nut. Set this on the fire in another dish containing boiling water and 
cook it until it thickens, and will dip up on the spoon like cold honey. Re- 
move it from the fire, and when cooled, pour it into a deep pie-tin, lined 
with pastry ; bake, and when done, have ready the whites, beaten stiff, 
with three small tablespoonfuls of sugar. Spread this over the top and re- 
turn to the oven to set and brown slightly. This makes a deep, large- 
sized pie, and very superior. 

Ebbitt House, Washington. 

LEMON PIE. No. 2. 

ONE coffeecupful of sugar, three eggs, one cupful of water, one table- 
spoonful of melted butter, one heaping tablespoonful of flour, the juice and 
a little of the rind of one lemon. Reserve the whites of the eggs, and after 



312 PASTRY, PIES AND TAETS. 

the pie is baked, spread them over the top, beaten lightly, with a spoonful 
of sugar, and return to the oven until it is a light brown. 

This may be cooked before it is put into the crust or not, but it is rather 
better to cook it first in a double boiler or dish. It makes a medium-sized 
pie. Bake from thirty-five to forty minutes. 

LEMON PIE. No. 3. 

MOISTEN a heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch with a little cold water, 
then add a cupful of boiling water ; stir over the fire till it boils and cook 
the cornstarch, say two or three minutes ; add a teaspoonful of butter and 
a cupful of sugar ; take off the fire, and, when slightly cooled, add an egg 
well beaten and the juice and grated rind of a fresh lemon. Bake with 
a crust. This makes one small pie. 

LEMON PIE. No. 4. 

Two LARGE, fresh lemons, grate off the rind, if not bitter reserve it 
for the filling of the pie, pare off every bit of the white skin of the lemon 
(as it toughens while cooking) ; then cut the lemon into very thin slices 
with a sharp knife and take out the seeds ; two cupf uls of sugar, three 
tablespoonfuls of water and two of sifted flour. Put into the pie a layer 
of lemon, then one of sugar, then one of the grated rind, and, lastly, of 
flour, and so on till the ingredients are used ; sprinkle the water over all, 
and cover with upper crust. Be sure to have the under crust lap over the 
upper, and pinch it well, as the syrup will cook all out if care is not taken 
when finishing the edge of crust. This quantity makes one medium-sized 
pie. 

ORANGE PIE. 

GRATE the rind of one and use the juice of two large oranges. Stir 
together a large cupful of sugar and a heaping tablespoonful of flour ; add 
to this the well-beaten yolks of three eggs, two tablespoonfuls of melted 
butter. Eeserve the whites for frosting. Turn this into a pie-pan lined 
with pie paste and bake in a quick oven. When done so as to resemble a 
finely baked custard, spread on the top of it the beaten whites, which must 
be sweetened with two tablespoonfuls of sugar ; spread evenly and return 
to the oven and brown slightly. 

The addition of the juice of half a lemon improves it, if convenient to 
have it. 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS 313 

BAKERS' CUSTARD PIE. 

BEAT up the yolks of three eggs to a cream. Stir thoroughly a table- 
spoonful of sifted flour into three tablespoonf uls of sugar ; this separates 
the particles of flour so that there will be no lumps ; then add it to the 
beaten yolks, put in a pinch of salt, a teaspoonful of vanilla and a little 
grated nutmeg ; next the well-beaten whites of the eggs ; and, lastly, a 
pint of scalded milk (not boiled) which has been cooled; mix this in by 
degrees and turn all into a deep pie-pan lined with puff paste, and bake 
from twenty-five to thirty minutes. 

I received this recipe from a celebrated cook in one of our best New 
York bakeries. I inquired of him " why it was that their custard pies had 
that look of solidity and smoothness that our home-made pies have not." 
He replied, "The secret is the addition of this bit of flour not that it 
thickens the custard any to speak of, but prevents the custard from break- 
ing or wheying and gives that smooth appearance when cut." 

CREAM PIE. 

POUR a pint of cream upon one and a half cupfuls of sugar ; let it stand 
until the whites of three eggs have been beaten to a stiff froth ; add this 
to the cream and beat up thoroughly ; grate a little nutmeg over the mix- 
ture and bake without an upper crust. If a tablespoonful of sifted flour is 
added to it, as the above Custard Pie recipe, it would improve it. 

WHIPPED CREAM PIE. 

LINE a pie plate with a rich crust and bake quickly in a hot oven. 
When done, spread with a thin layer of jelly or jam, then whip one cupful 
of thick sweet cream until it is as light as possible ; sweeten with pow- 
dered sugar and flavor with vanilla ; spread over the jelly or jam ; set the 
cream where it will get very cold before whipping. 

CUSTARD PIE. 

BEAT together until very light the yolks of four eggs and four table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, flavor with nutmeg or vanilla ; then add the four 
beaten whites, a pinch of salt and, lastly, a quart of sweet milk ; mix well 
and pour into tins lined with paste. Bake until firm. 

BOSTON CREAM PIE. 

Cream Part. Put on a pint of milk to boil. Break two eggs into a 
dish and add one cup of sugar and half a cup of flour previously mixed ; 



314 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

after beating well, stir it into the milk just as the milk commences to 
boil ; add an ounce of butter and keep on stirring one way until it thick- 
ens ; flavor with vanilla or lemon. 

Crust Part. Three eggs beaten separately, one cup of granulated 
sugar, one and a half cups of sifted flour, one large teaspoonful of baking 
powder and two tablespoonfuls of milk or water. Divide the batter in 
half and bake on two medium-sized pie-tins. Bake in a rather quick oven 
to a straw color. When done and cool, split each one in half with a sharp 
broad-bladed knife, and spread half the cream between each. Serve cold. 

The cake part should be flavored the same as the custard. 

MOCK CREAM PIE. 

TAKE three eggs, one pint of milk, a cupful of sugar, two tablespoonfuls 
of cornstarch or three of flour; beat the sugar, cornstarch and yolks of 
the eggs together ; after the milk has come to a boil, stir in the mixture 
and add a pinch of salt and about a teaspoonful of butter. Make crust 
the same as any pie ; bake, then fill with the custard, grate over a little 
nutmeg and bake again. Take the whites of the eggs and beat to a stiff 
froth with two tablespoonfuls of sugar, spread over the top and brown 
in a quick oven. 

FRUIT CUSTARD PIE. 

ANY fruit custard, such as pineapple, banana, can be readily made after 
the recipe of APPLE CUSTARD PIE. 

CHERRY PIE. 

LINE your pie plate with good crust, fill half full with ripe cherries : 
sprinkle over them about a cupful of sugar, a teaspoonful of sifted flour, 
dot a few bits of butter over that. Now fill the crust full to the top. 
Cover with the upper crust and bake. 

This is one of the best of pies, if made correctly, and the cherries in 
any case should be stoned. 

CURRANT PIE. 

MAKE in just the same way as the "Cherry Pie," unless they are some- 
what green, then they should be stewed a little. 

RIPE CURRANT PIE. 

ONE cupful of mashed ripe currants, one of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of 
water, one of flour, beaten with the yolks of two eggs. Bake ; frost the 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 315 

top with the beaten whites of the eggs and two tablespoonfuls powdered 
sugar and brown in oven. 

GREEN TOMATO PIE. 

TAKE medium -sized tomatoes, pare and cut out the stem end. Having 
your pie-pan lined with paste made as biscuit dough, slice the tomatoes 
very thin, filling the pan somewhat heaping, then grate over it a nutmeg ; 
put in half a cup of butter and a medium cup of sugar, if the pan is rather 
deep. Sprinkle a small handful of flour over all, pouring in half a cup of 
vinegar before adding the top crust. Bake half an hour in a moderately 
hot oven, serving hot. Is good ; try it. 

APRICOT MERINGUE PIE. 

A CANNED apricot meringue pie is made by cutting the apricots fine 
and mixing them with a half cup of sugar and the beaten yolk of an egg ; 
fill the crust and bake. Take from the oven, let it stand for two or three 
minutes, cover with a meringr.8 made of the beaten white of an egg and 
one tablespoonful of sugar. Set back in a slow oven until it turns a 
golden brown. The above pie can be made into a tart without the addi- 
tion of the meringue by adding criss-cross strips of pastry when the pie is 
first put into the oven. 

All of the above are good if made from the dried and stewed apricots 
instead of the canned and are much cheaper. 

Stewed dried apricots are a delicious addition to mince meat. They 
may be used in connection with minced apples, or to the exclusion of the 

latter. 

HUCKLEBERRY PIE. 

PUT a quart of picked huckleberries into a basin of water; take off 
whatever floats ; take up the berries by the handful, pick out all the stems 
and unripe berries and put them into a dish ; line a buttered pie dish with 
a pie paste, put in the berries half an inch deep, and to a quart of berries, 
put half of a teacupful of brown sugar ; dredge a teaspoonf ul of flour over, 
strew a saltspoonf ul of salt and a little nutmeg grated over ; cover the 
pie, cut a slit in the centre, or make several small incisions on either side 
of it ; press the two crusts together around the edge, trim it off neatly with 
a sharp knife and bake in a quick oven for three-quarters of an hour. 

BLACKBERRY PIE. 

PICK the berries clean, rinse them in cold water and finish as directed 
for huckleberries* 



316 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS 

MOLASSES PIE. 

Two TEACUPFULS of molasses; one of sugar, three eggs, one tablespoon- 
ful of melted butter, one lemon, nutmeg ; beat and bake in pastry. 

LEMON RAISIN PIE. 

ONE cup of chopped raisins, seeded, and the juice and grated rind of 
one lemon, one cupful of cold water, one tablespoonful of flour, one cupful 
of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of butter. Stir lightly together and bake 
with upper and under crust. 

RHUBARB PIE. 

/ 

CUT the large stalks off where the leaves commence, strip off the 
outside skin, then cut the stalks in pieces half an inch long ; line a pie 
dish with paste rolled rather thicker than a dollar piece, put a layer of 
the rhubarb nearly an inch deep ; to a quart bowl of cut rhubarb put 
a large teacupf ul of sugar ; strew it over with a saltspoonf ul of salt and a 
little nutmeg grated ; shake over a little flour; cover with a rich pie crust, 
cut a slit in the centre, trim off the edge with a sharp knife and bake 
in a quick oven until the pie loosens from the dish. Rhubarb pies made 
in this way are altogether superior to those made of the fruit stewed. 

RHUBARB PIE. (Cooked.) 

SKIN the stalks, cut them into small pieces, wash and put them in a 
stewpan with no more water than what adheres to them ; when cooked, 
mash them fine and put in a small piece of butter ; when* cool, sweeten to 
taste; if liked, add a little lemon-peel, cinnamon or nutmeg; line your 
plate with thin crust, put in the filling, cover with crust and bake in a 
quick oven ; sift sugar over it when served. 

PINEAPPLE PIE. 

A GRATED pineapple, its weight in sugar, half its weight in butter, one 
cupful of cream, five eggs ; beat the butter to a creamy froth, add the 
sugar and yolks of the eggs, continue beating till very light ; add the 
cream, the pineapple grated and the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff 
froth. Bake with an under crust. Eat cold. 

GRAPE PIE. 

POP the pulps out of the skins into one dish and put the skins into an- 
other. Then simmer the pulp a little over the fire to soften it ; remove it 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 317 

and rub it through a colander to separate it from the seeds. Then put the 
skins and pulp together and they are ready for pies or for canning or 
putting in jugs for further use. Fine for pies. 

DAMSON OR PLUM PIE. 

STEW the damsons whole in water only sufficient to prevent their burn- 
ing ; when tender and while hot, sweeten them with sugar and let them 
stand until they become cold ; then pour them into pie dishes lined with 
paste, dredge flour upon them, cover them with the same paste, wet and 
pinch together the edges of the paste, cut a slit in the centre of the 
cover through which the vapor may escape and bake twenty minutes. 

PEACH PIE. 

PEEL, stone and slice the peaches. Line a pie-plate with crust and lay 
in your fruit, sprinkling sugar liberally over them in proportion to their 
sweetness. Allow three peach kernels chopped fine to each pie ; pour in a 
very little water and bake with an upper crust, or with cross-bars of paste 
across the top. 

DRIED FRUIT PIES. 

WASH the fruit thoroughly, soak over night in water enough to cover. 
In the morning stew slowly until nearly done in the same water. Sweeten 
to taste. The crust, both upper and under, should be rolled thin ; a thick 
crust to a fruit pie is undesirable. 

RIPE BERRY PIES. 

ALL made the same as " Cherry Pie." Line your pie-tin with crust, fill 
half full of berries, shake over a tablespoonful of sifted flour (if very juicy) 
and as much sugar as is necessary to sweeten sufficiently. Now fill up the 
crust to the top, making quite full. Cover with crust and bake about forty 
minutes. 

Huckleberry and blackberry pies are improved by putting into them a 
little ginger and cinnamon. 

JELLY AND PRESERVED FRUIT PIES. 

PRESERVED fruit requires no baking ; hence, always bake the shell and 
put in the sweetmeats afterwards ; you can cover with whipped cream, or 
bake a top crust shell ; the former is preferable for delicacy. 



318 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

CRANBERRY PIE. 

TAKE fine, sound, ripe cranberries and with a sharp knife split each 
one until you have a heaping coffeecupful ; put them in a vegetable dish 
or basin ; put over them one cupful of white sugar, half a cup of water, a 
tablespoon full of sifted flour; stir it all together and put into your crust. 
Cover with an upper crust and bake slowly in a moderate oven. You will 
find this the true way of making a cranberry pie. 

Newport Style. 
CRANBERRY TART PIE. 

AFTER having washed and picked over the berries, stew them well in a 
little water, just enough to cover them ; when they burst open and become 
soft, sweeten them with plenty of sugar, mash them smooth (some prefer 
them not mashed) ; line your pie-plates with thin puff paste, fill them and 
lay strips of paste across the top. Bake in a moderate oven. Or you may 
rub them through a colander to free them from the skins. 

GOOSEBERRY PIE. 

CAN be made the same as " Cranberry Tart Pie," or an upper crust can be 
put on before baking. Serve with boiled custard or a pitcher of good 
sweet cream. 

STEWED PUMPKIN OR SQUASH FOR PIES. 

DEEP-COLORED pumpkins are generally the best. Cut a pumpkin or 
squash in half, take out the seeds, then cut it up in thick slices, pare the 
outside and cut again in small pieces. Put it into a large pot or saucepan 
with a very little water ; let it cook slowly until tender. Now set the pot 
on the back of the stove, where it will not burn, and cook slowly, stirring 
often until the moisture is dried out and the pumpkin looks dark and 
red. It requires cooking a long time, at least half a day, to have it dry 
and rich. When cool, press through a colander. 

BAKED PUMPKIN OR SQUASH FOR PIES. 

CUT up in several pieces, do not pare it ; place them on baking tins and 
set them in the oven ; bake slowly until soft, then take them out, scrape 
all the pumpkin from the shell, rub it through a colander. It will be fine 
and light and free from lumps. 

PUMPKIN PIE. No. 1. 

FOR three pies ; One quart of milk, three cupfuls of boiled and strained 
pumpkin, one and one-half cupfuls of sugar, one-half cupful of molasses, 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 319 

the yolks and whites of four eggs beaten separately, a little salt, one table- 
spoonful each of ginger and cinnamon. Beat all together and bake with 
an under crust. 

Boston marrow or Hubbard squash may be substituted for pumpkin 
and are much preferred by many, as possessing a less strong flavor. 

PUMPKIN PIE. No. 2. 

ONE quart of stewed pumpkin pressed through a sieve, nine eggs, 
whites and yolks beaten separately, two scant quarts of milk, one tea- 
spoonful of mace, one teaspoonful of cinnamon and the same of nutmeg, 
one and one-half cupfuls of white sugar, or very light brown. Beat all 
well together and bake in crust without cover. 

A tablespoonful of brandy is a great improvement to pumpkin or 
squash pies. 

PUMPKIN PIE WITHOUT EGGS. 

ONE quart of properly stewed pumpkin pressed through a colander ; to 
this add enough good, rich milk, sufficient to moisten it enough to fill two 
good-sized earthen pie-plates, a teaspoonful of salt, half a cupful of molasses 
or brown sugar, a tablespoonful of ginger, one teaspoonful of cinnamon or 
nutmeg. Bake in a moderately slow oven three-quarters of an hour. 

SQUASH PIE. 

ONE pint of boiled dry squash, one cupful of brown sugar, three eggs, 
two tablespoonfuls of molasses, one tablespoonful of melted butter, one 
tablespoonful of ginger, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, a pinch of salt and 
one pint of milk. This makes two pies, or one large deep one. 

SWEET POTATO PIE. 

ONE pound of steamed sweet potatoes finely mashed, two cups sugar, 
one cup cream, one-half cup butter, three well-beaten eggs, flavor with 
lemon or nutmeg and bake in pastry shell. Fine. 

COOKED MEAT FOR MINCE PIES. 

IN ORDER to succeed in having good mince pie, it is quite essential to 
cook the meat properly, so as to retain its juices and strength of flavor. 

Select four pounds of lean beef, the neck piece is as good as any, wash 
it and put it into a kettle with just water enough to cover it ; take off the 
scum as it reaches the boiling point, add hot water from time to time, 
until it is tender, then season with salt and pepper ; take off the cover and 



820 PASTRY, PIES AND TAETS. 

let it boil until almost dry, or until the juice has boiled back into the 
meat. When it looks as though it was beginning to fry in its own juice, 
it is time to take up and set aside to get cold, which should be done the 
day before needed. Next day, when making the mince meat, the bones, 
gristle and stringy bits should be well picked out before chopping. 

MINCE PIES. No. 1. 

THE "Astor House," some years ago, was/amows for its "mince pies." 
The chief pastry cook at that time, by request, published the recipe. I 
find that those who partake of it never fail to speak in laudable terms of 
the superior excellence of this recipe when strictly followed. 

Four pounds of lean boiled beef chopped fine, twice as much of 
chopped green tart apples, one pound of chopped suet, three pounds of 
raisins, seeded, two pounds of currants picked over, washed and dried, half 
a pound of citron, cut up fine, one pound of brown sugar, one quart of 
cooking molasses, two quarts of sweet cider, one pint of boiled cider, one 
tablespoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of pepper, one tablespoonful of 
mace, one tablespoonful of allspice and four tablespoonfuls of cinnamon, 
two grated nutmegs, one tablespoonful of cloves ; mix thoroughly and 
warm it on the range until heated through. Remove from the fire and 
when nearly cool, stir in a pint of good brandy and one pint of Madeira 
wine. Put into a crock, cover it tightly and set it in a cold place where it 
will not freeze, but keep perfectly cold. Will keep good all winter. 

Chef de Cuisine, Astor House, N, Y. 

MINCE PIES. No. 2. 

Two POUNDS of lean fresh beef, boiled and, when *cold, chopped fine. 
One pound of beef suet, cleared of strings and minced to powder. Five 
pounds of apples, pared and chopped, two pounds of raisins, seeded and 
chopped, one pound of Sultana raisins, washed and picked over, two 
pounds of currants washed and carefully picked over, three-quarters of a 
pound of citron cut up fine, two tablespoonfuls cinnamon, one of pow- 
dered nutmeg, two of mace, one of cloves, one of allspice, one of fine salt, 
two and a quarter pounds of brown sugar, one quart brown sherry, one 
pint best brandy. 

Mince-meat made by this recipe will keep all winter. Cover closely in 
a jar and set in a cool place. 

Common Sense in the Household. 

For preserving mince meat, look for CANNED MINCE MEAT. 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 321 

MOCK MINCE MEAT WITHOUT MEAT. 

ONE cupful of cold water, half a cupful of molasses, half a cupful of 
brown sugar, half a cupful of cider vinegar, two-thirds of a cupful of 
melted butter, one cupful of raisins seeded and chopped, one egg beaten 
light, half a cupful of rolled cracker crumbs, a tablespoonf ul of cinnamon, 
a teaspoonful each of cloves, allspice, nutmeg, salt and black pepper. 

Put the saucepan on the fire with the water and raisins ; let them cook 
a few minutes, then add the sugar and molasses, then the vinegar, then 
the other ingredients ; lastly, add a wine-glassful of brandy. Very fine. 

FRUIT TURNOVERS. (Suitable for Picnics.) 

MAKE a nice puff paste ; roll it out the usual thickness, as for pies ; then 
cut it out into circular pieces about the size of a small tea saucer ; pile the 
fruit on half of the paste, sprinkle over some sugar, wet the edges and 
turn the paste over. Press the edges together, ornament them and brush 
the turnovers over with the white of an egg ; sprinkle over sifted sugar 
and bake on tins, in a brisk oven, for about twenty minutes. Instead of 
putting the fruit in raw, it may be boiled down with a little sugar first 
and then enclosed in the crust ; or jam of any kind may be substituted for 
fresh fruit. 

PLUM CUSTARD TARTLETS. 

ONE pint of greengage plums, after being rubbed through a sieve, one 
large cup of sugar, the yolks of two eggs well beaten. Whisk all together 
until light and foamy, then bake in small patty-pans shells of puff paste 
a light brown. Then fill with the plum paste, beat the two whites until 
stiff, add two tablespoonf uls of powdered sugar, spread over the plum 
paste and set the shells into a moderate oven for a few moments. 

These are much more easily handled than pieces of pie or even pies 
whole, and can be packed nicely for carrying. 

LEMON TARTLETS. No. 1. 

PUT a quart of milk into a saucepan over the fire. When it comes to 
the boiling point put into it the following mixture : Into a bowl put a 
heaping tablespoonful of flour, half a cupful of sugar and a pinch of salt. 
Stir this all together thoroughly ; then add the beaten yolks of six eggs ; 
stir this one way into the boiling milk until cooked to a thick cream ; 
remove from the fire and stir into it the grated rind and juice of one large 

lemon. Have ready baked and hot some puff paste tart shells. Fill them 
21 



322 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

with the custard and cover each with a meringue made of the whites of 
the eggs, sweetened with four tablespoonfuls of sugar. Put into the oven 
and bake a light straw color. 

LEMON TARTLETS. No. 2. 

Mix well together the juice and grated rind of two lemons, two cupfuls 
of sugar, two eggs and the crumbs of sponge cake ; beat it all together 
until smooth ; put into twelve patty-pans lined with puff paste and bake 
until the crust is done. 

ORANGE TARTLETS. 

TAKE the juice of two large oranges and the grated peel of one, three- 
fourths of a cup of sugar, a tablespoonful of butter; stir in a good 
teaspoonful of cornstarch into the juice. of half a lemon and add to the 
mixture. Beat all well together and bake in tart shells without cover. 

MERINGUE CUSTARD TARTLETS. 

SELECT deep individual pie-tins; fluted tartlet pans are suitable for 
custard tarts, but they should be about six inches in diameter and from 
two to three inches deep. Butter the pan and line it with ordinary puff 
paste, then fill it with a custard made as follows : Stir gradually into the 
beaten yolks of six eggs two tablespoonfuls of flour, a saltspoonf ul of salt 
and half a pint of cream. Stir until free from lumps and add two table- 
spoonfuls of sugar ; put the saucepan on the range and stir until the cus- 
tard coats the spoon. Do not let it boil or it will curdle. Pour it in 
a bowl, add a few drops of vanilla flavoring and stir until the custard be- 
comes cold ; fill the lined mold with this and bake in a moderate oven. In 
the meantime, put the whites of the eggs in a bright copper vessel and 
beat thoroughly, using a baker's wire egg-beater for this purpose. While 
beating, sprinkle in lightly half a pound of sugar and a dash of salt. 
When the paste is quite firm, spread a thin layer of it over the tart and 
decorate the top with the remainder by squeezing it through a paper fun- 
nel. Strew a little powdered sugar over the top, return to the oven, and 
when a delicate yellow tinge remove from the oven and when cold serve. 

BERRY TARTS. 

LINE small pie-tins with pie crust and bake. Just before ready to use, 
fill the tarts with strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, or whatever 
berries are in season. Sprinkle over each tart a little sugar ; after adding 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 323 

berries add also to each tart a tablespoonful of sweet cream. They form 
a delicious addition to the breakfast table. 

CREAM STRAWBERRY TARTS. 

AFTER picking over the berries carefully, arrange them in layers in 
a deep pie-tin lined with puff paste, sprinkling sugar thickly between each 
layer; fill the pie-tin pretty full, pouring in a quantity of the juice; cover 
with a thick crust, with a slit in the top and bake. When the pie is 
baked, pour into the slit in the top of the pie the following cream mix- 
ture : Take a small cupful of the cream from the top of the morning's 
milk, heat it until it comes to a boil, then stir into it the whites of two 
eggs beaten light, also a tablespoonful of white sugar and a teaspoonful of 
cornstarch wet in cold milk. Boil all together a few moments until quite 
smooth ; set it aside and when cool pour it into the pie through the slit in 
the crust. Serve it cold with powdered sugar sifted over it. 

Raspberry, blackberry and whortleberry may be made the same. 

GREEN GOOSEBERRY TART. 

TOP and tail the gooseberries. Put into a porcelain kettle with enough 
water to prevent burning and stew slowly until they break. Take them 
off, sweeten well and set aside to cool. When cold pour into pastry shells 
and bake with a top crust of puff paste. Brush all over with beaten egg 
while hot, set back in the oven to glaze for three minutes. Eat cold. 

Common Sense in the Household. 

COCOANUT TARTS. 

TAKE three cocoanuts, the meats grated, the yolks of five eggs, half a 
cupful of white sugar, season, a wine-glass of milk ; put the butter in cold 
and bake in a nice puff paste. 

CHOCOLATE TARTS. 

FOUR eggs, whites and yolks, one-half cake of Baker's chocolate, 
grated, one tablespoonful of cornstarch, dissolved in water, three table- 
spoonfuls of milk, four of white sugar, two teaspoonfuls of vanilla, one 
saltspoonful of salt, one-half teaspoonful of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of 
butter, melted ; rub the chocolate smooth in the milk and heat to boiling 
over the fire, then stir in the cornstarch. Stir five minutes until well 
thickened, remove from the fire and pour into a bowl. Beat all the yolks 
and the whites of two eggs well with the sugar, and when the chocolate 



324 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

mixture is almost cold, put all together with the flavoring and stir until 
light. Bake in open shells of pastry. When done, cover with a meringue 
made of the whites of two eggs and two tablespoonfuls of sugar flavored 
with a teaspoonful of lemon juice. Eat cold. 
These are nice for tea, baked in patty-pans. 

Common Sense in the Household 
MAIDS OF HONOR. 

TAKE one cupful of sour milk, one of sweet milk, a tablespocraful of 
melted butter, the yolks of four eggs, juice and rind of one lemon and a 
small cupful of white pounded sugar. Put both kinds of milk together in 
a vessel, which is set in another and let it become sufficiently heated to 
set the curd, then strain off the milk, rub the curd through a strainer, add 
butter to the curd, the sugar, well-beaten eggs and lemon. Line the little 
pans with the richest of puff paste and fill with the mixture ; bake until 
firm in the centre, from ten to fifteen minutes. 

GERMAN FRUIT PIE. 

SIFT together a heaping teaspoonful of baking powder and a pint of 
flour; add a piece of butter as large as a walnut, a pinch of salt, one 
beaten egg and sweet milk enough to make a soft dough. Roll it out 
half an inch thick ; butter a square biscuit tin and cover the bottom and 
sides with the dough; fill the pan with quartered juicy apples, sprinkle 
with a little cinnamon and molasses. Bake in rather quick oven until the 
crust and apples are cooked a light brown. Sprinkle a little sugar over 
the top five minutes before removing from the oven. 

Ripe peaches are fine used in the same manner. 

APPLE TARTS. 

PAKE, quarter, core and boil in half a cupful of water, until quite soft, 
ten large, tart apples ; beat until very smooth and add the yolks of six 
eggs, or three whole ones, the juice and grated outside rind of two lemons, 
half a cup of butter, one and a half of sugar (or more, if not sufficiently 
sweet) ; beat all thoroughly, line patty-pans with a puff paste and fill ; 
bake five minutes in a hot oven. 

Meringue. If desired very nice, cover them when removed from the 
oven with the meringue made of the whites of three eggs remaining, 
mixed with three tablespoonfuls sugar ; return to the oven and delicately 
brown, 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 325 

CREAM TARTS. 

MAKE a rich, brittle crust, with which cover your patty-pans, smooth- 
ing off the edges nicely and bake well. While these "shells" are cooling, 
take one teacupful (more or less according to the number of tarts you 
want) of perfectly sweet and fresh cream, skimmed free of milk ; put this 
into a large bowl or other deep dish, and with your egg-beater whip it to a 
thick, stiff froth ; add a heaping tablespoonful of fine white sugar, with a 
teaspoonful (a small one) of lemon or vanilla. Fill the cold shells with 
this and set in a cool place till tea is ready. 

OPEN JAM TARTS. 

TIME to bake until paste loosens from the dish. Line shallow tin dish 
with puff paste, put in the jam, roll out some of the paste, wet it lightly 
with the yolk of an egg beaten with a little milk, and a tablespoonful of 
powdered sugar. Cut it in very narrow strips, then lay them across the 
tart, lay another strip around the edge, trim off outside, and bake in a 
quick oven. 

CHESS CAKES. 

PEEL and grate one cocoanut ; boil one pound of sugar fifteen minutes 
in two-thirds of a pint of water ; stir in the grated cocoanut and boil fif- 
teen minutes longer. While warm, stir in a quarter of a pound of butter ; 
add the yolks of seven eggs well beaten. Bake in patty-pans with rich 
paste. If prepared cocoanut is used, take one and a half coffeecupfuls. 
Fine. 




CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

* * * 

THE usual rule for custards is, eight eggs to a quart of milk ; but a 
very good custard can be made of six, or even less, especially with 
the addition of a level tablespoonful of sifted flour, thoroughly 
blended in the sugar first, before adding the other ingredients. 
They may be baked, boiled or steamed, either in cups or one large dish. 
It improves custards to first boil the milk and then cool it before being 
used ; also a little salt adds to the flavor. A very small lump of butter 
may also be added, if one wants something especially rich. 

To make custards look and taste better, duck's eggs should be used 
when obtainable ; they add very much to the flavor and richness, and so 
many are not required as of ordinary eggs, four duck's eggs to the pint of 
milk making a delicious custard. When desired extremely rich and good, 
cream should be substituted for the milk, and double the quantity of eggs 
used to those mentioned, omitting the whites. 

When making boiled custard, set the dish containing the custard into 
another and larger dish, partly filled with boiling water, placed over the 
fire. Let the cream or milk come almost to a boil before adding the eggs 
or thickening, then stir it briskly one way every moment until smooth and 
well cooked ; it must not boil or it will curdle. 

To bake a custard, the fire should be moderate and the dish well 
buttered. 

Everything in baked custard depends upon the regularly heated slow 
oven. If made with nicety it is the most delicate of all sweets ; if cooked 
till it wheys it is hardly eatable. 

Frozen eggs can be made quite as good as fresh ones if used as soon as 
thawed soft. Drop them into boiling water, letting them remain until the 
water is cold. They will be soft all through and beat up equal to those 
that have not been touched with the frost. 

Eggs should always be thoroughly well beaten separately, the yolks 
first, then the sugar added, beat again, then add the beaten whites with 
the flavoring, then the cooled scalded milk. The lighter the eggs are 
beaten, the thicker and richer the custard, 

(326) 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 327 

Eggs should always be broken into a cup, the whites and yolks sepa- 
rated, and they should always be strained. Breaking the eggs thus, the 
bad ones may be easily rejected without spoiling the others and so cause 
no waste. 

A meringue, or frosting for the top, requires about a tablespoonful of 
fine sugar to the beaten white of one egg ; to be placed on the top after 
the custard ox pudding is baked, smoothed over with a broad-bladed knife 
dipped in cold water, and replaced in the oven to brown slightly. 

SOFT CARAMEL CUSTARD. 

ONE quart of milk, half a cupful of sugar, six eggs, half a teaspoonful of 
salt. Put the milk on to boil, reserving a cupf al. Beat the eggs and add 
the cold milk to them. Stir the sugar in a small frying pan until it 
becomes liquid and just begins to smoke. Stir it into the boiling milk ; 
then add the beaten eggs and cold milk and stir constantly until the 
mixture begins to thicken. Set away to cool. Serve in glasses. 

BAKED CUSTARD. 

BEAT five fresh eggs, the whites and yolks separately, the yolks with 
half a cup of sugar, the whites to a stiff froth ; then stir them gradually 
into a quart of sweet rich milk previously boiled and cooled ; flavor with 
extract of lemon or vanilla and half a teaspoonful of salt. Rub butter 
over the bottom and sides of a baking-dish or tin basin ; pour in the cus- 
tard, grate a little nutmeg over and bake in a quick oven. It is better to 
set the dish in a shallow pan of hot water reaching nearly to the top, the 
water to be kept boiling until the custard is baked ; three-quarters of an 
hour is generally enough. Run a teaspoon handle into the middle of it ; 
if it comes out clean it is baked sufficiently. 

CUP CUSTARD. 

Six eggs, half a cupful of sugar, one quart of new milk. Beat the eggs 
and the sugar and milk, and any extract or flavoring you like. Fill your 
custard cups, sift a little nutmeg or cinnamon over the tops, set them in a 
moderate oven in a shallow pan half filled with hot water. In about 
twenty minutes try them with the handle of a teaspoon to see if they are 
firm. Judgment and great care are needed to attain skill in baking cus- 
tard, for if left in the oven a minute too long, or if the fire is too hot, the 
milk will certainly whey. 



328 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

Serve cold with fresh fruit sugared and placed on top of each. Straw- 
berries, peaches or raspberries, as preferred. 

BOILED CUSTARD. 

BEAT seven eggs very light, omitting the whites of two; mix them 
gradually with a quart of milk and half a cupful of sugar ; boil in a dish 
set into another of boiling water ; add flavoring. As soon as it conies to 
the boiling point remove it, or it will be liable to curdle and become 
lumpy. Whip the whites of the two eggs that remain, adding two heap- 
ing tablespoonf uls of sugar. When the custard is cold heap this on top ; 
if in cups, put on a strawberry or a bit of red jelly on each. Set in a cold 

place till Wanted. Common Sense in the Household. 

BOILED CUSTARD, OR MOCK CREAM. 

TAKE two even tablespoonf uls of corn starch, one quart of milk, three 
eggs, half a teaspoonf ul of salt and a small piece of butter ; heat the milk 
to nearly boiling and add the starch, previously dissolved in a little cold 
milk ; then add the eggs well beaten with four tablespoonf uls of powdered 
sugar; let it boil up once or twice, stirring it briskly, and it is done. 
Flavor with lemon, or vanilla, or raspberry, or to suit your taste. 

A good substitute for ice cream, served very cold. 

FRENCH CUSTARD. 

ONE quart of milk, eight eggs, sugar and cinnamon to taste ; separate 
the eggs, beat the yolks until thick, to which add the milk, a little vanilla, 
and sweeten to taste; put it into a pan or farina kettle, place it over 
a slow fire and stir it all the time until it becomes custard ; then pour 
it into a pudding-dish to get cold ; whisk the whites until stiff and dry ; 
have ready a pan of boiling water on the top of which place the whites ; 
cover and place them where the water will keep sufficiently hot to cause a 
gteam to pass through and cook them ; place in a dish (suitable for the 
table) a layer of custard and white alternately; on each layer of custard 
grate a little nutmeg with a teaspoonful of wine ; reserve a layer of white 
for the cover, over which grate nutmeg ; then send to table and eat cold. 

GERMAN CUSTARD. 

ADD to a pint of good, rich, boiled custard an ounce of sweet almonds, 
blanched, roasted and pounded to a paste, and half an ounce of pine-nuts 







MRS. ANDREW JOHNSON 




ROSE ELIZABETH CLEVELAND. 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 329 

or peanuts, blanched, roasted and pounded; also a small quantity of 
candied citron cut into the thinnest possible slips ; cook the custard as 
usual and set it on the ice for some hours before using. 

APPLE CUSTARD. 

PARE, core and quarter a dozen large juicy pippins. Stew among them 
the yellow peel of a large lemon grated very fine, and stew them till 
tender in a very small portion of water. When done, mash them smooth 
with the back of a spoon (you must have a pint and a half of the stewed 
apple) ; mix a half cupful of sugar with them and set them away till cold. 
Beat six eggs very light and stir them gradually into a quart of rich milk, 
alternately with the stewed apple. Put the mixture into cups, or into 
a deep dish and bake it about twenty minutes. Send it to table cold, with 
nutmeg grated over the top. 

ALMOND CUSTARD. No. 1. 

SCALD and blanch half a pound of shelled sweet almonds and three 
ounces of bitter almonds, throwing them, as you do them, into a large bowl 
of cold water. Then pound them one at a time into a paste, adding a few 
drops of wine or rose-water to them. Beat eight eggs very light with two- 
thirds of a cup of sugar, then mix altogether with a quart of rich milk, or 
part milk and part cream ; put the mixture into a saucepan and set it over 
the fire. Stir it one way until it begins to thicken, but not till it curdles ; 
remove from the fire and when it is cooled put in a glass dish. Having 
reserved part of the whites of the eggs, beat them to a stiff froth, season 
with three tablespoonfuls of sugar and a teaspoonful of lemon extract, 
spread over the top of the custard. Serve cold. 

ALMOND CUSTARD. No. 2. 

BLANCH a quarter of a pound of sweet almonds, pound them, as in No. 1 
above, with six ounces of fine white sugar and mix them well with the 
yolks of four eggs ; then dissolve one ounce of patent gelatine in one quart 
of boiling milk, strain it through a sieve and pour into it the other mix- 
ture ; stir the whole over the fire until it thickens and is smooth ; then 
pour it into your mold and keep it upon ice, or in a cool place, until 
wanted ; when ready to serve dip the mold into warm water, rub it with a 
cloth and turn out the cream carefully upon your dish. 



330 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

SNOWBALL CUSTARD. 

SOAK half a package of Cox's gelatine in a teacupful of cold water one 
hour, to which add a pint of boiling water, stir it until the gelatine is 
thoroughly dissolved. Then beat the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth, 
put two teacupfuls of sugar in the gelatine water first, then the beaten 
white of egg and one teaspoonful of vanilla extract, or the grated rind 
and the juice of a lemon. Whip it some time until it is all quite stiff and 
cold. Dip some teacups or wine-glasses in cold water and fill them ; set in 
a cold place. 

In the meantime, make a boiled custard of the yolks of thrcd of the 
eggs, with half of a cupful of sugar and a pint of milk ; flavor with vanilla 
extract. Now after the meringue in the cups has stood four or five hours, 
turn them out of the molds, place them in a glass dish and pour this 
custard around the base. 

BAKED COCOANUT CUSTARD. 

GRATE as much cocoanut as will weigh a pound. Mix half a pound of 
powdered white sugar with the milk of the cocoanut, or with a pint of 
cream, adding, two tablespoonf uls of rose-water. Then stir in gradually a 
pint of rich milk. Beat to a stiff froth the whites of eight eggs and stir 
them into the milk and sugar, a little at a time, alternately with the 
grated cocoauut ; add a teaspoonful of powdered nutmeg and cinnamon. 
Then put the mixture into cups and bake them twenty minutes in a mod- 
erate oven, set in a pan half filled with i jiling water. When cold, grate 
loaf sugar over them. 

WHIPPED CREAM. No. 1. 

To THE whites of three eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, add a pint of thick 
sweet cream (previously set where it is very cold) and four tablespoonfuls 
of sweet wine, with three of fine white sugar and a teaspoonful of the 
the extract of lemon or vanilla. Mix all the ingredients together on a 
broad platter or pan and whip it to a standing froth ; as the froth rises, 
take it off lightly with a spoon and lay it on an inverted sieve with a dish 
under it to catch what will drain through ; and what drains through can 
be beaten over again. 

Serve in a glass dish with jelly or jam and sliced sponge cake. This 
should be whipped in a cool place and seiHhi the ice box. 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 331 

WHIPPED CREAM. No. 2. 

THREE coffeecupfuls of good thick sweet cream, half of a cup of pow- 
dered sugar, three teaspoonfuls of vanilla ; whip it to a stiff froth. Dissolve 
three-fourths of an ounce of best gelatine in a teacup of hot water and 
when cool pour it in the cream and stir it gently from the bottom upward, 
cutting the cream into it, until it thickens. The dish which contains the 
cream should be set in another dish containing ice-water, or cracked ice. 
When finished pour in molds and set on ice or in a very cold place. 

SPANISH CREAM. 

TAKE one quart of milk and soak half a box of gelatine in it for an 
hour ; place it on the fire and stir often. Beat the yolks of three eggs 
very light with a cupful of sugar, stir into the scalding milk and heat until 
it begins to thicken (it should not boil, or it will curdle) ; remove from the 
fire and strain through thin muslin or tarlatan, and when nearly cold 
flavor with vanilla or lemon; then wet a dish or mold in -cold water and 
,set aside to stiffen. 

BAVARIAN CREAM. 

ONE quart of sweet cream, the yolks of four eggs beaten together with 
a cupful of sugar. Dissolve half an ounce of gelatine or isinglass in half a 
teacupf ul of warm water ; when it is dissolved stir in a pint of boiling hot 
cream ; add the beaten yolks and sugar ; cook all together until it begins 
to thicken, then remove from tLi; fire and add the other pint of cold cream 
whipped to a stiff froth, adding a little at a time and beating hard. Season 
with vanilla or lemon. Whip the whites of the eggs for the top. Dip the 
mold in cold water before filling; set it in a cold place. To this could be 
added almonds, pounded, grated chocolate, 'peaches, pineapples, strawber- 
ries, raspberries, or any seasonable fruit. 

STRAWBERRY BAVARIAN CREAM. 

PICK off the hulls of a box of strawberries, bruise them in a basin with 
a cup of powdered sugar ; rub this through a sieve and mix with it a pint 
of whipped cream and one ounce and a half of clarified isinglass or gela- 
tine ; pour the cream into a mold previously oiled. Let it in rough ice 
and when it has become firm turn out on a dish. 

Raspberries or currants may be substituted for strawberries, 



332 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

GOLDEN CREAM. 

BOIL a quart of milk ; when boiling stir into it the well-beaten yolks 
of six eggs ; add six tablespoonf uls of sugar and one tablespoonf ul of sifted 
flour, which have been well beaten together; when boiled, turn it into 
a dish, and pour over it the whites beaten to a stiff froth, mixing with 
them six tablespoonf uls of powdered sugar. Set all in the oven and brown 
slightly. Flavor the top with vanilla and the bottom with lemon. Serve 
cold. 

CHOCOLATE CREAM. No. 1. 

THREE ounces of grated chocolate, one-quarter pound of sugar, one and 
one-half pints of cream, one and one-half ounces of clarified isinglass, or 
gelatine, the yolks of six eggs. 

Beat the yolks of the eggs well ; put them into a basin v/ith the grated 
chocolate, the sugar and one pint of the cream ; stir these ingredients well 
together, pour them into a basin and set this basin in a saucepan of 
boiling water; stir it one way until the mixture thickens, but do not allow 
it to boil, or it will curdle. Strain the cream through a sieve into a basin, 
stir in the isinglass and the other one-half pint of cream, which should be 
well whipped ; mix all well together, and pour it into a mold which has 
been previously oiled with the purest salad-oil, and, if at hand, set it in ice 
until wanted for table. 

CHOCOLATE CREAM OR CUSTARD. No. 2. 

TAKE one quart of milk, and when nearly boiling stir in two ounces of 
grated chocolate ; let it warm on the fire for a few moments, and then 
remove and cool ; beat the yolks of eight eggs and two whites with eight 
tablespoonfuls of sugar, then pour the milk over them ; flavor and bake as 
any custard, either in cups or a large dish. Make a meringue of the 
remaining whites. 

LEMON CREAM. No. 1. 

ONE pint of cream, the yolks of two eggs, one quarter of a pound of 
white sugar, one large lemon, one ounce isinglass or gelatine. 

Put the cream into a lined saucepan with the sugar, lemon peel and 
isinglass, and simmer these over a gentle fire for about ten minutes, stir- 
ring them all the time. Strain the cream into a basin, add the yolks of 
eggs, which should be well beaten, and put the basin into a saucepan of 
boiling water ; stir the mixture one way until it thickens, but do not allow 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 333 

it to boil; take it off the- fire and keep stirring it until nearly cold. Strain 
the lemon juice into a basin, gradually pour on it the cream, and stir it 
well until the juice is well mixed with it. Have ready a well-oiled mold, 
pour the cream into it, and let it remain until perfectly set. When required 
for table, loosen the edges with a small blunt knife, put a dish on the top 
of the mold, turn it over quickly, and the cream should easily slip away. 

LEMON CREAM. No. 2. 

PARE into one quart of boiling water the peels of four large lemons, the 
yellow outside only ; let it stand for four hours ; then take them out and 
add to the water the juice of the four lemons and one cupful of fine white 
sugar. Beat the yolks of ten eggs and mix all together ; strain it through 
a piece of lawn or lace into a porcelain lined stewpan ; set it over a slow 
fire ; stir it one way until it is as thick as good cream, but do not let it boil ; 
then take it from the fire, and, when cool, serve in custard cups. 

LEMON CREAM. No. 3. 

PEEL three lemons and squeeze out the juice into one quart of milk. 
A-dd the peel ; cut in pieces and cover the mixture for a few hours ; then 
add six eggs, well beaten, and one pint of water, well sweetened. Strain 
and simmer over a gentle fire till it thickens ; do not let it boil. Serve very 
cold. 

ORANGE CREAM. 

WHIP a pint of cream so long that there will be but one-half the quan- 
tity left when skimmed off. Soak in half a cupful of cold water a half 
package of gelatine and then grate over it the rind of two oranges. Strain 
the juice of six oranges and add to it a cupful of sugar; now put the half 
pint of unwhipped cream into a double boiler, pour into it the well-beaten 
yolks of six eggs, stirring until it begins to thicken, then add the gelatine. 
Remove from the fire, let it stand for two minutes and add the orange 
juice and sugar; beat all together until about the consistency of soft cus- 
tard and add the whipped cream. Mix well and turn into molds to 
harden. To be served with sweetened cream. Fine. 

SOLID CREAM. 

FOUR tablespoonfuls of pounded sugar, one quart of cream, two table- 
spoonfuls of brandy, the juice of one large lemon. 

Strain the lemon juice over the sugar and add the brandy, then stir in 



334 CUSTAKDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

the cream, put the mixture into a pitcher and continue pouring from one 
pitcher to another, until it is quite thick ; or it may be whisked until the 
desired consistency is obtained. It should be served in jelly-glasses. 

BANANA CREAM. 

AFTER peeling the bananas, mash them with an iron or wooden spoon ; 
allow equal quantities of bananas and sweet cream ; to one quart of the 
mixture, allow one-quarter of a pound of sugar. Beat them all together 
until the cream is light. 

TAPIOCA CREAM CUSTARD. 

SOAK three heaping tablespoonfuls of tapioca in a teacupful of water 
over night. Place over the fire a quart of milk ; let it come to a boil, then 
stir in the tapioca, a good pinch of salt, stir until it thickens ; then add a 
cupful of sugar and the beaten yolks of three eggs. Stir it quickly and 
pour it into a dish and stir gently into the mixture the whites beaten stiff, 
the flavoring and set it on ice, or in an ice chest. 

PEACH CREAM. No. 1. 

MASH very smooth two cupfuls of canned peaches, rub them through a 
sieve and cook for three minutes in a syrup made by boiling together one 
cupful of sugar and stirring all the time. Place the pan containing the 
syrup and peaches into another of boiling water and add one-half packet 
of gelatine, prepared the same as in previous recipes, and stir for five min- 
utes to thoroughly dissolve the gelatine ; then take it from the fire, place 
in a pan of ice-water, beat until nearly cool and then add the well-frothed 
whites of six eggs. Beat this whole mixture until it commences to harden. 
Then pour into a mold, set away to cool and serve with cream and sugar. 
It should be placed on the ice to cool for two or three hours before serving. 

PEACH CREAM. No. 2. 

A QUART of fine peaches, pare and stone the fruit and cut in quarters. 
Beat the whites of three eggs with a half cupful of powdered sugar until 
it is stiff enough to cut with a knife. Take the yolks and mix with half a 
cupful of granulated sugar and a pint of milk. Put the peaches into the 
mixture, place in a pudding-dish and bake until almost firm ; then put in 
the whites, mixing all thoroughly again, and bake a light brown. Eat ice 
cold. 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 335 

ITALIAN CREAM. 

PUT two pints of cream into two bowls ; with one bowl mix six ounces 
of powdered loaf sugar, the juice of two large lemons and two glassfuls of 
white wine; then add the other pint of cream and stir the whole very 
hard ; boil two ounces of isinglass or gelatine with four small teacupfuls 
of water till reduced to one-half ; then stir the mixture luke-warm into 
the other ingredients; put them in a glass dish to congeal. 

SNOW CREAM. 

HEAT a quart of thick, sweet cream ; when ready to boil, stir into it 
quickly three tablespoonfuls of cornstarch flour, blended with some cold 
cream; sweeten to taste and allow it to boil gently, stirring for two or 
three minutes ; add quickly the whites of six eggs, beaten to a stiff froth ; 
do not allow it to boil up more than once after adding the eggs ; flavor with 
lemon, vanilla, bitter almond or grated lemon peel ; lay the snow thus 
formed quickly in rocky heaps on silver or glass dishes, or in shapes. 
Iced, it will turn out well. 

If the recipe is closely followed, any family may enjoy it at a trifling 
expense, and it is really worthy the table of an epicure. It can be made 
the day before it is to be eaten ; kept cold. 

MOCK ICE. 

TAKE about three tablespoonfuls of some good preserve ; rub it through 
a sieve with as much cream as will fill a quart mold ; dissolve three- 
quarters of an ounce of isinglass or gelatine in half a pint of water; when 
almost cold, mix it well with the cream ; put it into a mold, set it in a 
cool place and turn out next day. 

PEACH MERINGUE. 

PARE and quarter (removing stones) a quart of sound, ripe peaches ; 
place them all in a dish that it will not injure to set in the oven and yet 
be suitable to place on the table. Sprinkle the peaches with sugar, and 
cover them well with the beaten whites of three eggs. Stand the dish in 
the oven until the eggs have become a delicate brown, then remove, and, 
when cool enough, set the dish on ice, or in a very cool place. Take the 
yolks of the eggs, add to them a pint of milk, sweeten and flavor, and boil 
same in a custard kettle, being careful to keep the eggs from curdling. 
When cool pour into a glass pitcher and serve with the meringue when 
ready to use. 



336 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

APPLE FLOAT. 

ONE dozen apples, pared and cored, one pound and a half of sugar. Put 
the apples on with water enough to cover them and let them stew until 
they look as if they would break ; then take them out and put the sugar 
into the same water ; let the syrup come to a boil, put in the apples and 
let them stew until done through and clear ; then take them out, slice into 
the syrup one large lemon and add an ounce of gelatine dissolved in a 
pint of cold water. Let the whole mix well and come to a boil ; then 
pour upon the apples. The syrup will congeal. It is to be eaten cold 
with cream. 

Or you may change the dish by making a soft custard with the yolks of 
four eggs, three tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar and a scant quart of 
milk. When cold, spread it over the apples. Whip the whites of the 
eggs, flavor with lemon and place on the custard. Color in the oven. 

SYLLABUB. 

ONE quart of rich milk or cream, a cupful of wine, half a cupful of 
sugar ; put the sugar and wine into a bowl and the milk lukewarm in a 
separate vessel. When the sugar is dissolved in the wine, pour the milk 
in, holding it high; pour it back and forth until it is frothy. Grate 
nutmeg over it. 

CREAM FOR FRUIT. 

THIS recipe is an excellent substitute for pure cream, to be eaten on 
fresh berries and fruit. 

One cupful of sweet milk ; heat it until boiling. Beat together the 
whites of two eggs, a tablespoonful of white sugar and a piece of butter 
the size of a nutmeg. Now add half a cupful of cold milk and a teaspoon- 
ful of cornstarch ; stir well together until very light and smooth, then add 
it to the boiling milk ; cook it until it thickens ; it must not boil. Set it 
aside to cool. It should be of the consistency of real fresh cream. Serve 
in a creamer. 

STRAWBERRY SPONGE. 

ONE quart of strawberries, half a package of gelatine, one cupful and a 
half of water, one cupful of sugar, the juice of a lemon, the whites of four 
eggs. Soak the gelatine for two hours in half a cupful of the water. Mash 
the strawberries and add half the sugar to them. Boil the remainder of 
the sugar and the water gently twenty minutes. Rub the strawberries 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 337 

through a sieve. Add the gelatine to the boiling syrup and take from the 
fire immediately ; then add the strawberries. Place in a pan of ice-water 
and beat five minutes. Add the whites of eggs and beat until the mix- 
ture begins to thicken. Pour in the molds and set away to harden. Serve 
with sugar and cream. Raspberry and blackberry sponges are made in 
the same way. 

LEMON SPONGE. 

LEMON sponge is made from the juice of four lemons, four eggs, a cup- 
ful of sugar, half a package of gelatine and one pint of water. Strain 
lemon juice on the sugar ; beat the yolks of the eggs and mix with the 
remainder of the water, having used a half cupful of the pint in which to 
soak the gelatine. Add the sugar and lemon to this and cook until it 
begins to thicken, then add the gelatine. Strain this into a basin, which 
place in a pan of water to cool. Beat with a whisk until it has cooled but 
not hardened ; now add the whites of the eggs until it begins to thicken, 
turn into a mold and set to harden. 

Remember, the sponge hardens very rapidly when it commences to 
cool, so have your molds all ready. Serve with powdered sugar and cream. 

APPLE SNOW. 

STEW some fine-flavored sour apples tender, sweeten to taste, strain 
them through a fine wire sieve and break into one pint of strained apples 
the white of an egg ; whisk the apple and egg very briskly till quite stiff 
and it will be as white as snow ; eaten with a nice boiled custard it makes 

a very desirable dessert. More eggs may be used, if liked. 



QUINCE SNOW. 

QUARTER five fair-looking quinces and boil them till they are tender 
in water, then peel them and push them through a coarse sieve. Sweeten 
to the taste and add the whites of three or four eggs. Then with an egg- 
whisk beat all to a stiff froth and pile with a spoon upon a glass dish and 
set away in the ice box, unless it is to be served immediately. 

ORANGE TRIFLE. 

TAKE the thin parings from the outside of a dozen oranges and put to 
steep in a wide-mouthed bottle ; cover it with good cognac and let it stand 
twenty-four hours ; skin and seed the oranges and reduce to a pulp ; press 
this through a sieve, sugar to taste, arrange in a dish and heap with 



338 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

whipped cream flavored with the orange brandy ; ice two hours before 

serving. 

LEMON TRIFLE. 

THE juice of two lemons and grated peel of one, one pint of cream, 
well sweetened and whipped stiff, one cupful of sherry, a little nutmeg. 
Let sugar, lemon juice and peel lie together two hours before you add 
wine and nutmeg. Strain through double tarlatan and whip gradually 
into the frothed cream. Serve very soon heaped in small glasses. Nice 
with cake. 

FRUIT TRIFLE. 

WHITES of four eggs beaten to a stiff froth, two tablespoonfuls each of 
sugar, currant jelly and raspberry jam. Eaten with sponge cakes, it is a 
delicious dessert. 

GRAPE TRIFLE. 

PULP through a sieve two pounds of ripe grapes, enough to keep back 
the stones, add sugar to taste. Put into a trifle dish and cover with 
whipped cream, nicely flavored. Serve very cold. 

APPLE TRIFLE. 

PEEL, core and quarter some good tart apples of nice flavor, and stew 
them with a strip of orange and a strip of quince peel, sufficient water to 
cover the bottom of the stewpan, and sugar in the proportion of half a 
pound to one pound of fruit ; when cooked, press the pulp through a sieve, 
and, when cold, dish and cover with one pint of whipped cream flavored 
with lemon peel. 

Quinces prepared in the same manner are equally as good. 

PEACH TRIFLE. 

SELECT perfect, fresh peaches, peel and core and cut in quarters ; they 
should be well sugared, arranged in a trifle dish with a few of their own 
blanched kernels among them, then heaped with whipped cream as above ; 
the cream should not be flavored ; this trifle should be set on the ice for at 
least an hour before serving ; home-made sponge cakes should be served 

with it. 

GOOSEBERRY TRIFLE. 

ONE quart of gooseberries, sugar to taste, one pint of custard, a plate- 
ful of whipped cream. 

Put the gooseberries into a jar, with sufficient moist sugar to sweeten 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 339 

them, and boil them until reduced to a pulp. Put this pulp at the bottom 
of a trifle dish ; pour over it a pint of custard, and, when cold, cover with 
whipped cream. The cream should be whipped the day before it is wanted 
for table, as it will then be so much firmer and more solid. This dish may 
be garnished as fancy dictates. 

LEMON HONEY. 

ONE coffeecupful of white sugar, the grated rind and juice of one large 
lemon, the yolks of three eggs and the white of one, a tablespoonful of 
butter. Put into a basin the sugar and butter, set it in a dish of boiling 
water over the fire ; while this is melting, beat up the eggs, and add to 
them the grated rind from the outside of the lemon ; then add this to the 
sugar and butter, cooking and stirring it until it is thick and clear like 
honey. 

This will keep for some days, put into a tight preserve jar, and is nice 
for flavoring pies, etc. 

FLOATING ISLANDS. 

BEAT the yolks of five eggs and the whites of two very light, sweeten 
with five tablespoonf uls of sugar and flavor to taste ; stir them into a quart 
of scalded milk and cook it until it thickens. When cool pour it into a glass 
dish. Now whip the whites of the three remaining eggs to a stiff froth, 
adding three tablespoonf uls of sugar and a little flavoring. Pour this froth 
over a shallow dish of boiling water ; the steam passing through it cooks 
it ; when sufficiently cooked, take a tablespoon and drop spoonfuls of this 
over the top of the custard, far enough apart so that the " little white 
islands " will not touch each other. By dropping a teaspoonful of bright 
jelly on the top or centre of each island, is produced a pleasing effect ; 
also by filling wine-glasses and arranging them around a standard adds 
much to the appearance of the table. 

FLOATING ISLAND. 

ONE quart of milk, five eggs and five tablespoonfuls of sugar. Scald 
the milk, then add the beaten yolks and one of the whites together with 
the sugar. First stir into them a little of the scalded milk to prevent 
curdling, then all of the milk. Cook it the proper thickness ; remove from 
the fire, and, when cool, flavor ; then pour it into a glass dish and let it 
become very cold. Before it is served beat up the remaining four whites 
of the eggs to a stiff froth and beat into them three tablespoonfuls of 



340 CUSTARDS, C 'REAMS AND DESSERTS. 

sugar and two tablespoonfuls of currant jelly. Dip this over the top of 
the custard. 

TAPIOCA BLANC MANGE. 

HALF a pound of tapioca soaked an hour in one pint of milk and boiled 
till tender ; add a pinch of salt, sweeten to taste and put into a mold ; when 
cold turn it out and serve with strawberry or raspberry jam around it and 
a little cream. Flavor with lemon or vanilla. 

BLANC MANGE. No. 1. 

IN ONE teacupful of water boil until dissolved one ounce of clarified 
isinglass, or of patent gelatine (which is better) ; stir it continually 
while boiling. Then squeeze the juice of a lemon upon a cupful of fine, 
white sugar ; stir the sugar into a quart of rich cream and half a pint of 
Madeira or sherry wine ; when it is well mixed, add the dissolved isin- 
glass or gelatine, stir all well together, pour it into molds previously wet 
with cold water ; set the molds upon ice, let them stand until their con- 
tents are hard and cold, then serve with sugar and cream or custard sauce. 

BLANC MANGE. No. 2. 

DISSOLVE two ounces of patent gelatine in cold water ; when it is dis- 
sol i jd, stir it into two quarts of rich milk, with a teacupful of fine white 
sugar; season it to your taste with lemon, 'or vanilla, or peach water; 
place it over the fire and boil it, stirring it continually ; let it boil five 
minutes ; then strain it through a cloth, pour it into molds previously wet 
with cold water and salt ; let it stand on ice, or in any cool place, until it 
becomes hard and cold ; turn it out carefully upon dishes and serve ; or, 
half fill your mold ; when this has set, cover with cherries, peaches in 
halves, strawberries or sliced bananas, and add the remainder. 

CHOCOLATE BLANC MANGE. 

HALF a box of gelatine soaked in a cupful of water for an hour, half a 
cupful of grated chocolate, rubbed smooth in a little milk. Boil two cup- 
fuls of milk, then add the gelatine and chocolate and one cupful of sugar ; 
boil all together eight or ten minutes. Remove from the fire, and when 
nearly cold beat into this the whipped whites of three eggs, flavored with 
vanilla. Should be .served cold with custard made of the yolks, or sugar 
and cream. Set the molds in a cold place. 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 341 

CORNSTARCH BLANC MANGE. 

TAKE one quart of sweet milk and put one pint upon the stove to 
heat ; in the other pint mix four heaping tablespoonf uls of cornstarch and 
half a cupful of sugar ; when the milk is hot, pour in the cold milk with 
the cornstarch and sugar thoroughly mixed in it and stir altogether until 
there are no lumps and it is thick ; flavor with lemon ; take from the stove 
and add the whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth. 

A Custard for the above. One pint of milk boiled with a little salt in it ; 
beat the yolks of three eggs with half a cupful of sugar and add to the 
boiling milk ; stir well, but do not let it boil until the eggs are put in ; 

flavor to taste. 

FRUIT BLANC MANGE. 

STEW nice, fresh fruit (cherries, raspberries and strawberries being the 
best), or canned ones will do ; strain off the juice and sweeten to taste ; 
place it over the fire in a double kettle until it boils ; while boiling, stir 
in cornstarch wet with a little cold water, allowing two tablespoonfuls 
of cornstarch to each pint of juice ; continue stirring until sufficiently 
cooked ; then pour into molds wet in cold water and set away to cool. 
Served with cream and sugar. 

ORANGE CHARLOTTE. 

FOR two molds of medium size, soak half a box of gelatine in half a 
cupful of water for two hours. Add one and a half cupf uls of boiling water 
and strain. Then add two cupf uls of sugar, one of orange juice and pulp 
and the juice of one lemon. Stir until the mixture begins to cool, or 
about five minutes ; then add the whites of six eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. 
Beat the whole until so stiff that it will only just pour into molds lined 
with sections of orange. Set away to cool. 

STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE. 

MAKE a boiled custard of one quart of milk, the yolks of six eggs and 
three-quarters of a cupful of sugar; flavor to taste. Line a glass fruit- 
dish with slices of sponge cake dipped in sweet cream ; lay upon this ripe 
strawberries sweetened to taste ; then a layer of cake and strawberries as 
before. When the custard is cold pour over the whole. Now beat the 
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, add a tablespoonful of sugar to each egg 
and put over the top. Decorate the top with the largest berries saved out 
at the commencement. 

Easpberry charlotte may be made the same way. 



342 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

CHARLOTTE RTJSSE. (Fine.) 

WHIP one quart of rich cream to a stiff froth and drain well on a nice 
sieve. To one scant pint of milk add six eggs beaten very light; make 
very sweet ; flavor high with vanilla. Cook over hot water till it is a thick 
custard. Soak one full ounce of Cox's gelatine in a very little water and 
warm over hot water. When the custard is very cold beat in lightly the 
gelatine and the whipped cream. Line the bottom of your mold with but- 
tered paper, the side with sponge cake or lady-fingers fastened together 
with the white of an egg. Fill with the cream, put in a cold place, or, in 
summer, on ice. To turn out, dip the mold for a moment in hot water. In 
draining the whipped cream, all that drips through can be re-whipped. 

CHARLOTTE RUSSE. 

CUT stale sponge cake into slices about half an inch thick and line 
three molds with them, leaving a space of half an inch between each 
slice ; set the molds where they will not be disturbed until the filling is 
ready. Take a deep tin pan and fill about one-third full of either snow or 
pounded ice and into this set another pan that will hold at least four 
quarts. Into a deep bowl or pail (a whip churn is better) put one and a 
half pints of cream (if the cream is very thick take one pint of cream and 
a half pint of milk) ; whip it to a froth and when the bowl is full, skim the 
froth into the pan which is standing on the ice and repeat this until the 
cream is all froth ; then with a spoon draw the froth to one side and you 
will find that some of the cream has gone back to milk ; turn this into the 
bowl again and whip as before ; when the cream is all whipped, stir into it 
two-thirds of a cup of powdered sugar, one teaspoonful of vanilla and half 
of a box of gelatine, which has been soaked in cold water enough to cover 
it for one hour and then put in boiling water enough to dissolve it 
(about half a cup) ; stir from the bottom of the pan until it begins to grow 
stiff ; fill the molds and set them on ice in the pan for one hour, or until 
they are sent to the table. When ready to dish them, loosen lightly at 
the sides and turn out on a flat dish. Have the cream ice cold when you 
begin to whip it ; and it is a good plan to put a lump of ice into the cream 
while whipping it. 

Maria Parloa. 

ANOTHER CHARLOTTE RUSSE. 

Two TABLESPOONFULS of gelatine soaked in a little cold milk two hours, 
two coffeecupfuls of rich cream, one teacupful of milk. Whip the cream 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 343 

stiff in a large bowl or dish ; set OD ice. Boil the milk and pour gradually 
over the gelatine until dissolved, then strain ; when nearly cold, add the 
whipped cream, a spoonful at a time. Sweeten with powdered sugar, 
flavor with extract of vanilla. Line a dish with lady-fingers or sponge 
cake ; pour in cream and set in a cool place to harden. This is about the 
same recipe as M. Parloa's, but is not as explicit in detail. 

PLAIN CHARLOTTE RUSSE. No. 1. 

MAKE a rule of white sponge cake ; bake in narrow shallow pans. Then 
make a custard of the yolks after this recipe. Wet a saucepan with cold 
water to prevent the milk that will be scalded in it from burning. Pour 
out the water and put in a quart of milk, boil and partly cool. Beat up 
the yolks of six eggs and add three ounces of sugar and a saltspoonful of 
salt ; mix thoroughly and add the luke-warm milk. Stir and pour the cus- 
tard into a porcelain or double saucepan and stir while on the range until 
of the consistency of cream ; do not allow it to boil, as that would curdle 
it; strain, and when almost cold add two teaspoonfuls of vanilla. Now, 
having arranged your cake (cut into inch slices) around the sides and on 
the bottom of a glass dish, pour over the custard. If you wish a meringue 
on the top, beat up the whites of four eggs with four tablespoonfuls of 
sugar; flavor with lemon or vanilla, spread over the top and brown slightly 
in the oven. 

PLAIN CHARLOTTE RUSSE. No. 2. 

PUT some thin slices of sponge cake in the bottom of a glass sauce dish ; 
pour in wine enough to soak it ; beat up the whites of three eggs until 
very light ; 'add to it three tablespoonfuls of finely powdered sugar, a glass 
of sweet wine and one\int of thick sweet cream; beat it well and pour 
over the cake. Set it in a cold place until served. 

NAPLE BISCUITS, OR CHARLOTTE RUSSE. 

MAKE a double rule of sponge cake ; bake it in round deep patty-pans ; 
when cold cut out the inside about one-quarter of an inch from the edge 
and bottom, leaving the shell. Replace the inside with a custard made of 
the yolks of four eggs beaten with a pint of boiling milk, sweetened and 
flavored ; lay on the top of this some jelly or jam ; beat the whites of 
three eggs with three heaping tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar until it 
will stand in a heap ; flavor it a little ; place this on the jelly. Set them 
aside in a cold place until time to serve. 



344 CUSTARDS, CREAM 8 AND DESSERTS 

ECONOMICAL CHARLOTTE RUSSE. 

MAKE a quart of nicely flavored mock custard, put it into a large glass 
fruit dish, which is partly filled with stale cake (of any kind) cut up into 
small pieces about an inch square, stir it a little, then beat the whites of 
two or more eggs stiff, sweetened with white sugar ; spread over the top, 
set in a refrigerator to become cold. 

Or, to be still more economical : To make the cream, take a pint and 
a half of milk, set it on the stove to boil ; mix together in a bowl the fol- 
lowing named articles : large half cup of sugar, one moderately heaped 
teaspoonful of cornstarch, two tablespoonfuls of grated chocolate, one egg, 
a small half cup of milk and a pinch of salt. Pour into the boiling milk, 
remove to top of the stove and let simmer a minute or two. When 
the cream is cold pour over the cake just before setting it on the table. 
Serve in saucers. If you do not have plenty of eggs you can use all corn- 
starch, about two heaping teaspoonfuls ; but be careful and not get the 
cream too thick, and have it free from lumps. 

The cream should be flavored either with vanilla or lemon extract. 

Nutmeg might answer. 

TIPSY CHARLOTTE. 

TAKE a stale sponge cake, cut the bottom and sides of it, so as to make 
it stand even in a glass fruit dish ; make a few deep gashes through it 
with a sharp knife, pour over it a pint of good wine, let it stand and soak 
into the cake. In the meantime, blanch, peel and slice lengthwise half a 
pound of sweet almonds ; stick them all over the top of the cake. Have 
ready a pint of good boiled custard, well flavored, and pour over the whole. 
To be dished with a spoon. This is equally as good as any charlotte. 

ORANGE CHARLOTTE. 

ONE-THIRD of a box of gelatine, one-third of a cupful of cold water, one- 
third of a cupful of boiling water and one cup of sugar, the juice of one 
lemon and one cupful of orange juice and pulp, a little grated orange 
peel and the whites of four eggs. Soak the gelatine in the cold water one 
hour. Pour the boiling water over the lemon and orange juice, cover it 
and let stand half an hour ; then add the sugar, let it come to a boil on the 
fire, stir in the gelatine and when it is thoroughly dissolved, take from the 
fire. When cool enough, beat into it the four beaten whites of eggs, turn 
into the mold and set in a cold place to stiffen, first placing pieces of 
sponge cake all around the mold. 



GUST AMDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 345 

BURNT ALMOND CHARLOTTE. 

ONE cupful of sweet almonds, blanched and chopped fine, half a box of 
gelatine soaked two hours in half a cupful of cold water; when the 
gelatine is sufficiently soaked, put three tablespoonfuls of sugar into a 
saucepan over the fire and stir until it becomes liquid and looks dark ; 
then add the chopped almonds to it and stir two minutes more ; turn it 
out on a platter and set aside to get cool. After they become cool enough 
break them up in a mortar, put them in a cup and a half of milk, and cook 
again for ten minutes. Now beat together the yolks of two eggs with 
a cupful of sugar, and add to the cooking mixture ; add also the gelatine ; 
stir until smooth and well dissolved ; take from the fire and set in a basin 
of ice-water and beat it until it begins to thicken ; then add to that two 
quarts of whipped cream, and turn the whole carefully into molds, set away 
on the ice to become firm. Sponge cake can be placed around the mold 
or not, as desired. 

CHARLOTTE RUSSE, WITH PINEAPPLE. 

PEEL and cut a pineapple in slices, put the slices into a stewpan with 
half a pound of fine white sugar, half an ounce of isinglass, or of patent 
gelatine (which is better), and half a teacupful of water; stew it until it is 
quite tender, then rub it through a sieve, place it upon ice, and stir it well ; 
when it is upon the point of setting, add a pint of cream well whipped, mix 
it well, and pour it into a mold lined with sponge cake, or prepared in any 
other way you prefer. 

COUNTRY PLUM CHARLOTTE. 

STONE a quart of ripe plums ; first stew and then sweeten them. Cut 
slices of bread and butter and lay them in the bottom and around the 
sides of a large bowl or deep dish. Pour in the plums boiling hot, cover 
the bowl and set it away to cool gradually. When quite cold, send it to 
table and eat it with cream. 

VELVET CREAM, WITH STRAWBERRIES. 

DISSOLVE half an ounce of gelatine in a gill of water ; add to it half a 
pint of light sherry, grated lemon peel and the juice of one lemon and five 
ounces of sugar. Stir over the fire until the sugar is thoroughly dissolved. 
Then strain and cool. Before it sets beat into it a pint of cream ; pour 
into molds and keep on ice until wanted. Half fill the small molds with 
fine strawberries, pour the mixture on top, and place on ice until wanted. 



346 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

CORNSTARCH MERINGUE. 

HEAT a quart of milk until it boils, add four heaping teaspoonfuls 
of cornstarch which has previously been dissolved in a little cold milk. 
Stir constantly while boiling for fifteen minutes. Remove from the fire, 
and gradually add while hot the yolks of five eggs, beaten together with 
three-fourths of a cupful of sugar, and flavored with lemon, vanilla or 
bitter almond. Bake this mixture for fifteen minutes in a well-buttered 
pudding-dish or until it begins to "set." 

Make a meringue of the whites of five eggs, whipped stiff with a half 
cupful of jelly, and spread evenly over the custard, without removing the 
same farther than the edge of the oven. 

Use currant jelly if vanilla is used in the custard, crab apple for bitter 
almond and strawberry for lemon. Cover and bake for five minutes, after 
which take off the lid and brown the meringue a very little. Sift pow- 
dered sugar thickly over the top. To be eaten cold. 

WASHINGTON PIE. 

, THIS recipe is the same as " Boston Cream Pie " (adding half an ounce 
of buttter), which may be found under the head of PASTRY, PIES AND 
TARTS. In summer time, it is a good plan to bake the pie the day before 
wanted ; then when cool, wrap around it a paper and place it in the ice 
box so as to have it get very cold ; then serve it with a dish of fresh straw- 
berries or raspberries. A delicious dessert. 

CREAM PIE. 

MAKE two cakes as for Washington pie, then take one cup of sweet 
cream and three tablespoonfuls of white sugar. Beat with egg-beater 
or fork till it is stiff enough to put on without running off and flavor with 
vanilla. If you beat it after it is stiff it will come to butter. Put between 
the cakes and on top. 

DESSERT PUFFS. 

PUFFS for dessert are delicate and nice ; take one pint of milk and 
cream each, the whites of four eggs beaten to a stiff froth, one heaping 
cupful of sifted flour, one scant cupful of powdered sugar, add a little 
grated lemon peel and a little salt ; beat these all together till very light, 
bake in gem-pans, sift pulverized sugar over them and eat with sauce 
flavored with lemon. 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 347 

PEACH CAKE FOR DESSERT. 

BAKE three sheets of sponge cake, as for jelly cake ; cut nice ripe 
peaches in thin slices, or chop them ; prepare cream by whipping, sweet- 
ening and adding flavor of vanilla, if desired ; put layers of peaches be- 
tween the sheets of cake ; pour cream over each layer and over the top. 
To be eaten soon after it is prepared. 

FRUIT SHORT-CAKES. 

FOR the recipes of strawberry, peach and other fruit short-cakes, look 
under the head of BISCUITS, ROLLS AND MUFFINS. They all make a very 
delicious dessert when served with a pitcher of fresh sweet cream, when 
obtainable. 

SALTED OR ROASTED ALMONDS. 

BLANCH half a pound of almonds. Put with them a tablespoon ful of 
melted butter and one of salt. Stir them till well mixed, then spread 
them over a baking-pan and bake fifteen minutes, or till crisp, stirring 
often. They must be bright yellow-brown when done. They are a fash- 
ionable appetizer and should be placed in ornamental dishes at the begin- 
ning of dinner, and are used by some in place of olives, which, however, 
should also be on the table, or some fine pickles may take their place. 

ROAST CHESTNUTS. 

PEEL the raw chestnuts and scald them to remove the inner skin ; put 
them in a frying pan with a little butter and toss them about a few 
moments ; add a sprinkle of salt and a suspicion of cayenne. Serve them 
after the cheese. 

Peanuts may be blanched and roasted the same. 

AFTER-DINNER CROUTONS. 

THESE crispy croutons answer as a substitute for hard-water crackers 
and are also relished by most people. 

Cut sandwich bread into slices one-quarter of an inch thick ; cut each 
slice into four small triangles ; dry them in the oven slowly until they 
assume a delicate brownish tint, then serve either hot or cold. A nice 
way to serve them is to spread a paste of part butter and part rich creamy 
cheese, to which may be added a very little minced parsley. 



348 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

ORANGE FLOAT. 

To MAKE orange float, take one quart of water, the juice and pulp of 
two lemons, one coffeecupf ul of sugar. When boiling hot, add four table- 
spoonfuls of cornstarch. Let it boil fifteen minutes, stirring all the time. 
When cold, pour it over four or five oranges that have been sliced into a 
glass dish and over the top spread the beaten whites of three eggs, 
sweetened and flavored with vanilla. A nice dessert. 

LEMON TOAST. 

THIS dessert can be made very conveniently without much prepara- 
tion. 

Take the yolks of six eggs, beat them well and add three cupfuls of 
sweet milk ; take baker's bread, not too stale, and cut into slices ; dip them 
into the milk and eggs and lay the slices into a spider, with sufficient 
melted butter, hot, to fry a delicate brown. Take the whites of the six 
eggs and beat them to a froth, adding a large cupful of white sugar ; add 
the juice of two lemons, heating well and adding two cupfuls of boiling 
water. Serve over the toast as a sauce and you will find it a very de- 
licious dish. 

SWEET OMELET. No. 1. 

ONE tablespoonful of butter, two of sugar, one cupful of milk, four 
eggs. Let the milk come to a boil. Beat the flour and butter together ; 
add to them gradually the boiling milk and cook eight minutes, stirring 
often ; beat the sugar and the yolks of the eggs together ; add to the 
cooked mixture and set away to cool. When cool, beat the whites of 
the eggs to a stiff froth and add to the mixture. Bake in a buttered 
pudding-dish for twenty minutes in a moderate oven. Serve , immediately 
with creamy sauce. 

SWEET OMELET. No. 2. 

FOUR eggs, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, a pinch of salt, half a teaspoon- 
ful of vanilla extract, one cupful of whipped cream. Beat the whites of 
the eggs to a stiff froth and gradually beat the flavoring and sugar 
into them. When well beaten add the yolks and, lastly, the whipped 
cream. Have a dish holding about one quart slightly buttered. Pour the 
mixture into this and bake just twelve minutes. Serve the moment it is 
taken from the oven. 



CU&TA&DS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 349 

SALAD OF MIXED FRUITS. 

PUT in the centre of a dish a pineapple properly pared, cored and 
sliced, yet retaining as near as practicable its original shape. Peel, 
quarter and remove the seeds from four sweet oranges ; arrange them in a 
border around the pineapple. Select four fine bananas, peel and cut 
into slices lengthwise ; arrange these zigzag-fence fashion around the bor- 
der of the dish. In the V-shaped spaces around the dish put tiny mounds 
of grapes of mixed colors. When complete, the dish should look very ap- 
petizing. To half a pint of clear sugar syrup add half an ounce of good 
brandy, pour over the fruit and serve. 

ORANGE COCOANUT SALAD. 

PEEL and slice a dozen oranges, grate a cocoanut and slice a pineapple. 
Put alternate layers of each until the dish is full. Then pour over them 
sweetened wine. Served with small cakes. 

When oranges are served whole, they should be peeled and prettily ar- 
ranged in a fruit dish. A small knife is best for this purpose. Break 
the skin from the stem into six or eight even parts, peel each section 
down half way, and tuck the point in next to the orange. 

CRYSTALLIZED FRUIT. 

PICK out the finest of any kind of fruit, leave on their stalks, beat the 
whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, lay the fruit in the beaten egg with 
the stalks upward, drain them and beat the part that drips off again ; 
select them out, one by one and dip them into a cup of finely powdered 
sugar ; cover a pan with a sheet of fine paper, place the fruit inside of it, 
and put it in an oven that is cooling ; when the icing on the fruit becomes 
firm, pile them on a dish and set them in a cool place. For this purpose, 
oranges or lemons should be carefully pared, and all the white inner skin 
removed that is possible, to prevent bitterness ; then cut either in thin 
horizontal slices if lemons, or in quarters if oranges. For cherries, straw- 
berries, currants, etc., choose the largest and finest, leaving stems out. 
Peaches should be pared and cut in halves and sweet juicy pears may be 
treated in the same way, or look nicely when pared, leaving on the stems 
and iced. Pineapples should be cut in thin slices and these again divided 
into quarters. 



350 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS 

PEACHES AND CREAM. 

PARE and slice the peaches just before sending to table. Cover the 
glass dish containing them to exclude the air as much as possible, as they 
soon change color. Do not sugar them in the dish they then become 
preserves, not fresh fruit. Pass the powdered sugar and cream with them. 

SNOW PYRAMID. 

BEAT to a stiff foam the whites of half a dozen eggs, add a small teacup- 
ful of currant jelly and whip all together again. Fill half full of cream as 
many saucers as you have guests, dropping in the centre of each saucer a 
tablespoonful of the beaten eggs and jelly in the shape of a pyramid. 

JELLY FRITTERS. 

MAKE a batter of three eggs, a pint of milk and a pint bowl of wheat 
flour or more, beat it light ; put a tablespoonful of lard or beef fat in a 
frying or omelet pan, add a saltspoonful of salt, making it boiling hot, put 
in the batter by the large spoonful, not to close ; when one side is a 
delicate brown, turn the other ; when done, take them on to a dish with a 
d'oyley over it ; put a dessertspoonful of firm jelly or jam on each and 
serve. A very nice dessert. 

STEWED APPLES. No. 1. 

TAKE a dozen green tart apples, core and slice them, put into a sauce- 
pan with just enough water to cover them, cover the saucepan closely, 
and stew the apples until they are tender and clear ; then take them out, 
put them into a deep dish and cover them; add to the juice in the sauce- 
pan a cupful of loaf sugar for every twelve apples, and boil it half an 
hour, adding to the syrup a pinch of mace and a dozen whole cloves 
just ten minutes before taking from the fire ; pour scalding hot over 
the apples and set them in a cold place ; eat ice cold with cream or boiled 
custard. 

STEWED APPLES No. 2. 

APPLES cooked in the following way look very pretty on a tea-table and 
are appreciated by the palate. Select firm round greenings, pare neatly 
and cut in halves ; place in a shallow stewpan with sufficient boiling water 
to cover them and a cup of sugar to every six apples. Each half should 
cook on the bottom of the pan and be removed from the others so as not to 



CUSTARDS. CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 351 

injure its shape. Stew slowly until the pieces are very tender ; remove to 
a glass dish carefully, boil the syrup a half hour longer, pour it over the 
apples and eat cold. A few pieces of lemon boiled in the syrup add to 
the flavor. 

BAKED PEARS. 

PARE and core the pears without dividing ; place them in a pan and fill 
up the orifice with brown sugar; add a little water and let them bake 
until perfectly tender. Nice with sweet cream or boiled custard. 

STEWED PEARS. 

STEWED pears with a thick syrup make a fine dessert dish accompanied 
with cake. 

Peel and cut them in halves, leaving the stems on and scoop out the 
cores. Put them into a saucepan, placing them close together, with the 
stems uppermost. Pour over sufficient water, a cup of sugar, a few whole 
cloves and some sticks of cinnamon, a tablespoonful of lemon juice. Cover 
the stewpan closely, to stew gently till the fruit is done, which will depend 
on the quality of the fruit. Then take out the fruit carefully and arrange 
it on a dish for serving. Boil down the syrup until quite thick ; strain it 
and allow it to cool enough to set it; then pour it over the fruit. 

The juice could be colored by a few drops of liquid cochineal, or a few 
slices of beets, while boiling. A teaspoonful of brandy adds much to the 
flavor. Serve with cream or boiled custard. 

BAKED QUINCES. 

TAKE ripe quinces, pare and quarter them, cut out the seeds ; then stew 
them in clear water until a straw will pierce them ; put into a baking dish 
with half a cupful of loaf sugar to every eight quinces ; pour over them the 
liquor in which they were boiled, cover closely and bake in the oven one 
hour ; then take out the quinces and put them into a covered dish ; return 
the syrup to the saucepan and boil twenty minutes ; then pour over the 
quinces and set them away to cool. 

GOOSEBERRY FOOL. 

STEW a quart of ripe gooseberries in just enough water to cover them; 
when soft, rub them through a colander to remove the skins and seeds ; 
while hot stir into them a tablespoonful of melted butter and a cupful 



352 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

of sugar. Beat the yolks of three eggs and add that ; whip all together un- 
til light. Fill a large glass fruit dish and spread on the top the beaten 
whites mixed with three tablespoonfuls of sugar. Apples or any tart fruit 
is nice made in this manner. 

MERINGUES OR KISSES. 

A COFFEECUPFUL of fine white sugar, the whites of six eggs ; whisk the 
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth and with a wooden spoon stir in quickly 
the pounded sugar ; and have some boards put in the oven thick enough to 
prevent the bottom of the meringues from acquiring too much color. Cut 
some strips of paper about two inches wide ; place this paper on the board 
and drop a tablespoonf ul at a time of the mixture on the paper, taking care 
to let all the meringues be the same size. In dropping it from the spoon, 
give the mixture the form of an egg and keep the meringues about two 
inches apart from each other on the paper. Strew over them some sifted 
sugar and bake in a moderate oven for half an hour. As soon as they 
begin to color, remove them from the oven ; take each slip of paper by the 
two ends and turn it gently on the table and with a small spoon take 
out the soft part of each meringue. Spread some clean paper on the 
board, turn the meringues upside down and put them into the oven 
to harden and brown on the other side. When required for table, fill them 
with whipped cream, flavored with liquor or vanilla and sweeten with 
pounded sugar. Join two of the meringues together and pile them high in 
the dish. To vary their appearance, finely chopped almonds or currants 
may be strewn over them before the sugar is sprinkled over; and they 
may be garnished with any bright-colored preserve. Great expedition is 
necessary in making this sweet dish, as, if the meringues are not put into 
the oven as soon as the sugar and eggs are mixed, the former melts and 
the mixture would run on the paper instead of keeping its egg-shape. The 
sweeter the meringues are made the crisper will they be ; but if therft 
is not sufficient sugar mixed with them, they will most likely be tough. 
They are sometimes colored with cochineal ; and if kept well-covered in a 
dry place, will remain good for a month or six weeks. 

JELLY KISSES. 

KISSES, to be served for dessert at a large dinner, with other suitable 
confectionery, may be varied in this way : Having made the kisses, heap 
them in the shape of half an egg, placed upon stiff letter paper lining the 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 353 

bottom of a thick baking pan ; put them in a moderate oven until the out- 
side is a little hardened ; then take one off carefully, take out the soft 
inside with the handle of a spoon, and put it back with the mixture, to 
make more ; then lay the shell down. Take another and prepare it like- 
wise ; fill the shells with currant jelly or jam ; join two together, cement- 
ing them with some of the mixture ; so continue until you have 
enough. Make kisses, cocoanut drops, and such like, the day before they 
are wanted. 

This recipe will make a fair-sized cake basket full. It adds much to 
their beauty when served up to tint half of them pale pink, then unite 
white and pink. Serve on a high glass dish. 

COCOANUT MACAROONS. 

MAKE a " kiss " mixture, add to it the white meat, grated, and finish as 
directed for KISSES. 

ALMOND MACAROONS. 

HALF a pound of sweet almonds, a coffeecupful of white sugar, the 
whites of two eggs ; blanch the almonds and pound them to a paste ; 
add to them the sugar and the beaten whites of eggs ; work the whole 
together with the back of a spoon, then roll the mixture in your hands 
in balls about the size of a nutmeg, dust sugar over the top, lay them 
on a sheet of paper at least an inch apart. Bake in a cool oven a light 
brown. 

CHOCOLATE MACAROONS. 

PUT three ounces of plain chocolate in a pan and melt on a slow fire 
then work it to a thick paste with one pound of powdered sugar and the 
whites of three eggs ; roll the mixture down to the thickness of about one- 
quarter of an inch ; cut it in small, round pieces with a paste-cutter, either 
plain or scalloped ; butter a pan slightly, and dust it with flour and sugar 
in equal quantities ; place in it the pieces of paste or mixture, and bake in 
a hot but not too quick oven. 

LEMON JELLY. No. 1. 

WASH and prepare four calf's feet, place them in four quarts of water, 
and let them simmer gently five hours. At the expiration of this time 
take them out and pour the liquid into a vessel to cool ; there should be 
nearly a quart. When cold, remove every particle of fat, replace the jelly 

23 



354 CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 

into the preserving-kettle, and add one pound of loaf sugar, the rind and 
juice of two lemons ; when the sugar has dissolved, beat two eggs with 
their shells in one gill of water, which pour into the kettle and boil five 
minutes, or until perfectly clear ; then add one gill of Madeira wine and 
strain through a flannel bag into any form you like. 

LEMON JELLY. No. 2. 

To A package of gelatine add a pint of cold water, the juice of four 
lemons and the rind of one ; let it stand one hour, then add one pint of 
boiling water, a pinch of cinnamon, three cups of sugar ; let it all come to 
a boil ; strain through a napkin into molds, set away to get cold. Nice 
poured over sliced bananas and oranges. 

WINE JELLY. 

ONE package of gelatine, one cupful of cold water soaked together two 
hours ; add to this three cupfuls of sugar, the juice of three lemons and 
the grated rind of one. Now pour over this a quart of boiling water and 
stir until dissolved, then add a pint of sherry wine. Strain through a 
napkin, turn into molds dipped in cold water and place in the ice box 
for several hours. 

One good way to mold this jelly is to pour some of it into the mold, 
harden it a little, put in a layer of strawberries or raspberries, or any fresh 
fruit in season, pour in jelly to set them ; after they have set, another 
layer of jelly, then another of berries, and so fill each mold, alternating 
with jelly and berries. 

CIDER JELLY. 

THIS can be made the same, by substituting clear, sweet cider in place 
of the wine. 

O^NGE JELLY. 

ORANGE jelly is a great delicacy and not expensive. To make a large 
dish, get six oranges, two lemons, a two-ounce package of gelatine. Put 
the gelatine to 1 soak in a pint of water, squeeze the orange juice into a 
bowl, also the lemon juice, and grate one of the lemon skins in with it. 
Put about two cupfuls of sugar with the gelatine, then stir in the orange 
juice, and pour over all three pints of boiling water, stirring constantly. 
When the gelatine is entirely dissolved, strain through a napkin into molds 



CUSTARDS, CREAMS AND DESSERTS. 355 

or bowls wet with cold water, and set aside to harden. In three or four 
hours it will be ready for use and will last several days. 

VARIEGATED JELLY. 

AFTER dividing a box of Cox's gelatine into halves, put each half into a 
bowl with half a cupful of cold water. Put three-quarters of an ounce or 
six sheets of pink gelatine into a third bowl containing three-fourths of a 
cupful of cold water. Cover the bowls to keep out the dust and set them 
away for two hours. At the end of that time, add a pint of boiling water, 
a cupful of sugar, half a pint of wine, and the juice of lemon to the pink 
gelatine, and, after stirring till the gelatine is dissolved, strain the liquid 
through a napkin. Treat one of the other portions of the gelatine in the 
same way. Beat together the yolks of four eggs and half a cupful of sugar, 
and, after adding this mixture to the third portion of gelatine, stir the 
new mixture into a pint and a third of boiling milk, contained in a double 
boiler. Stir on the fire for three minutes, then strain through a fine sieve, 
and flavor with a teaspoonful of vanilla extract. Place in a deep pan two 
molds, each holding about three pints, and surround them with ice and 
water. Pour into these molds, in equal parts, the wine jelly which was 
made with the clear gelatine, and set it away to harden. When it has 
become set, pour in the pink gelatine, which should have been set away in 
a place not cold enough to make it harden. After it has been transferred 
and has become hard, pour into the molds the mixture of eggs, sugar and 
gelatine, which should be in a liquid state. Set the molds in an ice chest 
for three or four hours. At serving time, dip them into tepid water to 
loosen the contents, and gently turn the jelly out upon flat dishes. 

The clear jelly may be made first and poured into molds, then the pink 
jelly and finally the egg jelly. 

STRAWBERRY JELLY. 

STRAWBERRIES, pounded sugar ; to every pint of juice allow half a pack- 
age of Cox's gelatine. 

Pick the strawberries, put them into a pan, squeeze them well with 
a wooden spoon, add sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten them nicely, and 
let them remain for one hour that the juice may be extracted ; then add 
half a pint of water to every pint of juice. Strain the strawberry juice 
and water through a napkin ; measure it and to every pint allow half a 
package of Cox's gelatine dissolved in a teacupful of water. Mix this 



CUSTAllDS, CREAMS AND DE8SEKT8. 

with the juice, put the jelly into a mold and set the mold on ice. A little 
lemon juice added to the strawberry juice improves the flavor of the jelly, 
if the fruit is very ripe ; but it must be well strained before it is put with 
the other ingredients, or it will make the jelly muddy. Delicious and 
beautiful. 

RECIPE FOR CHEESE CUSTARD. 

FOR three persons, two ounces of grated parmesan cheese ; the whites 
of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth, a little pepper, salt and cayenne, 
a little milk or cream to mix; bake for a quarter of an hour. 




ICE-CREAM AND 

* * * 

ICE-CREAM. 

ONE pint of milk, the yolks of two eggs, six ounces of sugar and 
one tablespoonful of cornstarch. Scald but do not boil. Then 
put the whites of the two eggs into a pint of cream ; whip it. 
Mix the milk and cream, flavor and freeze. One teaspoonful 
of vanilla or lemon is generally sufficient. 

The quantity, of course, can be increased to any amount desired, so 
long as the relative proportions of the different ingredients are observed. 

PURE ICE-CREAM. 

GENUINE ice-cream is made of the pure sweet cream in this proportion : 
Two quarts of cream, one pound of sugar; beat up, flavor and freeze. 

For family use, select one of the new patent freezers, as being more 
rapid and less laborious for small quantities than the old style turned 
entirely by hand. All conditions being perfect, those with crank and 
revolving dashers effect freezing in eight to fifteen minutes. 

FRUIT ICE-CREAM. 

Ingredients. To every pint of fruit juice allow one pint of cream; 
sugar to taste. 

Let the fruit be well ripened ; pick it off the stalks and put it into a 
large earthen pan. Stir it about with a wooden spoon, breaking it until it is 
well mashed ; then, with the back of the spoon, rub it through a hair-sieve. 
Sweeten it nicely with pounded sugar ; whip the cream for a few minutes, 
add it to the fruit, and whisk the whole again for another five minutes. 
Put the mixture into the freezer and freeze. Raspberry, strawberry, cur- 
rant, and all fruit ice-creams are made in the same manner. A little 
pounded sugar sprinkled over the fruit before it is mashed assists to ex- 
tract the juice. In winter, when fresh fruit is not obtainable, a little jam 
may be substituted for it ; it should be melted and worked through a sieve 
before being 1 added tq the whipped cream ; and if the color should not be 

(357) 



358 ICE-CREAM AND ICES. 

good, a little prepared cochineal may be put in to improve its appearance. 
In making berry flavoring for ice-cream, the milk should never be 
heated ; the juice of the berries added to cold cream, or fresh rich milk, 
mixed with cold cream, the juice put in just before freezing, or when partly 
frozen. 

CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM. No. 1. (Very fine.) 

ADD four ounces of grated chocolate to a cupful of sweet milk, then 
mix it thoroughly to a quart of thick sweet cream ; no flavoring is re- 
quired but vanilla. Sweeten with a cupful of sugar ; beat again and freeze. 

CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM. No. 2. 

BEAT two eggs very light and cream them with two cupfuls of sugar. 
Scald a pint of milk and turn on by degrees, mixing well witn the sugar 
and eggs. Stir in this half a cupful of grated chocolate ; return to the 
fire and heat until it thickens, stirring briskly ; take off and set aside to 
cool. When thoroughly cold, freeze. 

COCOANUT ICE-CREAM. 

ONE quart of cream, one pint of milk, three eggs, one cupful and a half 
of sugar and one of prepared cocoanut, the rind and juice of a lemon. 
Beat together the eggs and grated lemon rind and put with the milk in 
the double boiler. Stir until the mixture begins to thicken. Add the 
cocoanut and put away to cool. When cool add the sugar, lemon juice 
and cream. Freeze. 

CUSTARD ICE-CREAM. 

SWEETEN one quart of cream or rich milk with half a pound of sugar 
and flavor to taste ; put it over the fire in a farina-kettle ; as soon as it be- 
gins to boil, stir into it a tablespoonful of cornstarch or rice flour which 
has been previously mixed smooth with a little milk ; after it has boiled a 
few minutes, take it off the fire and stir in very gradually six eggs which 
have been beaten until thick; when quite cold, freeze it as ice-cream. 

STRAWBERRY ICE-CREAM. 

Mix a cupful of sugar with a quart of ripe strawberries, let them stand 
half a day, then mash and strain them through a coarse towel, then add to 
the juice a full cupful of sugar and when dissolved, beat in a quart of fresh 
thick cream. Raspberries, pineapple and other fruits made the same. 



ICE -GEE AM AND ICES. 359 

FRUIT CREAM. 

MAKE a rich, boiled custard ; flavor with wine and vanilla ; pour into a 
freezer. When half frozen, add pounded almonds, chopped citron and 
brandy, peaches or chopped raisins. Have the freezer half full of cus- 
tard and fill up with the fruit. Mix well and freeze again. Almost any 
kind of fruits that are preferred may be substituted for the above. 

TUTTI FRUTTI ICE-CREAM. 

TAKE two quarts of the richest cream and add to it one pound of pul- 
verized sugar and four whole eggs ; mix well together ; place on the fire, 
stirring constantly, and just bring to boiling point ; now remove immedi- 
ately and continue to stir until nearly cold ; flavor with a tablespoonful of 
extract of vanilla ; place in freezer and, when half frozen, mix thoroughly 
into it one pound of preserved fruits, in equal parts of peaches, apricots, 
gages, cherries, pineapples, etc. ; all of these fruits are to be cut up into 
small pieces and mixed well with the frozen cream. If you desire to mold 
this ice sprinkle it with a little carmine, dissolved in a teaspoonful of 
water, with two drops of spirits of ammonia ; mix in this color, so that 
it will be streaky or in veins like marble. 

ICE-CREAM WITHOUT A FREEZER. 

BEAT the yolks of eight eggs very light, and add thereto four cupfuls of 
sugar, and stir well. Add to this, little by little, one quart of rich milk 
that has been heated almost to boiling, beating all the while ; then put in 
the whites of eight eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Then boil the mixture in 
a pail set inside another containing hot water. Boil about fifteen minutes 
or until it is as thick as a boiled custard, stirring steadily meanwhile. 
Pour into a bowl to cool. When quite cold, beat into it three pints of rich 
sweet cream and five teaspoonfuls of vanilla, or such other flavoring as 
you prefer. Put it into a pail having a close-fitting cover and pack in 
pounded ice and salt, rock salt, not the common kind, about three-fourths 
ice and one-fourth salt. When packed, before putting the ice on top of 
the cover, beat the custard as you would batter, for five minutes steady ; 
then put on the cover and put the ice and salt over it, and cover the whole 
with a thick mat, blanket or carpet and let it stand for an hour. Then 
carefully uncover and scrape from the bottom and sides of the pail the 
thick coating of frozen custard, making every particle clear, and beat again 
very hard, until the custard is a smooth, half-congealed paste. Do this 



360 ICE -GEE AM AND ICES. 

thoroughly. Put on the cover, ice, salt and blanket, and leave it for five 
or six hours, replenishing the ice and salt if necessary. 

Common Sense in the Household. 

FEOZEN PEACHES. 

ONE can or twelve large peaches, two coffeecupfuls of sugar, one pint 
of water and the whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth ; break the 
peaches rather fine and stir all the ingredients together ; freeze the whole 
into form. 

Frozen fruits of any kind can be made the same way ; the fruit should 
be mashed to a smooth pulp, but not thinned too much. In freezing, care 
should be taken to prevent its getting lumpy. 

FROZEN FRUITS. 

THE above recipe, increasing the quantity of peaches, raspberries or 
whatever fruit you may use, and adding a small amount of rich cream, 
make fine frozen fruits. In freezing, you must be especially careful to 
prevent its getting lumpy. 

LEMON ICE. 

THE juice of six lemons and the grated rind of three, a large sweet 
orange, juice and rind ; squeeze out all the juice and steep in it the rind 
of orange and lemons a couple of hours ; then squeeze and strain through 
a towel, add a pint of water and two cupfuls of sugar. Stir until dissolved, 
turn into a freezer, then proceed as for ice-cream, letting it stand longer, 
two or three hours. 

When fruit jellies are used, gently heat the water sufficiently to melt 
them ; then cool and freeze. Other flavors may be made in this manner, 
varying the flavoring to taste. 

PINEAPPLE SHERBET. 

GRATE two pineapples and mix with two quarts of water and a pint of 
sugar ; add the juice of two lemons and the beaten whites of four eggs. 
Place in a freezer and freeze. 

RASPBERRY SHERBET. 

Two QUAETS of raspberries, one cupful of sugar, one pint and a half 
of water, the juice of a large lemon, one tablespoonful of gelatine. Mash 
the berries and sugar together and let them stand two hours. Soak 



ICE -CUE AM AND ICES. 361 

the gelatine in cold water to cover. Add one pint of the water to the 
berries and strain. Dissolve the gelatine in half a pint of boiling water, 
add this to the strained mixture and freeze. 

ORANGE-WATER ICE. 

ADD a tablespoonf ul of gelatine to one gill of water ; let it stand twenty 
minutes and add half a pint of boiling water ; stir until dissolved and add 
four ounces of powdered sugar, the strained juice of six oranges and cold 
water enough to make a full quart in all. Stir until the sugar is dis- 
solved ; pour into the freezing can and freeze. (See LEMON ICE.) 

ALMOND ICE. 

Two PINTS of milk, eight ounces of cream, two ounces of orange-flower 
water, eight . ounces of sweet almonds, four ounces of bitter almonds ; 
pound all in a marble mortar, pouring in from time to time a few drops of 
water ; when thoroughly pounded add the orange-flower water and half of 
the milk ; pass this, tightly squeezed, through a cloth ; boil the rest of the 
milk with the cream and keep stirring it with a wooden spoon ; as soon as 
it is thick enough, pour in the almond milk ; give it one boiling, take it off 
and let it cool in a bowl or pitcher before pouring it into the mold foi 
freezing. 

CURRANT ICE. 

A REFRESHING ice is made of currants or raspberries, or equal portions 
of each. Squeeze enough fruit in a jelly-bag to make a pint of juice ; add 
a pint each of the water and sugar ; pour tbe whole, boiling hot, on to 
whites of three eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, and whip the mixture thor- 
oughly. When cool, freeze in the usual manner. Part red raspberry juice 
is a much finer flavor. 

Any juicy fruit may be prepared in this manner. 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

* * * 

IT DEPENDS as much upon the judgment of the cook as on the materials 
used to make a good pudding. Everything should be the best in the 
way of materials, and a proper attention to the rules, with some 
practice, will ensure success. 

Puddings are either boiled, baked or steamed ; if boiled, the materials 
should be well worked together, put into a thick cloth bag, previously 
dipped in hot water, wringing it slightly and dredging the inside thickly 
with flour ; tie it firmly, allowing room for it to swell ; drop it into a ket- 
tle of boiling water, with a small plate or saucer in the bottom to keep it 
from sticking to the kettle. It should not cease boiling one moment from 
the time it is put in until taken out, and the pot must be tightly covered, 
and the cover not removed except when necessary to add water from 
the boiling tea-kettle when the water is getting low. When done, dip 
immediately in cold water and turn out. This should be done just 
before placing on the table. - 

Or butter a tin pudding-mold or an earthen bowl ; close it tight so 
that water cannot penetrate ; drop it into boiling water and boil steadily 
the required time. If a bowl is used it should be well buttered and not 
quite filled with the pudding, allowing room for it to swell ; then a cloth 
wet in hot water, slightly wringing it, then floured on the inner side, and 
tied over the bowl, meeting under the bottom. 

To steam a pudding, put it into a tin pan or earthen dish ; tie a cloth 
over the top, first dredging it in flour, and set it into a steamer. Cover the 
steamer closely ; allow a little longer time than you do for boiling. 

Molds or basins for baking, steaming or boiling should be well buttered 
before the mixture is put into them. Allow a little longer time for steam- 
ing than for boiling. 

Dumplings boiled the same way, put into little separate cloths. 

Batter puddings should be smoothly mixed and free from lumps. To 
ensure this, first mix the flour with a very small proportion of milk, the 
yolks of the eggs and sugar thoroughly beaten together, and added to this ; 

(362) 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 363 

then add the remainder of the milk by degrees, then the seasoning, then 
the beaten whites of eggs last. Much success in making this kind of pud- 
ding depends upon a strict observance of this rule ; for, although the ma- 
terials may be good, if the eggs are put into the milk before they are mixed 
with the flour, there will be a custard at the top and a soft dough at the 
bottom of your dish. 

All sweet puddings require a little salt to prevent insipidity and to draw 
out the flavor of the several ingredients, but a grain too much will spoil 
any pudding. 

In puddings where wine, brandy, cider, lemon juice or any acid is used, 
it should be stirred in last and gradually, or it is apt to curdle the milk 
or eggs. 

In making custard puddings (puddings made with eggs and milk), the 
yolks of the eggs and sugar should be thoroughly beaten together before 
any of the milk or seasoning is added, and the beaten whites of eggs last. 

In making puddings of bread, rice, sago, tapioca, etc., the eggs should 
be beaten very light, and mixed with a portion of the milk, before adding 
them to the other ingredients. If the eggs are mixed with the milk, with- 
out having been thus beaten, the milk will be absorbed by the bread, rice, 
sago, tapioca, etc., without rendering them light. 

The freshness of all pudding ingredients is of much importance, as one 
bad article will taint the whole mixture. 

When the freshness of eggs is doubtful, break each one separately in a 
cup before mixing them all together. Should there be a bad one amongst 
them, it can be thrown away ; whereas, if mixed with the good ones, the 
entire quantity would be spoiled. The yolks and whites beaten separately 
make the articles they are put into much lighter. 

Raisins and dried fruit for puddings should be carefully picked and, 
in many cases, stoned. Currants should be well washed, pressed in a 
cloth and placed on a dish before the fire to get thoroughly dry; they 
should then be picked carefully over, and every piece of grit or stone re- 
moved from amongst them. To plump them, some cooks pour boiling 
water over them and then dry them before the fire. 

Many baked pudding recipes are quite as good boiled. As a safe rule 
boil the pudding twice as long as you would bake it; and remember 
that a boiling pudding should never be touched after it is once put 
on the stove ; a jar of the kettle destroys the lightness of the pudding. If 
the water boils down and more must be added, it must be done so 



364 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

carefully that the mold will not hit the side of the kettle, and it must 
not be allowed to stop boiling for an instant. 

Batter should never stick to the knife when it is sent to the table ; 
it will do this both when a less than sufficient number of eggs is mixed 
with it and when it is not cooked enough; about four eggs to the half 
pound of flour will make it firm enough to cut smoothly. 

When baked or boiled puddings are sufficiently solid, turn them out 
of the dish they were baked in, bottom uppermost and strew over them 
finely sifted sugar. 

When pastry or baked puddings are not done through, and yet the 
outside is sufficiently brown, cover them over with a piece of white paper 
until thoroughly cooked ; this prevents them from getting burnt. 

TO CLEAN CURRANTS. 

PUT them in a sieve or colander and sprinkle them thickly with flour ; 
rub them well until they are separated, and the flour, grit and fine stems 
have passed through the strainer. Place the strainer and currants in a 
pan of water and wash thoroughly ; then lift the strainer and currants to- 
gether, and change the water until it is clear. Dry the currants between 
clean towels. It hardens them to dry in an oven. 

TO CHOP SUET. 

BREAK or cut in small pieces, sprinkle with sifted flour, and chop in a 
cold place to keep it from becoming sticky and soft. 

TO STONE RAISINS. 

PUT them in a dish and pour boiling water over them ; cover and let 
them remain in it ten minutes ; it will soften so that by rubbing each raisin 
between the thumb and finger, the seeds will come out clean ; then they 
are ready for cutting or chopping if required. 

APPLE DUMPLINGS. 

MAKE a rich biscuit dough, the same as soda or baking-powder biscuit, 
only adding a little more shortening. Take a piece of dough out on the 
molding-board, roll out almost as thin as pie crust ; then cut into square 
pieces large enough to cover an apple. Put into the middle of each piece 
two apple halves that have been pared and cored ; sprinkle on a spoonful 
of sugar and a pinch of ground cinnamon, turn the ends of the dough over 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 365 

the apple and lap them tight. Lay the dumplings in a dripping-pan well 
buttered, the smooth side upward. When the pans are filled, put a small 
piece of butter on top of each, sprinkle over a large handful of sugar, turn 
in a cupful of boiling water, then place in a moderate oven for three-quar- 
ters of an hour. Baste with the liquor once while baking. Serve with 
pudding-sauce or cream and sugar. 

BOILED APPLE DUMPLINGS. 

THE same recipe as the above, with the exception that they are put 
into a small coarse cloth well floured after being dipped in hot water. 
Each cloth to be tied securely, but leaving room enough for the dumpling 
to swell. Put them in a pot of boiling water and boil three-quarters of 
an hour. Serve with sweet sauce. Peaches and other fruits used in the 
same manner. 

BOILED RICE DUMPLINGS, CUSTARD SAUCE. 

BOIL half a pound of rice ; drain and mash it moderately fine. Add to 
it two ounces of butter, three ounces of sugar, half a saltspoonful of mixed 
ground spice, salt and the yolks of two eggs. Moisten a trifle with a 
tablespoonful or two of cream. With floured hands shape the mixture 
into balls, and tie them in floured pudding cloths. Steam or boil forty 
minutes and send to table with a custard sauce made as follows : 

Mix together four ounces of sugar and two ounces of butter (slightly 
warmed). Beat together the yolks of two eggs and a gill of cream ; mix 
and pour the sauce in a double saucepan ; set this in a pan of hot water 
and whisk thoroughly three minutes. Set the saucepan in cold water and 
whisk until the sauce is cooled. 

SUET DUMPLINGS. No. 1. 

ONE pint bowl of fine bread crumbs, one-half cupful of beef suet 
chopped fine, the whites and yolks of four eggs beaten separately and 
very light, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar sifted into half a cupful of 
flour, half a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little water, and a teaspoon- 
ful of salt. Wet it all together with milk enough to make a stiff paste. 
Flour your hands and make into balls. Tie up in separate cloths that 
have been wrung out in hot water and floured inside ; leave room, when 
tying, for them to swell. Drop them into boiling water and boil about 
three-quarters of an hour. Ssrve hot, with wine sauce, or syrup and 
butter. 



366 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS 

SUET DUMPLINGS. No. 2. 

ONE cupful of suet chopped fine, one cupful of grated English muffins or 
bread, one cupful of flour, half a teaspoonful of baking powder, half a cup- 
ful of sugar, two eggs, one pint of milk, a large pinch of salt. Sift together 
powder and flour, add the beaten eggs, grated muffins, sugar, suet and 
milk ; form into smooth batter, which drop by tablespoonf uls into a pint 
of boiling milk, three or four at a time ; when done, dish and pour over 
them the milk they were boiled in. A Danish dish ; very good. 

PRESERVE DUMPLINGS. 

PRESERVED peaches, plums, quinces, cherries or any other sweetmeat ; 
make a light crust, and roll a small piece of moderate thickness and fill 
with the fruit in quantity to make the size of a peach dumpling ; tie each 
one in a dumpling cloth, well floured inside, drop them into hot water and 
boil half an hour ; when done, remove the cloth, send to table hot and eat 

with cream. 

OXFORD DUMPLINGS. 

BEAT until quite light one tablespoonful of sugar and the yolks of three 
eggs, add half a cupful of finely chopped suet, half a cupful of English cur- 
rants, one cupful of sifted flour, in which there has been sifted a heaping 
teaspoonful of baking powder, a little nutmeg, one teaspoonful of salt and, 
lastly, the beaten whites of the eggs ; flour your hands and make it into 
balls the size of an egg ; boil in separate cloths one hour or more. Serve 

with wine sauce. 

LEMON DUMPLINGS. 

Mix together a pint of grated bread crumbs, half a cupful of chopped 
suet, half a cupful of moist sugar, a little salt and a small tablespoonful 
of flour, adding the grated rind of a lemon. Moisten it all with the 
whites and yolks of two eggs well beaten and the juice of the lemon, 
strained. Stir it all well together and put the mixture into small cups 
well buttered ; tie them down with a cloth dipped in flour and boil three- 
quarters of an hour. Turn them out on a dish, strew sifted sugar over 
them and serve with wine sauce. 

BOILED APPLE PUFFETS. 

THREE eggs, one pint of milk, a little salt, sufficient flour to thicken 
as waffle batter ; one and one-half teaspoonf uls of baking powder. Fill 
teacups alternately with a layer of batter and then of apples chopped 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINOS. 367 

fine. Steam one hour. Serve hot with flavored cream and sugar. You 
can substitute any fresh fruit or jams your taste prefers. 

COMMON BATTER, 

FOR boiled pudding, fritters, etc., is made with one cupful of milk, a 
pinch of salt, two eggs, one tablespoonful of melted butter, one cupful of 
flour and a small teaspoonful of baking powder. Sift the flour, powder 
and salt together, add the melted butter, the eggs well beaten and the 
milk ; mix into a very smooth batter, a little thicker than for griddle- 
cakes. 

ALMOND PUDDING. 

TURN boiling water on to three-fourths of a pound of sweet almonds, 
let it remain until the skin comes off easily ; rub with a dry cloth ; when 
dry, pound fine with one large spoonful of rose-water ; beat six eggs to a 
stiff froth with three spoonfuls of fine white sugar ; mix with one quart of 
milk, three spoonfuls of pounded crackers, four ounces of melted butter, 
and the same of citron cut into bits ; add almonds, stir altogether and 
bake in a small pudding-dish with a lining and rim of pastry. This pud- 
ding is best when cold. It will bake in half an hour in a quick oven. 

APPLE PUDDING, BAKED. 

STIR two tablespoonf uls of butter and half a cupful of sugar to a cream ; 
stir into this the yolks of four eggs, well beaten, the juice and grated rind 
of one lemon and half a dozen sound, green tart apples, grated. Now stir 
in the four beaten whites of the eggs, season with cinnamon or nutmeg ; 
bake. To be served cold with cream. 

BOILED APPLE PUDDING. 

TAKE three eggs, three apples, a quarter of a pound of bread crumbs, 
one lemon, three ounces of sugar, three ounces of currants, half a wine- 
glassful of wine, nutmeg, butter and sugar for sauce. Pare, core and 
mince the apples and mix with the bread crumbs, nutmeg grated, sugar, 
currants, the juice of the lemon and half the rind grated. Beat the eggs 
well, moisten the mixture with these and beat all together, adding the 
wine last ; put the pudding in a buttered mold, tie it down with a cloth ; 
boil one hour and a half and serve with sweet sauce. 



368 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

BIRDS' NEST PUDDING. 

CORE and peel eight apples, put in a dish, fill the places from which the 
cores have been taken with sugar and a little grated nutmeg ; cover and 
bake. Beat the yolks of four eggs light, add wo teacupfuls of flour, with 
three even teaspoonfuls of baking powder sifted with it, one pint of milk 
with a teaspoonful of salt ; then add the whites of the eggs well beaten, 
pour over the apples and bake one hour in a moderate oven. Serve with 
sauce. 

BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING. No. 1. 

BUTTER the sides and bottom of a deep pudding-dish, then butter thin 
slices of bread, sprinkle thickly with sugar, a little cinnamon, chopped 
apple, or any fruit you prefer between each slice, until your dish is full. 
Beat up two eggs, add a tablespoonf ul of sifted flour ; stir with this three 
cupfuls of milk and a little salt; pour this over the bread, let it stand 
one hour and then bake slowly, with a cover on, three-quarters of an 
hour ; then take the cover off and brown. Serve with wine and lemon 
sauce. 

Pie-plant, cut up in small pieces with plenty of sugar, is fine made 
in this manner. 

BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING. No. 2. 

PLACE a layer of stale bread, rolled fine, in the bottom of a pudding- 
dish, then a layer of any kind of fruit ; sprinkle on a little sugar, then an- 
other layer of bread crumbs and of fruit ; and so on until the dish is full, 
the top layer being crumbs. Make a custard as for pies, add a pint of 
milk and mix. Pour it over the top of the pudding and bake until the 
fruit is cooked. 

Stale cake, crumbed fine, in place of bread, is an improvement. 

COLD BERRY PUDDING. 

TAKE rather stale bread baker's bread or light home-made cut in 
thin slices and spread with butter. Add a very little water and a little 
sugar, to one quart or more of huckleberries and blackberries, or the 
former alone. Stew a few minutes until juicy ; put a layer of buttered 
bread in your buttered pudding-dish, then a layer of stewed berries while 
hot and so on until full ; lastly, a covering of stewed berries. It may 
be improved with a rather soft frosting over the top. To be eaten cold 
with thick cream and sugar. 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 369 

APPLE TAPIOCA PUDDING. 

PUT one teacupful of tapioca and one teaspoonful of salt into one pint 
and a half of water, and let it stand several hours where it will be quite 
warm, but not cook ; peel six tart apples, take out the cores, fill them 
with sugar, in which is grated a little nutmeg and lemon peel, and put 
them in a pudding-dish ; over these pour the tapioca, first mixing with it 
one teaspoonful of melted butter and a cupful of cold milk, and half a 
cupful of sugar ; bake one hour ; eat with sauce. 

When fresh fruits are in season, this pudding is exceedingly nice, with 
damsons, plums, red currants, gooseberries or apples ; when made with 
these, the pudding must be thickly sprinkled over with sifted sugar. 

Canned or fresh peaches may be used in place of apples in the same 
manner, moistening the tapioca with the juice of the canned peaches in 
place of the cold milk. Very nice when quite cool to serve with sugar 
and cream. 

APPLE AND BROWN-BREAD PUDDING. 

TAKE a pint of brown bread crumbs, a pint bowl of chopped apples, 
mix ; add two-thirds of a cupful of finely-chopped suet, a cupful of rais- 
ins, one egg. a tablespoonful of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt. Mix 
with half a pint of milk, and boil in buttered molds about two hours. 
Serve with sauce flavored with lemon. 

APPLE-PUFF PUDDING. 

PUT half a pound of flour into a basin, sprinkle in a litte salt, stir in 
gradually a pint of milk ; when quite smooth add three eggs ; butter a 
pie-dish, pour in the batter ; take three-quarters of a pound of apples, 
seed and cut in slices, and put in the batter ; place bits of butter over the 
top ; bake three-quarters of an hour ; when done, sprinkle sugar over 
the top and serve hot. 

PLAIN BREAD PUDDING, BAKED. 

BREAK up about a pint of stale bread after cutting off the crust ; pour 
over it a quart of boiling milk ; add to this a piece of butter the size of 
a small egg ; cover the dish tight and let it stand until cool ; then with 
a spoon mash it until fine, adding a teaspoonful of cinnamon and one 
of nutmeg grated, half a cupful of sugar and one quarter of a teaspoonful 
of soda dissolved in a little hot water. Beat up four eggs very light and 

24 



370 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

add last. Turn all into a well-buttered pudding-dish and bake three- 
quarters of an hour. Serve it warm with hard sauce. 

This recipe may be steamed or boiled ; very nice either way. 

SUPERIOR BREAD PUDDINGS. 

ONE and one-half cupfuls of white sugar, two cupfuls of fine, dry 
bread crumbs, five eggs, one tablespoonful of butter, vanilla, rose-water 
or lemon flavoring, one quart of fresh rich milk and half a cupful of jelly 
or jam. Kub the butter into a cupful of sugar ; beat the yolks very light, 
and stir these together to a cream. The bread crumbs soaked in milk 
come next, then the flavoring. Bake in a buttered pudding-dish a large 
one and but two-thirds full until the custard is "set." Draw to the 
mouth of the oven, spread over with jam or other nice fruit conserve. 
Cover this with a meringue made of the whipped whites and half a cupful 
of sugar. Shut the oven and bake until the meringue begins to color. 
Eat cold with cream. In strawberry season, substitute a pint of fresh 
fruit for preserves. It is then delicious, Serve with any warm sauce. 

BOILED BREAD PUDDING. 

To ONE quart of bread crumbs soaked soft in a cup of hot milk, add one 
cupful of molasses, one cupful of fruit or chopped raisins, one teaspoonful 
each of spices, one tablespoonful of butter, a teaspoonful of salt, one 
teaspoonful of soda, about a cupful of flour sifted; boil or steam three 
hours. Serve with sweet sauce. 

ALMOND PUDDING. No. 1. 

PUT two quarts of milk into a double boiler ; stir into it two heaping 
tablespoonfuls of sifted flour that has been stirred to a cream, with a little 
of the milk. When it boils, care should be taken that it does not burn ; 
when cooked, take from the fire and let it cool. Take the skins off from 
two pounds of sweet almonds, pound them fine, stir them into the milk ; 
add a teaspoonful of salt, a cupful of sugar, flavoring and six well-beaten 
eggs, the yolks and whites beaten separately. Put bits of butter over the 
top. Bake one hour. A gill of brandy or wine improves it. 

ALMOND PUDDING. No. 2. 

STEEP four ounces of crumbs of bread, sliced, in one and one-half pints 
of cream, or grate the bread ; then beat half a pound of blanched almonds 
very fine till they become a paste, with two teaspoonf uls of orange-flower 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. . 371 

water ; beat up the yolks of eight eggs and the whites of four ; mix all well 
together ; put in a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar and stir in three or 
four ounces of melted butter ; put it over the fire, stirring it until it is 
thick ; lay a sheet of paper at the bottom of a dish and pour in the in- 
gredients ; bake half an hour. Use the remaining four whites of eggs for 
a meringue for the top. 

BATTER PUDDING, BAKED. 

FOUE eggs, the yolks and whites beaten separately, one pint of milk, 
one teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of baking powder, two cupfuls 
of sifted flour. Put the whites of the eggs in last. Bake in an earthen 
dish that co,n be set on the table. Bake forty-five minutes ; serve with 

rich sauce. 

BOILED BATTER PUDDING. 

SIFT together a pint of flour and a teaspoonful of baking powder into 
a deep dish, sprinkle in a little salt, adding also a tablespoonful of melted 
butter. Stir into this gradually a pint of milk ; when quite smooth, add 
four eggs, yolks and whites beaten separately. Now add enough more 
flour to make a very sHff batter. If liked, any kind of fruit may be stirred 
into this ; a pint of berries or sliced fruit. Boil two hours. Serve with 
cream and sugar, wine sauce, or any sweet sauce. 

CUSTARD PUDDING. No. 1. 

TAKE five tablespoonfuls out of a quart of cream or rich milk and mix 
them with two large spoonfuls of fine flour. Set the rest of the milk to 
boil, flavoring it with bitter almonds broken up. When it has boiled hard, 
take it off, strain it and stir it in the cold milk and flour. Set it away 
to cool and beat well eight yolks and four whites .of eggs ; add them to 
the milk and stir in, at the last, a glass of brandy or white wine, a tea- 
spoonful of powdered nutmeg and half a cupful of sugar. Butter a large 
bowl or mold ; pour in the mixture ; tie a cloth tightly over it ; put it into 
a pot of boiling water and boil it two hours, replenishing the pot with hot 
water from a tea-kettle. When the pudding is done, let it get cool before 
you turn it out. Eat it with butter and sugar stirred together to a 
cream and flavored with lemon juice or orange. 

CUSTARD PUDDING. No. 2. 

POUR one quart of milk in a deep pan and let the pan stand in a 
kettle of boiling water, while you beat to a cream eight eggs and six 



372 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

tablespoonfuls of fine sugar and a teaspoon of flour ; then stir the eggs and 
sugar into the milk and continue stirring until it begins to thicken ; then 
remove the pan from the boiling water, scrape down the sides, stir to the 
bottom until it begins to cool, add a tablespoonful of peach-water, or any 
other flavor you may prefer, pour into little cups and, when cold, serve. 

CUSTARD PUDDINGS. 

THE recipe for COMMON CUSTARD, with the addition of chocolate grated, 
banana, or pineapple or cocoanut, makes successfully those different kinds 
of puddings. 

APPLE CUSTARD PUDDINGS. 

PUT a quart of pared and quartered apples into a stewpan, with half a 
cupful of water and cook them until they are soft. Remove from the fire 
and add half a cupful of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of butter and the grated 
rind and the juice of a lemon. Have ready mixed two cupfuls of grated 
bread crumbs and two tablespoonfuls of flour ; add this also to the apple 
mixture, after which stir in two well-beaten eggs. Turn all into a well- 
buttered pudding-dkh and bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven. 
Serve with sugar and cream or hard sweet sauce. 

CREAM PUDDING. 

BEAT the yolks and whites of six eggs well and stir them into one 
pint of flour, one pint of milk, a little salt and a bit of soda dissolved in a 
little water, the grated rind of a lemon and three spoonfuls of sugar ; just 
before baking stir in one pint of cream and bake in a buttered dish. Eat 
with cream. 

CREAM MERINGUE PUDDING. 

STIR to a cream half a cupful of sugar with the white of one egg and 
the yolks of four. Add one quart of milk and mix thoroughly. Put four 
tablespoonfuls of flour and a teaspoonful of salt into another dish, and 
pour half a cupful of the milk and egg mixture upon them, and beat very 
smooth, gradually adding the rest of the milk and egg mixture. Turn 
this all into a double boiler surrounded by boiling water ; stir this until 
smooth and thick like cream, or about fifteen minutes ; then add vanilla 
or other extract. Rub all through a strainer into a well-buttered pudding- 
dish. Now beat the remaining three whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 373 

gradually add three tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, and spread roughly 
over the pudding. Cook for twenty minutes in a moderate oven. Serve 
cold. 

CORNSTARCH PUDDING. 

RESERVE half a cupful of milk from a quart and put the remainder on 
the stove in a double boiler. Mix four large tablespoonfuls of cornstarch 
and a teaspoonful of salt with the half cupful of milk ; then stir the mix- 
ture into the boiling milk and beat well for two minutes. Cover the 
boiler and cook the pudding for twelve minutes ; then pour it into a 
pudding-dish and set in a cool place for half an hour. When the time for 
serving comes, make a sauce in this manner : Beat the whites of two 
eggs to a stiff, dry froth, and beat into this two tablespoonfuls of pow- 
dered sugar. As soon as the sugar has been well mixed with the whites, 
add half of a large tumbler of currant jelly, or any other bright jelly, or 
any kind of preserved fruit may be used. If you prefer, serve sugar and 
cream with the pudding instead of a sauce. 

COLD FRUIT PUDDING. 

THROW into a pint of new milk the thin rind of a lemon, heat it slowly 
by the side of the fire and keep at the boiling point until strongly flavored. 
Sprinkle in a small pinch of salt and three-quarters of an ounce of the 
finest isinglass or gelatine. When dissolved, strain through muslin into a 
clean saucepan with five ounces of powdered sugar and half a pint of rich 
cream. Give the whole one boil, stir it briskly and add by degrees the 
well-beaten yolks of five eggs. Next thicken the mixture as a custard 
over a slow fire, taking care not to keep it over the fire a moment longsr 
than necessary ; pour it into a basin and flavor with orange-flower water 
or vanilla. Stir until nearly cold, then add two ounces of citron cut in thin 
strips and two ounces of candied cherries. Pour into a buttered mold. 
For sauce use any kind of fruit syrup. 

CUBAN PUDDING. 

CRUMBLE a pound of sponge cakes, an equal quantity, or less if pre- 
ferred, of cocoanut, grated in a basin. Pour over two pints of rich cream 
previously sweetened with a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar and brought 
to the boiling point. Cover the basin and when the cream is soaked up 
stir in it eight well-beaten eggs. Butter a mold, arrange four or five 



374 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

ounces of preserved ginger around it, pour in the pudding carefully and 
tie it down with a cloth. Steam or boil slowly for an hour and a half ; 
serve with the syrup from the ginger, which should be warmed and poured 
over the pudding. 

CRACKER PUDDING, 

OP RASPBERRIES, may be made of one large teacupful of cracker crumbs, 
one quart of milk, one spoonful of flour, a pinch of salt, the yolks of three 
eggs, one whole egg and half a cupful of sugar. Flavor with vanilla, 
adding a little pinch of salt. Bake in a moderate oven. When done, 
spread over the top, while hot, a pint of well-sugared raspberries. Then 
beat the whites of the three eggs very stiff, with two tablespoon fuls of 
sugar, a little lemon extract, or whatever one prefers. Spread this over 
the berries and bake a light brown. Serve with fruit sauce made of 
raspberries. 

BAKED CORN MEAL PUDDING, WITHOUT EGGS. 

TAKE a large cupful of yellow meal and a teacupful of cooking mo- 
lasses and beat them well together ; then add to them a quart of boiling 
milk, some salt and a large tablespoonful of powdered ginger, add a cup- 
ful of finely-chopped suet or a piece of butter the size of an egg. Butter 
a brown earthen pan and turn the pudding in, let it stand until it thick- 
ens ; then as you put it into the oven, turn over it a pint of cold milk, 
but do not stir it, as this makes the jelly. Bake three hours. Serve 
warm with hard sauce. 

This recipe has been handed down from mother to daughter for many 
years back in a New England family, 

BAKED CORN MEAL PUDDING, WITH EGGS. 

ONE small cupful of Indian meal, one-half cupful of wheat flour stirred 
together with cold milk. Scald one pint of milk and stir the mixture in 
it and cook until thick ; then thin with cold milk to the consistency of 
batter, not very thick ; add half a cupful of sugar, half a cupful of mo- 
lasses, two eggs, two tablespoonf uls of butter, a little salt, a tablespoonful 
of mixed cinnamon and nutmeg, two-thirds of a teaspoonful of soda added 
just before putting it into the oven. Bake two hours. After baking it 
half an hour, stir it up thoroughly, then finish baking. 

Serve it up hot, eat it with wine sauce, or with butter and syrup. 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 375 

BOILED CORN MEAL PUDDING. 

WARM a pint of molasses and a pint of milk, stir well together ; beat 
four eggs and stir gradually into molasses and milk ; add a cupful of beef 
suet chopped fine, or half a cupful of butter, and corn meal sufficient to 
make a thick batter ; add a teaspoonful of pulverized cinnamon, the same 
of nutmeg, a teaspoonful of soda, one of salt, and stir all together thor- 
oughly ; dip a cloth into boiling water, shake, flour a little, turn in the 
mixture, tie up, leaving room for the pudding to swell, and boil three 
hours ; serve hot with sauce made of drawn butter, wine and nutmeg. 

BOILED CORN MEAL PUDDING, WITHOUT EGGS. 

To ONE quart of boiling milk, stir in a pint and a half of Indian meal, 
well sifted, a teaspoonful of salt, a cupful of molasses, half a cupful of 
chopped suet and a teaspoonful of dissolved soda; tie it up tight in a 
cloth, allowing room for it to swell, and boil four hours. Serve with 
sweet sauce. 

CORN MEAL PUFFS. 

INTO one quart of boiling milk stir eight tablespoonfuls of Indian meal, 
four tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar and a teaspoonful of nutmeg ; let 
the whole boil five minutes, stirring constantly to prevent its adhering to 
the saucepan ; then remove it from the fire, and when it has become cool stir 
into it six eggs, beaten as light as possible ; mix well, and pour the mixture 
into buttered teacups, nearly filling them ; bake in a moderate oven half 
an hour; serve with lemon sauce. 

DELICATE INDIAN PUDDING. 

ONE quart milk, two heaping tablespoonfuls of Indian meal, four of 
sugar, one of butter, three eggs, one teaspoonful 'of salt. Boil milk in 
double boiler, sprinkle the meal into it, stirring all the while ; cook twelve 
minutes, stirring often. Beat together the eggs, salt, sugar and one-half 
teaspoonful of ginger. Stir the butter into the meal and milk. Pour this 
gradually over the egg mixture. Bake slowly one hour. Serve with sauce 
of heated syrup and butter. 

Maria Parloa. 
COTTAGE PUDDING. 

ONE heaping pint of flour, half a cupful of sugar, one cupful of milk, 
one teaspoonful of soda dissolved in the milk, one tablespoonful of butter, 



376 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar rubbed dry in the flour ; flavor with 
nutmeg ; bake in a moderate oven ; cut. in slices and serve warm with wine 
or brandy sauce, or sweet sugar sauce. 

FRENCH COCOANUT PUDDING. No. 1. 

ONE quart of milk, three tablespoonfuls of cornstarch, the yolks of 
fonr eggs, half a cupful of sugar and a little salt ; put part of the milk, salt 
and sugar on the stove and let it boil ; dissolve the cornstarch in the rest 
of the milk; stir into the milk and while boiling add the yolks and a 
cupful of grated cocoanut. Flavor with vanilla. 

Frosting. The whites of four eggs beaten to a stiff froth, half a cupful 
of sugar, flavor with lemon ; spread it on the pudding and put it into the 
oven to brown, saving a little of the frosting to moisten the top ; then put 
on grated cocoanut to give it the appearance of snow-flake. 

COCOANUT PUDDING. No. 2. 

HALF a pound of grated cocoanut. Then mix with it half a cupful 
of stale sponge cake, crumbled fine. Stir together until very light half 
a cupful of butter and one of sugar, add a cqffeecupful of rich milk or 
cream. Beat six eggs very light and stir them gradually into the butter 
and sugar in turn, with the grated cocoanut. Having stirred the whole 
very hard, add two teaspoonfuls of vanilla ; stir again, put into a buttered 
dish and bake until set, or about three-quarters of an hour. Three of 
the whites of the eggs could be left out for a meringue on the top of the 
pudding. Most excellent. 

COCOANUT PUDDING. No. 3. 

A CUP of grated cocoanut put into the recipes of CRACKER PUDDING 
and BREAD PUDDING, makes good cocoanut pudding. 

CHERRY PUDDING, BOILED OR STEAMED. 

Two EGGS well beaten, one cupful of sweet milk, sifted flour enough to 
make a stiff batter, two large teaspoonfuls of baking powder, a pinch of 
salt and as many cherries as can be stirred in. Boil one hour or steam 
and serve with liquid sauce. 

Cranberries, currants, peaches, cherries, or any tart fruit is nice used 
with this recipe. Serve with sweet sauce. 




THE FAMILY DINING ROOM. 




. 



REAR VIEW OF THE WHITE HOUSE. 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 377 

CHERRY PUDDING. No. 2. 

MAKE a crust or paste of two cupfuls of flour, two teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, a teaspoonful of salt ; wet up with milk or water ; roll out 
a quarter of an inch thick, butter a large common bowl and line it with 
this paste, leaving it large enough to lap over the top ; fill it with stoned 
cherries and half a cupful of sugar. Gather the paste closely over the top, 
sprinkle a little with dry flour and cover the whole with a linen cloth, 
fastening it with a string. Put it into a pot of boiling water and cook for 
an hour and a half. Serve with sweet sauce. 

ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING. (The Genuine.) 

SOAK one pound of stale bread in a pint of hot milk and let it stand and 
cool. When cold, add to it one-half pound of sugar and the yolks of eight 
eggs beaten to a cream, one pound of raisins, stoned and floured, one 
pound of Zante currants, washed and floured, a quarter of a pound of cit- 
ron cut in slips and dredged with flour, one pound of beef suet, chopped 
fine and salted, one glass of wine, one glass of brandy, one nutmeg and a 
tablespoonful of mace, cinnamon and cloves mixed ; beat the whole well 
together and, as the last thing, add the whites of the eight eggs, beaten to 
a stiff froth ;' pour into a cloth, previously scalded and dredged with flour, 
tie it firmly, leaving room for the pudding to swell and boil six hours. 
Serve with wine or brandy sauce. 

It is best to prepare the ingredients the day before and cover closely. 

CHRISTMAS PLUM PUDDING. (By Measure.) 

ONE cupful of finely-chopped beef suet, two cupfuls of fine bread 
crumbs, one heaping cupful of sugar, one cupful of seeded raisins, one cup- 
ful of well-washed currants, one cupful of chopped blanched almonds, half 
a cupful of citron, sliced thin, a teaspoonful of salt, one of cloves, two of 
cinnamon, half a grated nutmeg and four well-beaten eggs. Dissolve a 
level teaspoonful of soda in a tablespoonful of warm water. Flour the 
fruit thoroughly from a pint of flour ; then mix the remainder as follows : 
In a large bowl put the well-beaten eggs, sugar, spices and salt in one cup- 
ful of milk. Stir in the fruit, chopped nuts, bread crumbs and suet, one 
after the other, until all are used, putting in the dissolved soda last and 
adding enough flour to make the fruit stick together, which will take all 
the pint. Boil or steam four hours. Serve with wine or brandy or any 
well-flavored sauce. 



378 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

BAKED PLTJM PUDDING. 

IT WILL be found best to prepare the ingredients the day before and 
cover closely. Grate a loaf of stale bread, or enough for a pint of crumbs ; 
boil one quart of milk and turn boiling hot over the grated bread ; cover 
and let steep an hour ; in the meantime pick, soak and dry half a pound of 
currants, half a pound of raisins, a quarter of a pound of citron cut in 
large slips, one nutmeg, one tablespoonful of mace and cinnamon mixed, 
one cupful of sugar, with half of a cupful of butter ; when the bread is 
ready mix with it the butter, sugar, spice and citron, adding a glassful of 
white wine ; beat eight eggs very light, and when the mixture is quite cold, 
stir them gradually in; then add by degrees the raisins and currants 
dredged with flour ; stir the whole very hard ; put it into a buttered dish ; 
bake two hours, send to the table warm. Eat with wine sauce, or wine 
and sugar. Most excellent. 

PLUM PUDDING, WITHOUT EGGS. 

THIS delicious, light pudding is made by stirring thoroughly together 
the following ingredients : One cupful of finely-chopped beef suet, two 
cupfuls of fine bread crumbs, one cupful of molasses, one of chopped rais- 
ins, one of well-washed currants, one spoonful of salt, one teaspoonful each 
of cloves, cinnamon, allspice and carbonate of soda, one cupful of milk 
and flour enough to make a stiff batter. Put into a well-greased pudding- 
mold, or a three-quart pail and cover closely. Set this pail into a larger 
kettle, close covered, and half full of boiling water, adding boiling water as 
it boils away. Steam not less than four hours. This pudding is sure to 
be a success, and is quite rich for one containing neither eggs nor butter. 
One-half of the above amount is more than eight persons would be able to 
eat, but it is equally good some days later, steamed again for an hour, if 
kept closely covered meantime. Serve with wine sauce or common sweet 
sauce. 

CABINET PUDDING. 

BUTTER well the inside of a pudding-mold. Have ready a cupful of 
chopped citron, raisins and currants. Sprinkle some of this fruit on the 
bottom of the mold, then slices of stale sponge cake ; shake over this 
some spices, cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg, then fruit again and cake, 
until the mold is nearly full. Make a custard of a quart of milk, four 
eggs, a pinch of salt, two tablespoonf uls of melted butter ; pour this over 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 379 

the cake without cooking it ; let it stand and soak one hour ; then steam 
one hour and a half. Serve with wine sauce or a custard. Seasoned with 
wine. 

Manhattan Beach Hotel. 

BAKED CRANBERRY PUDDING. 

POUR boiling water on a pint of bread crumbs ; melt a tablespoonful 
of butter and stir in. When the bread is softened, add two eggs and beat 
thoroughly with the bread. Then put in a pint of the stewed fruit and 
sweeten to your taste. Fresh fruit of many kinds can be used instead of 
cranberries. Slices of peaches put in layers are delicious. Serve with 
sweet sugar sauce. 

ORANGE PUDDING. No. 1. 

ONE pint of milk, the juice of six oranges and the rind of three, eight 
eggs, half a cupful of butter, half a cupful of granulated sugar, one table- 
spoonful of ground rice, paste to line the pudding-dish. Mix the ground 
rice with a little of the cold milk. Put the remainder of the milk in the 
double boiler, and when it boils stir in the mixed rice. Stir for five min- 
utes ; then add the butter and set away to cool. Beat together the sugar, 
the yolks of eight eggs and whites of four. Grate the rinds and squeeze 
the juice of the oranges into this. Stir all into the cooked mixture. 
Have a pudding-dish holding about three quarts lined with paste. Pour 
the preparation into this and bake in a moderate oven for forty minutes. 
Beat the remaining four whites of the eggs to a stiff froth and gradually 
beat in the powdered sugar. Cover the pudding with this. Return to the 
oven and cook ten minutes, leaving the door open. Set away to cool. It 
must be ice cold when served. 

Maria Parloa. 

ORANGE PUDDING. No. 2. 

FIVE sweet oranges, one coffeecupful of white sugar, one pint of milk, 
the yolks of three eggs, one tablespoonful of cornstarch. Peel and cut the 
oranges into thin slices, taking out the seeds ; pour over them the sugar 
and let them stand while you make the rest. Now set the milk in a suita/- 
ble dish into another of boiling water, let the milk get boiling hot, add 
a piece of butter as large as a nutmeg, the cornstarch made smooth with a 
little cold milk, and the well-beaten yolks of the eggs and a little flavor- 
ing. Stir it all well together until it is smooth and cooked. Set it off 
and pour it over the oranges. Beat the whites to a stiff froth, adding two 



380 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

tablespoonfuls of sugar, spread over the top for frosting. Set into the 
oven a few minutes to brown. Eat cold. Berries, peaches and other 
fruits may be substituted. 

BAKED LEMON PUDDING. (Queen of Puddings.) 

Ingredients. One quart of milk, two cupfuls of bread crumbs, four eggs, 
whites and yolks beaten separately, butter the size of an egg, one cupful of 
white sugar, one large lemon juice and grated rind. Heat the milk and 
pour over the bread crumbs, add the butter, cover and let it get soft. 
When cool, beat the sugar and yolks and add to the mixture, also the 
grated rind. Bake in a buttered dish until firm and slightly brown, from 
a half to three-quarters of an hour. When done, draw it to the door 
of the oven and cover with a meringue made of the whites of the eggs, 
whipped to a froth with four tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar and the 
lemon juice ; put it back in the oven and brown a light straw color. Eat 
warm, with lemon sauce. 

LEMON PUDDING. 

A SMALL cupful of butter, the grated peel of two large lemons and the 
juice of one, the yolks of ten eggs and whites of five, a cupful and a half 
of white sugar. Beat all together and, lining a deep pudding-dish with 
puff paste, bake the lemon pudding in it ; while baking, beat the whites 
of the remaining five eggs to a stiff froth, whip in fine white sugar to 
taste, cover the top of the pudding (when baked) with the meringue and 
return to the oven for a moment to brown ; eat cold, it requires no 

sauce. 

BOILED LEMON PUDDING. 

HALF a cupful of chopped suet, one pint of bread crumbs, one lemon, 
one cupful of sugar, one of flour, a teaspoonful of salt and two eggs, milk. 
First mix the suet, bread crumbs, sugar and flour well together, adding the 
lemon peel, which should be the yellow grated from the outside, and the 
juice, which should be strained. When these ingredients are well mixed, 
moisten with the eggs and sufficient milk to make the pudding of the con- 
sistency of thick batter ; put it into a well-buttered mold and boil for three 
and a half hours ; turn it ,out, strew sifted sugar over and serve warm with 
lemon sauce, or not, at pleasure. 

LEMON PUDDING, COLD. 

ONE cupful of sugar, four eggs, the whites and yolks beaten separately, 
two tablespconfuls of cornstarch, one pint of milk, one tablespoonful of 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 381 

outter and the juice and rind of two lemons. Wet the cornstarch in some 
of the milk, then stir it into the remainder of the milk, which should be 
boiling on the stove, stirring constantly and briskly for five minutes. Take 
it from the stove, stir in the butter and let it cool. Beat the yolks and 
sugar together, then stir them thoroughly into the milk and cornstarch. 
Now stir in the lemon juice and grated rind, doing it very gradually, mak- 
ing it very smooth. Bake in a well-buttered dish. To be eaten cold. 
Oranges may be used in place of lemons. This also may be turned while 
hot into several small cups or forms previously dipped in cold water, place 
them aside ; in one hour they will be fit to turn out. Serve with cream 
and sugar. Should be boiled altogether, not baked. 

ROYAL SAGO PUDDING. 

THREE-QUARTERS of a cupful of sago washed and put into one quart of 
milk ; put it into a saucepan, let it stand in boiling water on the stove 
or range until the sago has well swelled. While hot, put in two table- 
spoonfuls of butter with one cupful of white sugar and flavoring. When 
cool, add the well-beaten yolks of four eggs, put in a buttered pudding- 
dish, and bake from half to three-quarters of an hour ; then remove it 
from the oven and place it to cool. Beat the whites of the eggs with 
three tablespoonfuls of powdered white sugar till they are a mass of 
froth ; spread the pudding with either raspberry or strawberry jam, and 
then spread on the frosting ; put in the oven for two minutes to slightly 
brown. If made in summer, be sure and keep the whites of the eggs 
on ice until ready for use and beat them in the coolest place you can find, 
as it will make a much richer frosting. 

The small white sago called pearl is the best. The large brown kind 
has an earthy taste. It should always be kept in a covered jar or box. 

This pudding, made with tapioca, is equally as good. Serve with any 
sweet sauce. 

SAGO APPLE PUDDING. 

ONE cupful of sago in a quart of tepid water, with a pinch of salt, 
soaked for one hour ; six or eight apples pared and cored, or quartered, 
and steamed tender and put in the pudding-dish ; boil and stir the sago 
until clear, adding water to make it thin, and pour it over the apples ; 
bake one hour. This is good hot, with butter and sugar, or cold with 
cream and sugar. 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

PLAIN SAGO PUDDING. 
MAKE the same as TAPIOCA PUDDING, substituting sago for tapioca. 

CHOCOLATE PUDDING. No. 1. 

MAKE a cornstarch pudding with a quart of milk, three tablespoonfuls 
of cornstarch and three tablespoonfuls of sugar. When done, remove 
about half and flavor to taste, and then to that remaining in the kettle 
add an egg beaten very light, and four tablespoonfuls of vanilla chocolate 
grated and dissolved in a little milk. Put in a mold, alternating the dark 
and light. Serve with whipped cream or boiled custard. This is more 
of a blanc mange than a pudding. 

CHOCOLATE PUDDING. No. 2. 

ONE quart of sweet milk, three-quarters of a cupful of grated chocolate ; 
scald the milk and chocolate together ; when coo/, add the yolks of five 
eggs, one cupful of sugar; flavor with vanilla. Bake about twenty-five 
minutes. Beat the five whites of eggs to a stiff froth, adding four table- 
spoonfuls of fine sugar, spread evenly over the top and brown slightly 
in the oven. 

CHOCOLATE PUDDING. No. 3. 

ONE quart of milk, fourteen even tablespoonfuls of grated bread 
crumbs, twelve tablespoonfuls grated chocolate, six eggs, one tablespoon- 
ful vanilla, sugar to make very sweet. Separate the yolks and whites 
of four eggs, beat up the four yolks and two whole eggs together very 
light with the sugar. Put the milk on the range, and when it comes to 
a perfect boil pour it over the bread and chocolate ; add the beaten eggs 
and sugar and vanilla ; be sure it is sweet enough ; pour into a buttered 
dish ; bake one hour in a moderate oven. When cold, and just before it is 
served, have the four whites beaten with a little powdered sugar and 
flavor with vanilla and use as a meringue. 

CHOCOLATE PUDDING. No. 4. 

HALF a cake of chocolate broken in one quart of milk and put on 
the range until it reaches boiling point; remove the mixture from the 
range ; add four teaspoonfuls of cornstarch mixed with the yolks of three 
eggs and one cup and a half of sugar ; stir constantly until thick ; re- 
move -from the fire and flavor with vanilla ; pour the mixture in a dish ; 
beat the whites of the three eggs to a stiff froth and add a little sugar ; 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 383 

cover the top of the pudding with a meringue and set in the oven until 
a light brown. Serve cold. 

TAPIOCA PUDDING. 

FIVE tablespoonfuls of tapioca, one quart of milk, two ounces of butter, 
a cupful of sugar, four eggs, flavoring of vanilla or bitter almonds. Wash 
the tapioca and let it stew gently in the milk on the back part of the stove for 
a quarter of an hour, occasionally stirring it ; then let it cool, mix with it 
the butter, sugar and eggs, which should be well beaten, and flavor with 
either of the above ingredients. Butter a dish, put in the pudding and 
bake in a moderate oven for an hour. If the pudding is boiled, add a little 
more tapioca and boil it in a buttered basin one and a half hours. 

STEAWBEEEY TAPIOCA. 

THIS makes a most delightful dessert. Soak over night a large teacup- 
ful of tapioca in cold water ; in the morning, put half of it in a buttered 
yellow-ware baking-dish, or any suitable pudding-dish. Sprinkle sugar 
over the tapioca; then on this put a quart of berries, sugar and the rest of 
the tapioca. Fill the dish with water, which should cover the tapioca 
about a quarter of an inch. Bake in a moderately hot oven until it looks 
clear. Eat cold, with cream or custard. If not sweet enough, add more 
sugar at table ; and in baking, if it seems too dry, more water is needed. 

A similar dish may be made, using peaches, either fresh or canned. 

EASPBEEEY PUDDING. 

ONE-QUAETER cupful of butter, one-half cupful of sugar, two .cupfuls of 
jam, six cupfuls of soft bread crumbs, four eggs. Rub the butter and sugar 
together, beat the eggs, yolks and whites separately, mash the raspber- 
ries, add the whites beaten to a stiff froth, stir all together to a smooth 
paste ; butter a pudding dish, cover the bottom with a layer of the crumbs, 
then a layer of the mixture ; continue the alternate layers until the dish is 
full, making the last layer of crumbs ; bake one hour in a moderate oven. 
Serve in the dish in which it is baked and serve with fruit sauce made 
wi f b raspberries. This pudding may be made the same with any otjjer 
kind of berries. 

PEAE, PEACH AND APPLE PUDDING. 

PARE some nice ripe pears (to weigh about three-fourths of a p' and) ; 
put them in a saucepan with a few cloves, some lemon or orange peel, and 



384 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

stew about a quarter of an hour in two cupf uls of water ; put them in 
your pudding-dish, and having made the following custard, one pint of 
cream, or milk, four eggs, sugar to taste, a pinch of salt and a tablespoon- 
ful of flour ; beat eggs and sugar well, add the flour, grate some nutmeg, 
add the cream by degrees, stirring all the time, pour this over the pears 
and bake in a quick oven. Apples or peaches may be substituted. 
Serve cold with sweetened cream. 

FIG PUDDINGS. 

HALF a pound of good dried figs, washed, wiped and minced, two 
cupfuls of fine, dry bread crumbs, three eggs, half a cupful of beef suet, 
powdered, two scant cupfuls of sweet milk, half a cupful of white sugar, 
a little salt, half a teaspoonful of baking powder, stirred in half a cupful 
of sifted flour. Soak the crumbs in milk, add the eggs, beaten light, with 
sugar, salt, suet, flour and figs. Beat three minutes, put in buttered molds 
with tight top, set in boiling water with weight on cover to prevent mold 
from upsetting, and boil three hours, Eat hot with hard sauce or butter, 
powdered sugar, one teaspoonful of extract of nutmeg. 

FRUIT PUDDING, CORN MEAL. 

TAKE a pint of hot milk and stir in sifted Indian meal till the batter is 
stiff ; add a teaspoonful of salt and half of a cup of molasses, adding a 
teaspoonful of soda dissolved; then stir in a pint of whortleberries or 
chopped sweet apple ; tie in a cloth that has been wet, and leave room 
for it to swell, or put it in a pudding-pan and tie a cloth over ; boil three 
hours ; the water must boil when it is put in ; you can use cranberries 

and sweet sauce. 

APPLE CORN MEAL PUDDING. 

PARE and core twelve pippin apples; slice them very thin; then stir 
into one quart of new milk one quart of sifted corn meal ; add a little salt, 
then the apples, four spoonfuls of chopped suet and a teacupful of good 
molasses, adding a teaspoonful of soda dissolved ; mix these well together, 
pour into a buttered dish and bake four hours ; serve hot with sugar and 
wine sauce. This is the most simple, cheap and luxuriant fruit pud- 
ding that can be made. 

RHUBARB OR PIE-PLANT PUDDING. 

CHOP rhubarb pretty fine, put in a pudding dish and sprinkle sugar 
over it; make a batter of one cupful of sour milk, two eggs, a piece of 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 385 

butter the size of an egg, half a teaspoonful of soda and enough flour to 
make batter about as thick as for cake. Spread it over the rhubarb and 
bake till done. Turn out on a platter upside down, so that the rhubarb 
will be on top. Serve with sugar and cream. 

FRUIT PUDDINGS. 

FRUIT puddings, such as green gooseberry, are very nice made in a 
basin, the basin to be buttered and lined with a paste, rolling it round 
to the thickness of half an inch ; then get a pint of gooseberries and three 
ounces of sugar; after having made your paste, take half the fruit and 
lay it at the bottom of your basin ; then add half your sugar, then put 
the remainder of the gooseberries in and the remainder of the sugar; 
on that, draw your paste to the centre, join the edges well together, 
put the cloth over the whole, tying it at the bottom, and boil in plenty 
of water. Fruit puddings of this kind, such as apples and rhubarb, should 
be done in this manner. 

Boil for an hour, take out of the saucepan, untie the cloth, turn out 
on a dish, or let it remain in the basin and serve with sugar over. A thin 
cover of the paste may be rolled round and put over the pudding. 

Ripe cherries, currants, raspberries, greengages, plums and such like 
fruit, will not require so much sugar, or so long boiling. These puddings 
are also very good steamed. 

SNOW PUDDING. 

ONE half a package of Cox's gelatine ; pour over it a cupful of cold 
water and add one and a half cupfuls of sugar ; when soft, add one cup- 
ful of boiling water and the juice of one lemon ; then the whites of four 
well-beaten eggs ; beat all together until it is light and frothy, or until the 
gelatine will not settle clear in the bottom of the dish after standing a 
few minutes ; put it on a glass dish. Serve with a custard made of one 
pint of milk, the yolks of four eggs, four tablespoonfuls of sugar and 
the grated rind of a lemon ; boil. 

DELMONICO PUDDING. 

THREE tablespoonfuls of cornstarch, the yolks of five eggs, six table- 
spoonfuls of sugar; beat the eggs light, then add the sugar and beat 
again till very light; mix the cornstarch with a little cold milk; mix 
all together and stir into one quart of milk just as it is about to boil, 

having added a little salt ; stir it until it has thickened well ; pour it into 
25 



386 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

a dish for the table and place it in the oven until it will bear icing ; place 
over the top a layer of canned peaches or other fruit (and it improves it 
to mix the syrup of the fruit with the custard part) ; beat the whites to a 
stiff froth with two tablespoonfuls of white sugar to an egg ; then put it 
into the oven until it is a light brown. 

This is a very delicate and delicious pudding. 

SAUCER PUDDINGS. 

Two TABLESPOONFULS of flour, two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, 
three eggs, a teacupful of milk, butter, preserve of any kind. Mix the 
flour and sugar, beat the eggs, add them to the milk, and beat up with the 
flour and sugar. Butter well three saucers, half fill them, and bake in a 
quick oven about twenty minutes. Remove them from the saucers when 
cool enough, cut in half, and spread a thin layer of preserve between each 
half ; close them again, and serve with cream. 

NANTUCKET PUDDING. 

ONE quart of berries or any small fruit, two tablespoonfuls of flour, two 
tablespoonfuls of sugar ; simmer together and turn into molds ; cover with 
frosting as for cake, or with whipped eggs and sugar, browning lightly in 
the oven; serve with cream. 

TOAST PUDDING. 

TOAST several thin slices of stale bread, removing the crust, butter 
them well, and pour over them hot stewed fruit in alternate layers. Serve 
warm with rich hot sauce. 

PLAIN RICE PUDDING. 

PICK over, wash and boil, a teacupful of rice ; when soft drain off the 
water ; while warm, add to it a tablespoonful of cold butter. When cool, 
mix with it a cupful of sugar, a teaspoonful of grated nutmeg and one 
of ground cinnamon. Beat up four eggs very light, whites and yolks 
separately ; add them to the rice ; then stir in a quart of sweet milk grad- 
ually. Butter a pudding-dish, turn in the mixture and bake one hour in 
a moderate oven. Serve warm, with sweet wine sauce. 

If you have cold cooked rice, first soak it in the milk and proceed as 
above. 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 387 

RICE PUDDING. (Fine.) 

WASH a teacupful of rice and boil it in two teacupfuls of water ; then, 
add, while the rice is hot, three tablespoonfuls of butter, five tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar, five eggs well beaten, one tablespoonful of powdered 
nutmeg, a little salt, one glass of wine, a quarter of a pound of raisins, 
stoned and cut in halves, a quarter of a pound of Zante currants, a 
quarter of a pound of citron cut in slips, and one quart of cream; mix 
well, pour into a buttered dish and bake an hour in a moderate oven. 

Astor House, New York City. 

RICE MERINGUE. 

ONE cupful of carefully sorted rice boiled in water until it is soft ; when 
done, drain it so as to remove all the water ; cool it, and add one quart 
of new milk, the well-beaten yolks of three eggs, three tablespoonfuls of 
white sugar and a little nutmeg, or flavor with lemon or vanilla; pour 
into a baking dish and bake about half an hour. Let it get cold ; beat 
the whites of the eggs, add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, flavor with lemon 
or vanilla; drop or spread it over the pudding and slightly brown it in 
the oven. 

RICE LEMON PUDDING. 

PUT on to boil one quart of milk, and when it simmers stir in four 
tablespoonfuls of rice flour that has been moistened in a little milk ; let it 
come to a boil and remove from the fire ; add one quarter of a pound of 
butter, and, when cool, the grated peel with the juice of two lemons, 
and the yolks and beaten whites of four eggs; sweeten to taste; one 
wine-glassful of wine, put in the last thing, is also an improvement. 

RICE PUDDING WITHOUT EGGS. 

Two QUARTS of milk, two-thirds of a cupful of rice, a cupful of sugar, a 
piece of butter as large as a walnut, a teaspoonful of cinnamon, a little 
nutmeg and a pinch of salt. Put into a deep pudding-dish, well buttered, 
set into a moderate oven ; stir it once or twice until it begins to cook, let 
it remain in the oven about two hours (until it is the consistency of 
cream). Eat cold. 

FRUIT RICE PUDDING. 

ONE large teacupful of rice, a little water to cook it partially ; dry, line 
an earthen basin with part of it ; fill nearly full with pared, cored and 



388 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

quartered apples, or any fruit you choose ; cover with the balance of your 
rice ; tie a cloth tightly over the top and steam one hour. To be eaten 
with sweet sauce. Do not butter your dish. 

BOILED RICE PUDDING. No. 1. 

ONE cupful of cold boiled rice, one cupful of sugar, four eggs, a pinch 
of soda and a pinch of salt. Put it all in a bowl and beat it up until it is 
very light and white. Beat four ounces of butter to a cream, put it into 
the pudding and ten drops of essence of lemon. Beat altogether for five 
minutes. Butter a mold, pour the pudding into it and boil for two hours. 
Serve with sweet fruit sauce. 

BOILED RICE PUDDING. No. 2. 

WASH two teacupf uls of rice and soak it in water for half an hour ; then 
turn off the water and mix the rice with half a pound of raisins stoned and 
cut in halves ; add a little salt, tie the whole in a cloth, leaving room for 
the rice to swell to twice its natural size, and boil two hours in plenty of 
water; serve with wine sauce. 

RICE SNOW-BALLS. 

WASH two teacupfuls of rice and boil it in one teacupful of water 
and one of milk, with a little salt ; if the rice is not tender when the milk 
and water are absorbed, add a little more milk and water ; when the rice 
is tender, flavor with vanilla, form it into balls, or mold it into a compact 
form with little cups; place these rice balls around the inside of a deep 
dish, fill the dish with a rich soft custard and serve either hot or cold. 
The custard and balls should be flavored with the same. 

PRUNE PUDDING. 

HEAT a little more than a pint of sweet milk to the boiling point, then 
stir in gradually a little cold milk in which you have rubbed smooth a 
heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch ; add sugar to suit your taste, three 
well-beaten eggs, about a teaspoonful of butter and a little grated nut- 
meg. Let this come to a boil, then pour it in a buttered pudding-dish, 
first adding a cupful of stewed prunes, with the stones taken out. Bake 
for from fifteen to twenty minutes, according to the state of the oven. 
Serve with or without sauce. A little cream improves it if poured over 
it when placed in saucers. 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 389 

BLACKBERRY OR WHORTLEBERRY PUDDING. 

THREE cupfuls of flour, one cupful of molasses, half a cupful of milk, 
a teaspoonful of salt, a little cloves and cinnamon, a teaspoonful of soda 
dissolved in a little of the milk. Stir in a quart of huckleberries, floured. 
Boil in a well-buttered mold two hours. Serve with brandy sauce. 

BAKED HUCKLEBERRY PUDDING. 

ONE quart of ripe fresh huckleberries or blueberries, half a teaspoon- 
ful of mace or nutmeg, three eggs well beaten, separately, two cupfuls of 
sugar, one tablespoonful of cold butter, one cupful of sweet milk, one 
pint of flour, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Roll the berries well 
in the flour and add them last of all. Bake half an hour and serve with 
sauce. There is no more delicate and delicious pudding than this. 

FRUIT PUDDING. 

THIS pudding is made without cooking and is nice prepared the day 
before used. 

Stew currants or any small fruits, either fresh or dried, sweeten with 
sugar to taste and pour hot over thin slices of bread with the crust cut 
off, placed in a suitable dish, first a layer of bread, then the hot stewed 
fruit, then bread and fruit, then bread, leaving the fruit last. Put a plate 
over the top and, when cool, set it on ice. Serve with sugar and cream. 

This pudding is very fine made with Boston crackers split open and 
placed in layers with stewed peaches. 

BOILED CURRANT PUDDING. 

FIVE cupfuls of sifted flour in which two teaspoonfuls of baking pow- 
der have been sifted, one-half a cupful of chopped suet, half a pound of 
currants, milk, a pinch of salt. Wash the currants, dry them thoroughly 
and pick away any stalks or grit ; chop the suet finely ; mix all the in- 
gredients together and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding 
into a stiff batter ; tie it up in a floured cloth, put it into boiling water 
and boil for three hours and a half. Serve with jelly sauce made very 
sweet. 

TRANSPARENT PUDDING. 

A SMALL cupful of fresh butter warmed, but not melted, one cupful 
of sifted sugar creamed with the butter, a teaspoonful of nutmeg, grated, 
eight eggs, yolks and whites beaten separately. Beat the butter and 



390 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

sugar light and then add the nutmeg and the beaten eggs, which should 
be stirred in gradually ; flavor with vanilla, almond, peach or rose-water ; 
stir hard; butter a deep dish, line with puff paste and bake half an hour. 
Then make a meringue for the top and brown. Serve cold. 

SWEET-POTATO PUDDING. 

To A large sweet potato, weighing two pounds, allow half a pound of 
sugar, half a pound of butter, one gill of sweet cream, one gill of strong 
wine or brandy, one grated nutmeg, a little lemon peel and four eggs. 
Boil the potato until thoroughly done, mash up fine, and while hot add 
the sugar and butter. Set aside to cool while you beat the eggs light and 
add the seasoning last. Line tin plates with puff paste, and pour in the 
mixture, bake in a moderate but regularly heated oven. When the pud- 
dings are drawn from the fire, cover the top with thinly-sliced bits of 
preserved citron or quince marmalade. Strew the top thickly with 
granulated white sugar and serve, with the addition of a glass of rich 
milk for each person at table. 

PINEAPPLE PUDDING. 

BUTTER a pudding-dish and line the bottom and sides with slices of 
stale cake (sponge cake is best) ; pare and slice thin a large pineapple, 
place in the dish first a layer of pineapple, then strew with sugar, then 
more pineapple, and so on until all is used. Pour over a small teacupful 
of water and cover with slices of cake which have been dipped in cold 
water ; cover the whole with a buttered plate and bake slowly for two 
hours. 

ORANGE HOLEY POLEY. 

MAKE a light dough the same as for apple dumplings, roll it out into 
a long narrow sheet, about quarter of an inch thick. Spread thickly over 
it peeled and sliced oranges, sprinkle it plentifully with white sugar, 
scatter over all a teaspoonful or two of grated orange peel, then roll 
it up. Fold the edges well together to keep the juices from running 
out. Boil it in a floured cloth one hour and a half. Serve it with 
lemon sauce. Fine. 

ROLEY POLEY PUDDING. (Apple.) 

PEEL, core and slice sour apples ; make a rich biscuit dough, or raised 
biscuit dough may be used if rolled thinner ; roll not quite half an inch 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 391 

thick, lay the slices on the paste, roll up, tuck in the ends, prick deeply 
with a fork, lay it in a steamer and steam hard for an hour and three- 
quarters. Or wrap it in a pudding-cloth well floured ; tie the ends, baste 
up the sides, plunge into boiling water and boil continually an hour and 
a half, perhaps more. Stoned cherries, dried fruits, or any kind of berries, 
fresh or dried, may be used. 

FRUIT PUFF PUDDING. 

INTO one pint of flour stir two teaspoonfuls baking powder and a little 
salt ; then sift and stir the mixture into milk, until very soft. Place 
well-greased cups in a steamer, put in each a spoonful of the above batter, 
then add one of berries or steamed apples, cover with another spoonful of 
batter and steam twenty minutes. This pudding is delicious made with 
strawberries and eaten with a sauce made of two eggs, half a cup butter, a 
cup of sugar beaten thoroughly with a cup of boiling milk and one cup 
of strawberries. 

SPONGE CAKE PUDDING. No. 1. 

BAKE a common sponge cake in a flat-bottomed pudding-dish ; when 
ready to use, cut in six or eight pieces, split and spread with butter and 
return them to the dish. Make a custard 'with four eggs to a quart of 
milk ; flavor and sweeten to taste ; pour over the cake and bake one-half 
hour. The cake will swell and fill the custard. Serve with or without 
sauce. 

SPONGE CAKE PUDDING. No. 2. 

BUTTER pudding-mold ; fill the mold with small sponge cakes or slices 
of stale plain cake that have been soaked in a liquid made by dissolving 
one-half pint of jelly in a pint of hot water. This will be of as fine a 
flavor and much better for all than if the cake had been soaked in wine. 
Make a sufficient quantity of custard to fill the mold and leave as much 
more to be boiled in a dish by itself. Set the mold, after being tightly 
covered, into a kettle and boil one hour. Turn out of the mold and serve 
with some of the other custard poured over it. 

GRAHAM PUDDING. 

Mix well together one-half a coffeecupful of molasses, one-quarter of 
a cupful of butter, one egg, one-half a cupful of milk, one-half a tea- 
spoonful of pure soda, one and one-half cupfuls of good Graham flour, 



392 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

one small teacupf ul of raisins, spices to taste. Steam four hours and serve 
with brandy or wine sauce, or any sauce that may be preferred. This 
makes a showy as well as a light and wholesome dessert, and has the 
merit of simplicity and cheapness. 

BANANA PUDDING. 

CUT sponge cake in slices, and, in a glass dish, put alternately a layer 
of cake and a layer of bananas sliced. Make a soft custard, flavor with a 
little wine, and pour over it. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth 
and heap over the whole. 

Peaches cut up, left a few hours in sugar and then scalded, and added 
when cold to thick boiled custard, made rather sweet, are a delicious 
dessert. 

DRIED PEACH PUDDING. 

BOIL one pint of milk and while hot turn it over a pint of bread- 
crumbs. Stir into it a tablespoonful of butter, one pint of dried peaches 
stewed soft. When all is cool, add two well-beaten eggs, half a cupful of 
sugar and a pinch of salt ; flavor to taste. Put into a well-buttered 
pudding-dish and bake half an hour. 

SUET PUDDING, PLAIN. 

ONE cupful of chopped suet, one cupful of milk, two eggs beaten, half a 
teaspoonful of salt and enough flour to make a stiff batter, but thin 
enough to pour from a spoon. Put into a bowl, cover with a cloth and 
boil three hours. The same, made a little thinner, with a few raisins 
added and baked in a well-greased dish is excellent. Two teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder in the flour improves this pudding. Or if made with 
sour milk and soda it is equally as good. 

SUET PLUM PUDDING. 

ONE cupful of suet chopped fine, one cupful of cooking molasses, one 
cupful of milk, one cupful of raisins, three and one-half cupfuls of flour, 
one egg, one teaspoonful of cloves, two of cinnamon and one of nutmeg, a 
little salt, one teaspoonful of soda ; boil three hours in a pudding-mold 
set into a kettle of water ; eat with common sweet sauce. If sour milk is 
used in place of sweet, the pudding will be much lighter, 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 393 

PEACH COBBLER. 

LINE a deep dish with rich thick crust ; pare and cut into halves or 
quarters some juicy, rather tart peaches ; put in sugar, spices and flavoring 
to taste ; stew it slightly and put it in the lined dish ; cover with thick 
crust of rich puff paste and bake a rich brown ; when done, break up 
the top crust into small pieces and stir it into the fruit ; serve hot or cold ; 
very palatable without sauce, but more so with plain rich cream or cream 
sauce, or with a rich brandy or wine. Other fruits can be used in place of 
peaches. Currants are best made in this manner: 

Press the currants through a sieve to free it from pips ; to each pint 
of the pulp put two ounces of crumbed bread and four ounces of sugar ; 
bake with a rim of puff paste ; serve with cream. White currants may 
be used instead of red. 

HOMINY PUDDING. 

TWO-THIRDS of a cupful of hominy, one and a half pints of milk, two 
eggs, one tablespoonful of butter, one teaspoonful of extract of lemon or 
vanilla, one cupful of sugar. Boil hominy in milk one hour ; then pour it 
on the eggs, extract and sugar beaten together ; add butter, pour in but- 
tered pudding-dish, bake in hot oven for twenty minutes. 

BAKED BERRY ROLLS. 

ROLL rich biscuit dough thin, cut it into little squares four inches wide 
and seven inches long. Spread over with berries. Roll up the crust, and 
put the rolls in a dripping-pan just a little apart ; put a -piece of butter 
on each roll, spices if you like. Strew over a large handful of sugar, a 
little hot water. Set in the oven and bake like dumplings. Served with 
sweet sauce. 

GREEN CORN PUDDING. 

TAKE two dozen full ears of sweet green corn, score the kernels and 
cut them from the cob. Scrape off what remains on the cob with a knife. 
Add a pint and a half or one quart of milk, according to the youngness 
and juiciness of the corn. Add four eggs well beaten, a half teacupful of 
flour, a half teacupful butter, a tablespoonful of sugar, and salt to taste. 
Bake in a well-greased earthen dish, in a hot oven two hours. Place it 
on the table browned and smoking hot, eat it with plenty of fresh butter. 
This can be used as a dessert by serving a sweet sauce with it. If eaten 
plainly with butter, it answers as a side vegetable. 



394 DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

GENEVA WAFERS. 

Two EGGS, three ounces of butter, three ounces of flour, three ounces of 
pounded sugar. Well whisk the eggs, put them into a basin and stir to 
them the butter, which should be beaten to a cream ; add the flour and 
sifted sugar gradually, and then mix all well together. Butter a baking- 
sheet, and drop on it a teaspoonful of the mixture at a time, leaving a 
space between each. Bake in a cool oven ; watch the pieces of paste, and, 
when half done, roll them up like wafers and put in a small wedge of 
bread or piece of wood, to keep them in shape. Return them to the oven 
until crisp. Before serving, remove the bread, put a spoonful of preserve 
in the widest end, and fill up with whipped cream. This is a very pretty 
and ornamental dish for the supper-table, and is very nice and very 
easily made. 

MINUTE PUDDING. No. 1. 

SET saucepan or deep frying pan on the stove, the bottom and sides 
well buttered, put into it a quart of sweet milk, a pinch of salt and a piece 
of butter as large as half an egg ; when it boils have ready a dish of sifted 
flour, stir it into the boiling milk, sifting it through your fingers, a hand- 
ful at a time, until it becomes smooth and quite thick. Turn it into a dish 
that has been dipped in water. Make a sauce very sweet to serve with it. 
Maple molasses is fine with it. This pudding is much improved by adding 
canned berries or fresh ones just before taking from the stove. 

MINUTE PUDDING. No. 2. 

ONE quart of milk, salt, two eggs, about & pint of flour. Beat the eggs 
well ; add the flour and enough milk to make it smooth. Butter the 
saucepan and put in the remainder of the milk well salted ; when it boils, 
stir in the flour, eggs, etc., lightly; let it cook well. It should be of 
the consistency of thick corn mush. Serve immediately with the follow- 
ing simple sauce, viz : Rich milk or cream sweetened to taste and flavored 
with grated nutmeg. 

SUNDERLAND PUDDING. 

ONE cupful of sugar, half a cupful of cold butter, a pint of milk, two 
cupf uls of sifted flour and five eggs. Make the milk hot ; stir in the ihut- 
ter and let it cool before the other ingredients are added to it ; then stir in 
the sugar, flour and eggs, which should be well whisked and omit the 



DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 395 

whites of two ; flavor with a little grated lemon rind and beat the mixture 
well. Butter some small cups, rather more than half fill them ; bake from 
twenty minutes to half an hour, according to the size of the puddings, and 
serve with fruit, custard or wine sauce, a little of which may be poured 
over them. They may be dropped by spoonfuls on buttered tins and 
baked, if cups are- not convenient. 

JELLY PUDDINGS. 

Two CUPFULS of very fine stale biscuit or bread crumbs, one cupful of 
rich milk half cream, if you can get it; five eggs beaten very light, 
half a teaspoonful of soda stirred in boiling water, one cupful of sweet 
jelly, jam or marmalade. Scald the milk and pour over the crumbs. 
Beat until half cold and stir in the beaten yolks, then whites, finally the 
soda. Fill large cups half full with the batter, set in a quick oven and 
bake half an hour. When done, turn out quickly and dexterously ; with 
a sharp knife make an incision in the side of each ; pull partly open, and 
put a liberal spoonful of the conserve within. Close the slit ty pinching 
the edges with your fingers. Eat warm with sweetened cream. 

QUICK PUDDING. 

SOAK and split some crackers ; lay the surface over with raisins and 
citron ; put the halves together, tie them in a bag, and boil fifteen min- 
utes in milk "and water; delicious with rich sauce. 

READY PUDDING. 

MAKE a batter of one quart of milk and about one pound of flour ; add 
six eggs, the yolks and whites separately beaten, a teaspoonful of salt and 
four tablespoonfuls of sugar. It should be as stiff as can possibly be 
stirred with a spoon. Dip a spoonful at a time into quick boiling water, 
boil from five to ten minutes, take out. Serve hot with sauce or syrup. 

A ROYAL DESSERT. 

CUT a stale cake into slices an inch and a half in thickness ; pour over 
them a little good sweet cream ; then fry lightly in fresh butter in a 
smooth frying pan ; when done, place over each slice of cake a layer of 
preserves or you may make a rich sauce to be served with it. 

Another dish equally as good, is to dip thin slices of bread into fresh 
milk ; have ready two eggs well beaten ; dip the slices in the egg and fry 



396 . DUMPLINGS AND PUDDINGS. 

them in butter to a light brown ; when fried, pour over them a syrup, any 
kind that you choose, and serve hot. 

HUCKLEBERRIES WITH CRACKERS AND CREAM. 

PICK over carefully one quart of blueberries and keep them on ice until 
wanted. Put into each bowl, for each guest, two soda crackers, broken in 
not too small pieces ; add a few tablespoonf uls of berries, a teaspoonful of 
powdered sugar and fill the bowl with the richest of cold sweet cream. 
This is an old-fashioned New England breakfast dish. It also answers 
for a dessert. 




SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS, 

* * * 
BRANDY SAUCE, COLD. 

Two CUPFULS of powdered sugar, half a cupful of butter, one wine- 
glassful of brandy, cinnamon and nutmeg, a teaspoonful of each. 
Warm the butter slightly and work it to a light cream with the 
sugar, then add the brandy and spices ; beat it hard and set aside 
until wanted. Should be put into a mold to look nicely and serve on a 
flat dish. 

BRANDY OR WINE SAUCE. No. 1. 

STIR a heaping teaspoonful of cornstarch in a little cold water to a 
smooth paste (or instead use a tablespoonful of sifted flour) ; add to it a 
cupful of boiling water, with one cupful of sugar, a piece of butter as large 
as an egg, boil all together ten minutes. Remove from the fire and when 
cool, stir into it half of a cupful of brandy or wine. It should be about as 
thick as thin syrup. 

BRANDY OR WINE SAUCE. No. 2. 

TAKE one cupful of butter, two of powdered sugar, the whites of two 
eggs, five tablespoonfuls of sherry wine or brandy and a quarter of a cup- 
ful of boiling water. Beat butter and sugar to a cream, add the whites of 
the eggs, one at a time, unbeaten, and then the wine or brandy. Place the 
bowl in hot water and stir till smooth and frothy. 

RICH WINE SAUCE. 

ONE cupful of butter, two of powdered sugar, half a cupful of wine. 
Beat the butter to a cream. Add the sugar gradually and when very light 
add the wine, which has been made hot, a little at a time, a teaspoonful of 
grated nutmeg. Place the bowl in a basin of hot water and stir for two 
minutes. The sauce should be smooth and foamy. 

SAUCE FOR PLUM PUDDING. (Superior.) 

CREAM together a cupful of sugar and half a cupful of butter ; when 
light and creamy, add the well-beaten yolks of four eggs, Stir into this 

(397) 



398 SAUCES FOE PUDDINGS, 

one wine-glass of wine or one of brandy, a pinch of salt and one large cup- 
ful of hot cream or rich milk. Beat this mixture well ; place it in a sauce- 
pan over the fire, stir it until it cooks sufficiently to thicken like cream. 
Be sure and not let it boil. Delicious. 

LIQUID BRANDY SAUCE. 

BROWN over the fire three tablespoonfuls of sugar; add a cupful of 
water, six whole cloves and a piece of stick cinnamon, the yellow rind of a 
lemon cut very thin ; let the sauce boil, strain while hot, then pour it into 
a sauce bowl containing the juice of the lemon and a cup of brandy. 
Serve warm. 

GRANDMOTHER'S SAUCE. 

CREAM together a cupful of sifted sugar and half a cupful of butter, add 
a teaspoonful of ground cinnamon and an egg well beaten. Boil a teacup- 
ful of milk and turn it, boiling hot, over the mixture slowly, stirring all 
the time ; this will cook the egg smoothly. It may be served cold or hot. 

SUGAR SAUCE. 

ONE coffeecupful of granulated sugar, half of a cupful of water, a piece 
of butter the size of a walnut. Boil all together until it becomes the con- 
sistency of syrup. Flavor with lemon or vanilla extract. A tablespoonful 
of lemon juice is an improvement. Nice with cottage pudding. 

LEMON SAUCE. 

ONE cupful of sugar, half a cupful of butter, one egg beaten light, one 
lemon, juice and grated rind, half a cupful of boiling water; put in a tin 
basin and thicken over steam. 

LEMON CREAM SAUCE, HOT. 

PUT half a pint of new milk on the fire and when it boils stir into 
it one teaspoonful of wheat flour, four ounces of sugar and the well-beaten 
yolks of three eggs ; remove it from the fire and add the grated rind and 
the juice of one lemon; stir it well and serve hot in a sauce tureen. 

ORANGE CREAM SAUCE, HOT. 

THIS is made as LEMON CREAM SAUCE, substituting orange for lemon. 
Creams for puddings, pies and fritters may be made in the same 



SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS. 399 

manner with any other flavoring ; if flour is used in making them, it 
should boil in the milk three or four minutes. 

COLD LEMON SAUCE, 

BEAT to a cream one teacupful of butter and two teacupfuls of fine 
white sugar; then stir in the juice and grated rind of one lemon; grate 
nutmeg upon the sauce and serve on a flat dish. 

COLD ORANGE SAUCE. 

BEAT to a cream one teacupful of butter and two teacupfuls of fine 
white sugar; then stir in the grated rind of one orange and the juice 
of two ; stir until all the orange juice is absorbed ; grate nutmeg upon 
the sauce and serve on a flat dish. 

COLD CREAM SAUCE. 

STIR to a cream one cupful of sugar, half a cupful of butter, then add a 
cupful of sweet, thick cold cream, flavor to taste. Stir well and set it 
in a cool place. 

CREAM SAUCE, WARM. 

HEAT a pint of cream slowly in a double boiler ; when nearly boiling, 
set it off from the fire, put into it half a cupful of sugar, a little nutmeg or 
vanilla extract ; stir it thoroughly and add, when cool, the whites of two 
well-beaten eggs. Set it on the fire in a dish containing hot water to 
keep it warm until needed, stirring once or more. 

CARAMEL SAUCE. 

PLACE over the fire a saucepan ; when it begins to be hot, put into it 
four tablespoonf uls of white sugar and one tablespoonful of water. Stir it 
continually for three or four minutes, until all the water evaporates ; then 
watch it carefully until it becomes a delicate brown color. Have ready a 
pint of cold water and cup of sugar mixed with some flavoring ; turn it 
into the saucepan with the browned sugar and let it simmer for ten 
minutes ; then add half a glass of brandy or a glass of wine. The wine or 
brandy may be omitted if preferred. 

A GOOD PLAIN SAUCE. 

A GOOD sauce to go with plain fruit puddings is made by mixing one 
cupful of brown sugar, one cupful of best molasses, half a cupful of butter, 



400 SAUCES FOE PUDDINGS. 

one large teaspoonful of flour; add the juice and grated rind of one 
lemon, half a nutmeg grated, half a teaspoonful of cloves and cinnamon. 
When these are all stirred together, add a teacupful of boiling water; 
stir it constantly, put into a saucepan and let it boil until clear; then 
strain. 

OLD STYLE SAUCE. 

ONE pint of sour cream, the juice and finely grated rind of a large 
lemon ; sugar to taste. Beat hard and long until the sauce is very light. 
This is delicious with cold "Brown Betty" a form of cold farina corn- 
starch, blanc mange and the like. 

PLAIN COLD, HARD SAUCE. 

STIR together one cupful of white sugar and half a cupful of butter 
until it is creamy and light; add flavoring to taste. This is very nice, 
flavored with the juice of raspberries or strawberries, or beat into it 
a cupful of ripe strawberries or raspberries and the white of an egg 
beaten stiff. 

CUSTARD SAUCE. 

ONE cupul of sugar, two beaten eggs, one pint of milk, flavoring to taste, 
brandy or wine, if preferred. 

Heat the milk to boiling ; add by degrees the beaten eggs and sugar, put 
in the flavoring and set within a pan of boiling water ; stir until it begins 
to thicken ; then take it off and stir in the brandy or wine gradually ; 
set, until wanted, within a pan of boiling water. 

MILK SAUCE. 

DISSOLVE a tablespoonf ul of flour in cold milk ; see that it is free from 
lumps. Whisk an ounce of butter and a cupful of sugar to a cream and 
add to it a pinch of salt. Mix together half a pint of milk, one egg and 
the flour ; stir this into the butter and add a dash of nutmeg, or any flavor ; 
heat until near the boiling point and serve. Very nice in place of cold 
cream. 

MILK OR CREAM SAUCE. 

CREAM or rich milk, simply sweetened with plenty of white sugar and 
flavored, answers the purpose for some kinds of pudding, and can be made 
very quickly. 



SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS. 401 

FRUIT SAUCE. 

TWO-THIRDS of a cupful of sugar, a pint of raspberries or strawberries, 
a tablespoonful of melted butter and a cupful of hot water. Boil all to- 
gether slowly, removing the scum as fast as it rises ; then strain through a 
sieve. This is very good served with dumplings or apple puddings. 

JELLY SAUCE. 

MELT two tablespoonf uls of sugar and half a cupful of jelly over the fire 
in a cupful of boiling water, adding also two tablespoonf uls of butter ; then 
stir into it a teaspoonful of cornstarch, dissolved in half a cupful of water 
or wine ; add it to the jelly and let it come to a boil. Set it in a dish of 
hot water to keep it warm until time to serve ; stir occasionally. Any 
fruit jelly can be used. 

COMMON SWEET SAUCE. 

INTO a pint of water stir a paste made of a tablespoonful of cornstarch 
or flour (rubbed smooth with a little cold water) ; add a cupful of sugar 
and a tablespoonful of vinegar. Cook well for three minutes. Take from 
the fire and add a piece of butter as large as a small egg; when cool, 
flavor with a tablespoonful of vanilla or lemon extract. 

SYRUP FOR FRUIT SAUCE. 

AN EXCELLENT syrup for fruit sauce is made of Morello cherries (red, sour 
cherries). For each pound of cherry juice, allow half a pound of sugar and 
six cherry kernels ; seed the cherries and let them stand in a bowl over 
night ; in the morning, press them through a fine cloth, which has been 
dipped in boiling water, weigh the juice, add the sugar, boil fifteen 
minutes, removing all the scum. Fill small bottles that are perfectly dry 
with the syrup ; when it is cold, cork the bottles tightly, seal them and 
keep them in a cool place, standing upright. 

Most excellent to put into pudding sauces. 

ROSE BRANDY. (For Cakes and Puddings.) 

GATHER the leaves of roses while the dew is on them, and as soon as 
they open put them into a wide-mouthed bottle, and when the bottle is full 
pour in the best of fourth proof French brandy. 

It will be fit for use in three or four weeks and may be frequently 

26 



402 SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS. 

replenished. It is sometimes considered preferable to wine as a flavoring 
to pastries and pudding sauces. 

LEMON BRANDY. (For Cakes and Puddings.) 

WHEN you use lemons for punch or lemonade, do not throw away the 
peels, but cut them in small pieces the thin yellow outside (the thick 
part is not good) and put them in a glass jar or bottle of brandy. You 
will find this brandy useful for many purposes. 

In the same way keep for use the kernels of peach and plum stones, 
pounding them slightly before you put them into the brandy. 




PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC 

* * * 

FRUIT for preserving should be sound and free from all defects, using 
white sugar, and also that which is dry, which produces the nicest 
syrup ; dark sugar can be used by being clarified, which is done 
by dissolving two pounds of sugar in a pint of water; add to 
it the white of an egg and beat it well, put it into a preserving kettle on 
the fire and stir with a wooden spoon. As soon as it begins to swell and 
boil up, throw in a little cold water ; let it boil up again, take it off and 
remove the scum ; boil it again, throw in more cold water and remove the 
scum ; repeat until it is clear and pours like oil from the spoon. 

In the old way of preserving, we used pound for pound, when they were 
kept in stone jars or crocks ; now, as most preserves are put up in sealed 
jars or cans, less sugar seems sufficient ; three-quarters of a pound of sugar 
is generally all that is required for a pound of fruit. 

Fruit should be boiled in a porcelain-lined or granite-ware dish, if pos- 
sible ; but other utensils, copper or metal, if made bright and clean, answer 
as well. 

Any of the fruits that have been preserved in syrup may be converted 
into dry preserves, by first draining them from the syrup, and then drying 
them in a stove or very moderate oven, adding to them a quantity of 
powdered loaf sugar, whi^h. will gradually penetrate the fruit, while the 
fluid parts of the syrup gently evaporate. They should be dried in the 
stove or oven on a sieve, and turned every six or eight hours, fresh 
powdered sugar being sifted over them every time they are turned. 
Afterwards they are to be kept in a dry situation, in drawers or boxes. 
Currants and cherries preserved whole in this manner, in bunches, are 
extremely elegant and have a fine flavor. In this way it is, also, that 
orange and lemon chips are preserved. 

Mold can be prevented from forming on fruit jellies by pouring a little 
melted paraffine over the top. When cool, it will harden to a solid cake, 
which can be easily removed when the jelly is used, and saved to use over 
again another year. It is perfectly harmless and tasteless. 

(403) 



404 PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

Large glass tumblers are the best for keeping jellies, much better than 
large vessels, for by being opened frequently they soon spoil ; a paper 
should be cut to fit and placed over the jelly ; then put on the lid or cover, 
with thick paper rubbed over on the inside with the white of an egg. 

There cannot be too much care taken in selecting fruit for jellies, for if 
the fruit is over ripe, any amount of time in boiling will never make 
it jelly there is where so many fail in making good jelly ; and another im- 
portant matter is overlooked that of carefully skimming off the juice 
after it begins to boil and a scum rises from the bottom to the top ; the 
juice should not be stirred, but the scum carefully taken off; if allowed to 
boil under, the jelly will not be clear. 

When either preserves or canned fruits show any indications of fermen- 
tation, they should be immediately re-boiled with more sugar, to save them. 
It is much better to be generous with the sugar at first than to have any 
losses afterwards. Keep all preserves in a cool, dry closet. 

PRESERVED CHERRIES. 

TAKE large, ripe Morello cherries ; weigh them and to each pound allow 
a pound of loaf sugar. Stone the cherries (opening them with a sharp 
quill) and save the juice that comes from them in the process. As you 
stone them, throw them into a large pan or tureen and strew about .half 
the sugar over them and let them lie in it an hour or two after they are all 
stoned. Then put them into a preserving kettle with the remainder of the 
sugar and boil and skim them till the fruit is clear and the syrup thick. 

PRESERVED CRANBERRIES. 

THE cranberries must be large and ripe. Wash them and to six quarts 
of cranberries allow nine pounds of the best loaf sugar. Take three quarts 
of the cranberries and put them into a stewpan with a pint and a half of 
water. Cover the pan and boil or stew them till they are all to pieces. 
Then squeeze the juice through a jelly bag. Put the sugar into a preserv- 
ing kettle, pour the cranberry juice over it and let it stand until it is all 
melted, stirring it up frequently. Then place the kettle over the fire and 
put in the remaining three quarts of whole cranberries. Let them boil till 
they are tender, clear and of a bright color, skimming them frequently. 
When done, put them warm into jars with the syrup, which should be like 
a thick jelly. 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 405 

PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES. 

FOR every pound of fruit weigh a pound of refined sugar, put them 
with the sugar over the fire in a porcelain kettle, bring to a boil slowly 
about twenty minutes. Take them out carefully with a perforated skim- 
mer and fill your hot jars nearly full ; boil the juice a few minutes longer 
and fill up the jars ; seal them hot. Keep in a cool, dry place. 

TO PRESERVE BERRIES WHOLE. (Excellent.) 

BUY the fruit when not too ripe, pick over immediately, wash if abso- 
lutely necessary and put in glass jars, filling each one about two-thirds full. 

Put in the preserving kettle a pound of sugar and one cupful of water 
for every two pounds of fruit, and let it come slowly to a boil. Pour this 
syrup into the jars over the berries, filling them up to the brim ; then set 
the jars in a pot of cold water on the stove, and let the water boil and the 
fruit become scalding hot. Now take them out and seal perfectly tight. 
If this process is followed thoroughly, the fruit will keep for several 
years. 

PRESERVED EGG PLUMS. 

USE a pound of sugar for a pound of plums ; wash the plums and wipe 
dry ; put the sugar on a slow fire in the preserving kettle, with as much 
water as will melt the sugar and let it simmer slowly ; then prick each 
plum thoroughly with a needle, or a fork with fine prongs, and place a 
layer of them in the syrup ; let them cook until they lose their color a 
little and the skins begin to break ; then lift them out with a perforated 
skimmer and place them singly in a large dish to cool ; then put another 
layer of plums in the syrup and let them cook and cool in the same man- 
ner, until the whole are done ; as they cool, carefully replace the broken 
skins so as not to spoil the appearance of the plums ; when the last layer 
is finished, return the first to the kettle, and boil until transparent ; do the 
same with each layer; -while the latest cooked are cooling, place the first 
in glass jars ; when all are done, pour the hot syrup over them ; when 
they are cold, close as usual ; the jelly should be of the color and consist- 
ency of rich wine jelly. 

PRESERVED PEACHES. 

PEACHES for preserving may be ripe but not soft ; cut them in halves, 
take out the stones and pare them neatly ; take as many pounds of wiiite 
sugar as of fruit, put to each pound of sugar a teacupful of water; stir it 



406 PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

until it is dissolved ; set it over a moderate fire ; when it is boiling hot, put 
in the peaches ; let them boil gently until a pure, clear, uniform color ; 
turn those at the bottom to the top carefully with a skimmer several 
times ; do not hurry them. When they are clear, take each half up with a 
spoon and spread them on flat dishes to become cold. When all are 
done, let the syrup boil until it is quite thick ; pour it into a large pitcher 
and let it set to cool and settle. When the peaches are cold put them 
carefully into jars and pour the syrup over them, leaving any sediment 
which has settled at the bottom, or strain the syrup. Some of the kernels 
from the peach-stones may be put in with the peaches while boiling. Let 
them remain open one night, then cover. 

In like manner quince, plum, apricot, apple, cherry, greengage and 
other fruit preserves are made ; in every case fine large fruit should be 
taken, free from imperfections, and the slightest bruises or other fault 
should be removed. 

PRESERVED GREEN TOMATOES. 

TAKE one peck of green tomatoes. Slice six fresh lemons without re- 
moving the skins, but taking out the seeds ; put to this quantity six pounds 
of sugar, common white, and boil until transparent and the syrup thick. 
Ginger root may be added, if liked. 

PRESERVED APPLES. (Whole.) 

PEEL and core large firm apples (pippins are best). Throw them into 
water as you pare them. Boil the parings in water for fifteen minutes, 
allowing a pint to one pound of fruit. Then strain and, adding three- 
quarters of a pound of sugar to each pint of water, as measured at first, 
with enough lemon peel, orange peel or mace, to impart a pleasant flavor, 
return to the kettle. When the syrup has been well skimmed and is clear, 
pour it boiling hot over the apples, which must be drained from the water 
in which they have hitherto stood. Let them remain in the syrup until 
both are perfectly cold. Then, covering closely, let them simmer over a 
slow fire until transparent. When all the minutiae of these directions are 
attended to, the fruit will remain unbroken and present a beautiful and 
inviting appearance. 

PRESERVED QUINCES. 

PARE, core and quarter your fruit, then weigh it and allow an equal 
quantity of white sugar. Take the parings and cores and put in a 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 407 

preserving kettle ; cover them with water and boil for half an hour ; then 
strain through a hair-sieve, and put the juice back into the kettle and boil 
the quinces in it a little at a time until they are tender; lift out as they 
are done with a drainer and lay on a dish ; if the liquid seems scarce add 
more water. When all are cooked, throw into this liquor the sugar, and 
allow it to boil ten minutes before putting in the quinces ; let them boil 
until they change color, say one hour and a quarter, on a slow fire ; while 
they are boiling occasionally slip a silver spoon under them to see that 
they do not burn, but on no account stir them. Have two fresh lemons 
cut in thin slices, and when the fruit is being put in jars lay a slice or two 
in each. Quinces may be steamed until tender. 

PRESERVED PEARS. 

ONE pound of fruit, one pound of sugar; pare off the peeling thin. 
Make a nice syrup of nearly one cupful of water and one pound of sugar, 
and when clarified by boiling and skimming put in the pears and stew 
gently until clear. Choose rather pears like the Seckle for preserving, 
both on account of the flavor and size. A nice way is to stick a clove in 
the blossom end of each pear, for this fruit seems to require some extra- 
neous flavor to bring out its own piquancy. Another acceptable addition 
to pear preserves may be found instead, by adding the juice and thinly 
pared rind of one lemon to each five pounds of fruit. If the pears are hard 
and tough, parboil them until tender before beginning to preserve, and 
from the same water take what you need for making their syrup. 

If you can procure only large pears to preserve, cut them into halves, or 
even slices, so that they can get done more quickly, and lose nothing in 
appearance, either. 

PINEAPPLE PRESERVES. 

TWIST off the top and bottom and pare off the rough outside of pineaples ; 
then weigh them and cut them in slices, chips or quarters, or cut them 
in four or six and shape each piece like a whole pineapple ; to each pound 
of fruit, put a teacupf ul of water ; put it in a preserving kettle, cover it 
and set it over the fire and let them boil gently until they are tender and 
clear ; then take them from the water, by sticking a fork in the centre of 
each slice, or with a skimmer, into a dish. 

Put to the water white sugar, a pound for each pound of fruit ; stir it 
until it is all dissolved ; then put in the pineapple, cover the kettle and 
them boil gently until transparent throughout ; when it is so, take it out, 



408 PEE SERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

let it cool and put it in glass jars ; let the syrup boil or simmer gently 
until it is thick and rich and when nearly cool, pour it over the fruit. The 
next day secure the jars, as before directed. 

Pineapple done in this way is a beautiful and delicious preserve. The 
usual manner of preserving it by putting it into the syrup without first 
boiling it, makes it little better than sweetened leather. 

TO PRESERVE WATERMELON RIND AND CITRON. 

PARE off the green skin, cut the watermelon rind into pieces. Weigh 
the pieces and allow to each pound a pound and a half of loaf sugar. 
Line your kettle with green vine-leaves, and put in the pieces without the 
sugar. A layer of vine-leaves must cover each layer of melon rind. Pour 
in water to cover the whole and place a thick cloth over the kettle. Sim- 
mer the fruit for two hours, after scattering a few bits of alum amongst it. 
Spread the melon rind on a dish to cool. Melt the sugar, using a pint 
of water to a pound and a half of sugar, and mix with it some beaten 
white of egg. Boil and skim the sugar. When quite clear, put in the 
rind and let it boil two hours ; take out the rind, boil the syrup again, 
pour it over the rind, and let it remain all night. The next morning, boil 
the syrup with lemon juice, allowing one lemon to a quart of syrup. 
When it is thick enough to hang in a drop from the point of a spoon, it is 
done. Put the rind in jars and pour over it the syrup. It is not fit for 
use immediately. 

Citrons may be preserved in the same manner, first paring off the outer 
skin and cutting them into quarters. Also green limes. 

TO PRESERVE AND DRY GREENGAGES. 

To EVERY pound of sugar allow one pound of fruit, one quarter pint of 
water. 

For this purpose, the fruit must be used before it is quite ripe and part 
of the stalk must be left on. Weigh the fruit, rejecting all that is in the 
least degree blemished, and put it into a lined saucepan with the sugar 
and water, which should have been previously boiled together to a rich 
syrup. Boil the fruit in this for ten minutes, remove it from the fire, and 
drain the greengages. The next day boil up the syrup and put in the fruit 
again, let it simmer for three minutes, and drain the syrup away. Con 
tinue this process for five or six days, and the last time place the green- 
gages, when drained, on a hair-sieve, and put them in an oven or warm 



PEE SEE VES, JELLIES, ETC. 409 

spot to dry ; keep them in a box, with paper between each layer, in a place 
free from damp 

PRESERVED PUMPKINS. 

To EACH pound of pumpkin allow one pound of roughly pounded loaf 
sugar, one gill of lemon juice. 

Obtain a good, sweet pumpkin ; halve it, take out the seeds and pare off 
the rind ; cut it into neat slices. Weigh the pumpkin, put the slices in a 
pan or deep dish in layers, with the sugar sprinkled between them ; pour 
the lemon juice over the top, and let the whole remain for two or three 
days. Boil all together, adding half a pint of water to every three pounds 
of sugar used until the pumpkin becomes tender ; then turn the whole into 
a pan, where let it remain for a week ; then drain off the syrup, boil it un- 
til it is quite thick, skim, and pour it boiling over the pumpkin. A little 
bruised ginger and lemon rind, thinly pared, may be boiled in the syrup 
to flavor the pumpkin. 

A Southern Recipe. 
PRESERVING FRUIT. (New Mode.) 

HOUSEKEEPERS who dislike the tedious, old-time fashion of clarifying 
sugar and boiling the fruit, will appreciate the following two recipes, no 
fire being needed in their preparation. The first is for "tutti frutti," and 
has been repeatedly tested with unvarying success. 

Put one quart of white, preserving, fine Batavia brandy into a two- 
gallon stone jar that has a tightly fitting top. Then for every pound of 
fruit, in prime condition and perfectly dry, which you put in the brandy, 
use three-quarters of a pound of granulated sugar ; stir everyday so that 
the sugar will be dissolved, using a clean, wooden spoon kept for the pur- 
pose. Every sort of fruit may be used, beginning with strawberries and 
ending with plums. Be sure and have at least one pound of black cherries, 
as they make the color of the preserve very rich. Strawberries, rasp- 
berries, blackberries, apricots, cherries (sweet and sour), peaches, plums, 
are all used, and, if you like, currants and grapes. Plums and grapes 
should be peeled and seeded, apricots and peaches peeled and cut in 
quarters or eighths or dice ; cherries also must be seeded ; quinces may be 
steamed until tender. The jar must be kept in a cool, dry place, and the 
daily stirring must never be forgotten, for that is the secret of success. 
You may use as much of one sort of fruit as you like, and it may be put in 
from day to day, just as you happen to have it. Half the quantity of 
spirits may be used. The preserve will be ready for use within a week 



410 PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

after the last fruit is put in, and will keep for a number of months. We 
have found it good eight months after making. 

The second is as follows : Take some pure white vinegar and mix with 
it granulated sugar until a syrup is formed quite free from acidity. Pour 
this syrup into earthen jars and put in it good, perfectly ripe fruit, gath- 
ered in dry weather. Cover the jars tight and put them in a dry place. 
The contents will Iseep for six or eight months, and the flavor of the fruit 
will be excellent. 

TO PRESERVE FRUIT WITHOUT SUGAR. 

CHERRIES, strawberries, sliced pineapple, plums, apricots, gooseberries, 
etc., may be preserved in the following manner to be used the same as 
fresh fruit. 

Gather the fruit before it is very ripe ; put it in wide-mouthed bottles 
made for the purpose ; fill them as full as they will hold and cork them 
tight ; seal the corks ; put some hay in a large saucepan, set in the 
bottles, with hay between them to prevent their touching ; then fill the 
saucepan with water to the necks of the bottles, and set it over the fire 
until tie water is nearly boiling, then take it off ; let it stand until the 
bottles are cold. Keep them in a cool place until wanted, when the fruit 
will be found equal to fresh. 

NEW METHOD OF PRESERVING FRUIT. 

A NEW method of preserving fruit is practiced in England. Pears, 
apples and other fruits are reduced to a paste by jamming, which is then 
pressed into cakes and gently dried. When required for use it is only 
necessary to pour four times their weight of boiling water over them and 
allow them to soak for twenty minutes and then add sugar to suit the 
taste. The fine flavor of the fruit is said to be retained to perfection. 
The cost of the prepared product is scarcely greater than that of the 
original fruit, differing with the supply and price of the latter ; the keep- 
ing qualities are excellent, so that it may be had at any time of the year 
and bears long sea-voyages without detriment. No peeling or coring is 
required, so there is no waste. 

FRUIT JELLIES. 

TAKE a stone jar and put in the fruit, place this in a kettle of tepid 
water and set on the fire ; let it boil, closely covered, until the fruit is 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 411 

broken to pieces ; strain, pressing the bag, a stout, coarse one, hard, put- 
ting in a few handfuls each time, and between each squeezing turning it 
inside out to scald off the pulp and skins ; to each pint of juice allow a 
pound of loaf sugar; set the juice on alone to boil, and, while it is boil- 
ing, put the sugar into shallow dishes or pans, and heat it in the oven, 
watching and stirring it to prevent burning; boil the juice just twenty 
minutes from the time it begins fairly to boil; by this time the sugar 
should be very 'hoi', throw it into the boiling juice, stirring rapidly all 
the time ; withdraw the spoon when all is thoroughly dissolved ; let the 
jelly come to a boil to make all certain ; withdraw the kettle instantly 
from the tire ; roll your glasses and cups in hot water, and fill with the 
scalding liquid ; the jelly will form within an hour ; when cold, close and 
tie up as you do preserves. 

CUEEANT JELLY. 

CURRANTS for jelly should be perfectly ripe and gathered the first week 
of the season ; they lose their jelly property if they hang on the bushes too 
long, and become too juicy the juice will not be apt to congeal. Strip 
them from the stalks, put them into a stone jar, and set it in a vessel of 
hot water over the fire ; keep the water around it boiling until the cur- 
rants are all broken, stirring them up occasionally. Then squeeze them 
through a coarse cloth or towel. To each pint of juice allow a pound and 
a quarter of refined sugar. Put the sugar into a porcelain kettle, pour the 
juice over it, stirring frequently. Skim it before it boils; boil about 
twenty minutes, or until it congeals in the spoon when held in the air. 
Pour it into hot jelly glasses and seal when cool. 

Wild frost -grape jelly is nice made after this recipe. 

CUEEANT JELLY. (New Method.) 

THIS recipe for making superior jelly without heat is given in a Parisian 
journal of chemistry, which may be worth trying by some of our readers. 
The currants are to be washed and squeezed in the usual way, and the 
juice placed in a stone or earthen vessel, and set away in a cool place in 
the cellar. In about twenty-four hours a considerable amount of froth 
will cover the surface, produced by fermentation, and this must be removed 
and the whole strained again through the jelly bag, then weighed, and an 
equal weight of powdered white sugar is to be added. This is to be stirred 
constantly until entirely dissolved, and then put into jars, tied up tightly 



412 PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

and set away. At the end of another twenty-four hours a perfectly trans- 
parent jelly of the most satisfactory flavor will be formed, which will keep 
as long as if it had been cooked. 

QUINCE JELLY. 

QUINCES for jelly should not be quite ripe, they should be a fine yellow ; 
rub off the down from them, core and cut them small ; put them in a pre- 
serving kettle with a teacupful of water for each pound ; let them stew 
gently until soft, without mashing ; put them in a thin muslin bag with the 
liquor ; press them very lightly ; to each pint of the liquor put a pound of 
sugar ; stir it until it is all dissolved, then set it over the fire and let it boil 
gently, until by cooling some on a plate you find it a good jelly ; then turn 
it into pots or tumblers and, when cold, secure as directed for jellies. 

RASPBERRY JELLY. 

To EACH pint of juice allow one pound of sugar. Let the raspberries be 
freshly gathered, quite ripe, picked from the stalks ; put them into a large 
jar after breaking the fruit a little with a wooden spoon, and place this jar, 
covered, in a saucepan of boiling water. When the juice is well drawn, 
which will be in from three-quarters to one hour, strain the fruit through 
a fine hair-sieve or cloth; ^easure the juice, and to every pint allow the 
above proportion of white sugar. Put the juice and sugar into a preserv- 
ing pan, place it over the fire, and boil gently until the jelly thickens, when 
a little is poured on a plate ; carefully remove all the scum as it rises, pour 
the jelly into small pots, cover down, and keep in a dry place. This jelly 
answers for making raspberry cream and for flavoring various sweet 
dishes, when, in winter, the fresh fruit is not obtainable. 

APPLE JELLY. 

SELECT apples that are rather tart and highly flavored; slice them 
without paring ; place in a porcelain preserving kettle, cover with water, 
and let them cook slowly until the apples look red. Pour into a col- 
ander, drain off the juice, and let this run through a jelly-bag ; return 
to the kettle, which must be carefully washed, and boil half an hour ; 
measure it and allow to every pint of juice a pound of sugar and half the 
juice of a lemon ; boil quickly for ten minutes. 

The juice of apples boiled in shallow vessels, without a particle of 
sugar, makes the most sparkling, delicious jelly imaginable. Red apples 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 413 

will give jelly the color and clearness of claret, while that from light fruit 
is like amber. Take the cider just as it is made, n<ft allowing it to fer- 
ment at all, and, if possible, boil it in a pan, flat, very large and shallow. 

GRAPE JELLY. 

MASH well the berries so as to remove the skins ; pour all into a pre- 
serving kettle and cook slowly for a few minutes to extract the juice ; 
strain through a colander, and then through a flannel jelly-bag, keeping 
as hot as possible, for if not allowed to cool before putting again on the 
stove the jelly comes much stiff er; a few quince seeds boiled with the 
berries the first time tend to stiffen it; measure the juice, allowing a 
pound of loaf sugar to every pint of juice, and boil fast for at least half 
an hour. Try a little, and if it seems done, remove and put into glasses. 

FLORIDA ORANGE JELLY. 

GRATE the yellow rind of two Florida oranges and two lemons, and 
squeeze the juice into a porcelain-lined preserving kettle, adding the juice 
of two more oranges, and removing all the seeds ; put in the grated rind 
a quarter of a pound of sugar, or more if the fruit is sour, and a gill of 
water, and boil these ingredients together until a rich syrup is formed ; 
meantime, dissolve two ounces of gelatine in a quart of warm water, stir- 
ring it over the fire until it is entirely dissolved, then add the syrup, strain 
the jelly, and cool it in molds wet in cold water. 

CRAB-APPLE JELLY. 

THE apples should be juicy and ripe. The fruit is then quartered, the 
black spots in the cores removed, afterward put into a preserving kettle 
over the fire, with a teacupful of water in the bottom to prevent burning ; 
more water is added as it evaporates while cooking. When boiled to a 
pulp, strain the apples through a coarse flannel, then proceed as for 
currant jelly. 

PEACH JELLY. 

PARE the peaches, take out the stones, then slice them ; add to them 
about a quarter of the kernels. Place them in a kettle with enough water 
to cover them. Stir them often until the fruit is well cooked, then strain, 
and to every pint of the juice add the juice of a lemon ; measure again, 
allowing a pound of sugar to each pint of juice ; heat the sugar very 



414 PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

hot, and add when the juice has boiled twenty minutes ; let it come to 
a boil and take instantly from the fire. 

ORANGE SYRUP. 

PARE the oranges, squeeze and strain the juice from the pulp. To one 
pint of juice allow one pound and three-quarters of loaf sugar. Put 
the juice and sugar together, boil and skim it until it is cream; then 
strain it through a flannel bag and let it stand until it becomes cool, 
then put in bottles and cork tight. 

Lemon syrup is made in the same way, except that you scald the 
lemons and squeeze out the juice, allowing rather more sugar. 

ORANGE MARMALADE. 

ALLOW pound for pound. Pare half the oranges and cut the rind into 
shreds. Boil in three waters until tender and set aside. Grate the rind 
of the remaining oranges ; take off, and throw away every bit of the thick 
white inner skin ; quarter all the oranges and take out the seeds. Chop 
or cut them into small pieces ; drain all the juice that will come away 
without pressing them over the sugar ; heat this, stirring until the sugar 
is dissolved, adding a very little water, unless the oranges are very juicy. 
Boil and skim five or six minutes ; put in the boiled shreds and cook ten 
minutes ; then the chopped fruit and grated peel, and boil twenty minutes 
longer. When cold, put into small jars, tied up with bladder or paper 
next the fruit, cloths dipped in wax over all. A nicer way still is to put 
away in tumblers with self-adjusting metal tops. Press brandied tissue 
paper down closely to the fruit. 

LEMON MARMALADE 

Is MADE as you would prepare orange allowing a pound and a quarter 
of sugar to a pound of the fruit, and using but half the grated peel. 

RAISINS. (A French Marmalade.) 

THIS recipe is particularly valuable at seasons when fruit is scarce. 
Take six fine large cooking apples, peel them, put them over a slow fire, 
together with a wine-glassful of Madeira wine and half a pound of sugar. 
When well stewed, split and stone two and a half pounds of raisins, and 
put them to stew with the apples and enough water to prevent their 
burning. When all appears well dissolved, beat it through a strainer 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 415 

bowl, and lastly through a sieve. Mold, if you like, or put away in small 
preserve jars, to cut in thin slices for the ornamentation of pastry, or to 
dish up for eating with cream. 

STRAWBERRY JAM. 

To EACH pound of fine and not too ripe berries, allow three-quarters of 
a pound of sugar. Put them into a preserving pan and stir gently, not 
to break up the fruit ; simmer for one-half hour and put into pots air- 
tight. An excellent way to seal jellies and jams is as the German women 
do : cut round covers from writing paper a half -inch too large for the 
tops, smear the inside with the unbeaten white of an egg, tie over with 
a cord, and it will dry quickly and be absolutely preservative. A circular 
paper dipped in brandy and laid over the toothsome contents before 
covering, will prevent any dampness from affecting the flavor. I have 
removed covers heavy with mold to find the preserve intact. 

GOOSEBERRY JAM. 

PICK the gooseberries just as they begin to turn. Stem, wash and 
weigh. To four pounds of fruit add half a teacupful of water ; boil until 
soft and add four pounds of sugar and boil until clear. If picked at the 
right stage the jam will be amber colored and firm, and very much 
nicer than if the fruit is preserved when ripe. 

BRANDIED PEACHES OR PEARS. 

FOUR pounds of fruit, four pounds of sugar, one pint of best white 
brandy. Make a syrup of the sugar and enough water to dissolve it. 
Let this come to a boil ; put the fruit in and boil five minutes. Having 
removed the fruit carefully, let the syrup boil fifteen minutes longer, or 
until it thickens well ; add the brandy and take the kettle at once from 
the fire ; pour the hot syrup over the fruit and seal. If, after the fruit 
is taken from the fire, a reddish liquor oozes from it, drain this off before 
adding the clear syrup. Put up in glass jars. Peaches and pears should 
be peeled for brandying. Plums should be pricked and watched carefully 
for fear of bursting. 

RASPBERRY JAM. 

To FIVE or six pounds of fine red raspberries (not too ripe) add an 
equal quantity of the finest quality of white sugar. Mash, the whole well 



416 PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

in a preserving kettle ; add about one quart of currant juice (a little less 
will do) and boil gently until it jellies upon a cold plate ; then put into 
small jars ; cover with brandied paper and tie a thick white paper over 
them. Keep in a dark, dry and cool place. 

Blackberry or strawberry jam is made the same way, leaving out the 
currant juice. 

A NEW WAY OF KEEPING FRUIT. 

IT is stated that experiments have been made in keeping fruit in jars 
covered only with cotton batting, and at the end of two years the fruit 
was sound. The following directions are given for the process: Use 
crocks, stone butter- jars or any other convenient dishes. Prepare and 
cook the fruit precisely as for canning in glass jars ; fill your dishes with 
fruit while hot and immediately cover with cotton batting, securely tied 
on. Remember that all putrefaction is caused by the invisible creatures 
in the air. Cooking the fruit expels all these, and they cannot pass 
through the cotton batting. The fruit thus protected will keep an indefi- 
nite period. It will be remembered that Tyndall has proved that the 
atmospheric germs cannot pass through a layer of cotton. 

MACEDOINES. 

SUSPEND in the centre of the jelly mold a bunch of grapes, cherries, 
berries, or currants on their stems, sections of oranges, pineapples, or 
brandied fruits, and pour in a little jelly when quite cold, but not set. It 
makes a very agreeable effect. By a little ingenuity you can imbed first 
one fruit and then another, arranging in circles, and pour a little jelly 
successively over each. Do not re-heat the jelly, but keep it in a warm 
place, while the mold is on ice and the first layers are hardening. 




CANNED FRUITS. 



* * * 



BERRIES and all ripe, mellow fruit require but little cooking, only 
long enough for the sugar to penetrate. Strew sugar over them, 
allow them to stand a few hours, then merely scald with the 
sugar ; half to three-quarters of a pound is considered sufficient. 
Harder fruits like pears, quinces, etc., require longer boiling. 

The great secret of canning is to make the fruit or vegetable perfectly 
air-tight. It must be put up boiling hot and the vessel filled to the brim. 

Have your jars conveniently placed near your boiling fruit, in a tin pan 
of hot water on the stove, roll them in the hot water, then fill immediately 
with the hot, scalding fruit, fill to the top, and seal quickly with the tops, 
which should also be heated ; occasionally screw down the tops tighter, as 
the fruit shrinks as it cools, and the glass contracts and allows the air to 
enter the cans. They must be perfectly air-tight. The jars to be kept in 
a dark, cool, dry place. 

Use glass jars for fruit always, and the fruit should be cooked in a 
porcelain or granite-iron kettle. If you are obliged to use common large- 
mouthed bottles with corks, steam the corks and pare them to a close fit, 
driving them in with a mallet. Use the following wax for sealing : One 
pound of resin, three ounces of beeswax, one and one-half ounces of tallow. 
Use a brush in covering the corks and as they cool, dip the mouth into the 
melted wax. Place in a basin of cool water. Pack in a cool, dark and 
dry cellar. After one week, examine for flaws, cracks or signs of ferment. 

The rubber rings used to assist in keeping the air from the fruit cans 
sometimes become so dry and brittle as to be almost useless. They can be 
restored to normal condition usually by letting them lie in water in 
which you have put a little ammonia. Mix in this proportion : One part 
of ammonia and two parts water. Sometimes they do not need to lie in 
this more than five minutes, but frequently a half hour is needed to restore 
their elasticity. 

CANNED PEACHES. 

To ONE pound of peaches allow half -a pound of sugar ; to six pounds of 
sugar }!,dd half a tumbler of water; put in the kettle a layer of sugar and 

27 (417) 



418 CANNED FEUITS. 

one of peaches until the whole of both are in. Wash about eight peach 
leaves, tie them up and put into the kettle, remembering to take them out 
when you begin to fill up the jars. Let the sugared fruit remain on the 
range, but away from the fire, until upon tipping the vessel to one side you 
can see some liquid ; then fill the jars, taking them out of hot water into 
which they were put when cold, remaining until it was made to boil 
around them. In this way you will find out if the glass has been properly 
annealed ; for we consider glass jars with stoppers screwing down upon 
India-rubber rings as the best for canning fruit in families. They should 
be kept in a dark closet ; and although somewhat more expensive than tin 
in the first instance, are much nicer and keep for years with careful usage. 

Fruit must be of fine flavor and ripe, though not soft, to make nice 
canned fruit. 

Peaches should be thrown into cold water as they are peeled, to prevent 
a yellowish crust. 

CANNED GRAPES. 

THERE is no fruit so difficult to can nicely as the grape ; by observing 
the following instructions you will find the grapes rich and tender a year 
from putting up. Squeeze the pulp from the skin, as the seeds are 
objectionable ; boil the pulp, 'until the seeds begin to loosen, in one kettle, 
having the skins boiling, in a little water, hard in another kettle, as they 
are tough. When the pulp seems tender, put it through the sieve ; then 
add the skins, if tender, with the water they boil in, if not too much. We 
use a large coffeecupful of sugar for a quart can ; boil until thick and can 
in the usual way. 

CANNED STRAWBERRIES. 

AFTER the berries are picked over, let as many as can be put carefully 
in the preserve kettle at once be placed on a platter. To each pound of 
fruit add three-fourths of a pound of sugar ; let them stand two or three 
hours, till the juice is drawn from them ; pour it into the kettle and let it 
come to a boil and remove the scum which rises ; then put in the berries 
very carefully. As soon as they come thoroughly to a boil put them in 
warm jars and seal while boiling hot. 

TO CAN QUINCES. 

CUT the quinces into thin slices like apples for pies. To one quart jar- 
ful of quince, take a coffeesaucer and a half of sugar and a coffeecupful 
of water ; put the sugar and water on the fire, and when boiling put in the 



CANNED FRUITS. 419 

quinces ; have ready the jars with their fastenings, stand the jars in a pan 
of boiling water on the stove, and when the quince is clear and tender put 
rapidly into the jars, fruit and syrup together. The jars must be filled so 
that the syrup overflows, and fastened up tight as quickly as possible. 

CANNED PINEAPPLE. 

FOR six pounds of fruit, when cut and ready to can, make syrup with 
two and a half pounds of sugar and nearly three pints of water ; boil syrup 
five minutes and skim or strain if necessary ; then add the fruit and let it 
boil up ; have cans hot, fill and shut up as soon as possible. Use the best 
white sugar. As the cans cool, keep tightening them up. Cut the fruit 
half an inch thick. 

CANNED FRUIT JUICES. 

CANNED fruit juices are an excellent substitute for brandy or wine in 
all puddings and sauces, etc. 

It is a good plan to can the pure juices of fruit in the summer time, 
putting it by for this purpose. 

Select clean ripe fruit, press out the juice and strain it through a flan- 
nel cloth. To each pint of juice add one cupful of white granulated sugar. 
Put it in a porcelain kettle, bring it to the boiling point, and bottle while 
hot in small bottles. It must be sealed very tight while it is hot. Will 
keep a long time, the same as canned fruit. 

CANNED TOMATOES. 

CANNING tomatoes is quite a simple process. A large or small quantity 
may be done at a time, and they should be put in glass jars in preference 
to those of tin, which are apt to injure the flavor. Very ripe tomatoes are 
the best for the purpose. They are first put into a large pan and covered 
with boiling water. This loosens the skin, which is easily removed, and 
the tomatoes are then put into the preserving kettle, set over a moderate 
fire without the addition of water or any seasoning, and brought to a boil. 
After boiling slowly one-half hour, they are put into the jars while boiling 
hot and sealed tightly. They will keep two or three years in this way. 
The jars should be filled to the brim to prevent air from getting in, and 
set in a cool, dark closet. 

TO CAN CORN. 

SPLIT the kernels lengthwise with a knife, then scrape with the back of 
the knife, thus leaving the hulls upon the cob. Fill cans full of cut corn, 



420 CANNED FRUITS. 

pressing it in very hard. To press the corn in the can, use the small end 
of a potato masher, as this will enter the can easily. It will take from ten 
to a dozen large ears of corn to fill a one-quart can. When the cans are 
full, screw cover on with thumb and first finger ; this will be tight enough, 
then place a cloth in the bottom of a wash boiler to prevent breakage. On 
this put a layer of cans in any position you prefer, over the cans put a 
layer of cloth, then a layer of cans. Fill the boiler in this manner, then 
cover the cans well with cold water, place the boiler on the fire and boil 
three hours without ceasing. On steady boiling, depends much of your 
success. After boiling three hours, lift the boiler from the fire, let the 
water cool, then take the cans from the boiler and tighten, let them remain 
until cold, then tighten again. Wrap each can in brown paper to exclude 
the light and keep in a cool, dry cellar and be very sure the rubber rings 
are not hardened by use. The rings should be renewed every two years. 
I would advise the beginner to use new rings entirely, for poor rings cause 
the loss of canned fruit and vegetables in many cases. You will observe 
that in canning corn the cans are not wrapped in a cloth nor heated ; 
merely filled with the cut corn. The corn in the cans will shrink con- 
siderably in boiling, but on no account open them after canning. 

TO CAN PEAS. 

FILL the can full of peas, shake the can so they can be filled well. 
You cannot press the peas in the can as you did the corn, but by shaking 
the cans they may be filled quite full. Pour into the cans enough cold 
water to fill to overflowing, then screw the cover tight as you can with 
your thumb and first finger and proceed exactly as in canning corn. 

String beans are cut as for cooking and canned in the same manner. 
No seasoning of salt, pepper or sugar should be added. 

Mary Currier Parsons. 

CANNED PLUMS. 

To EVERY pound of plums allow a quarter of a pound of sugar. Put 
the sugar and plums alternately into the preserving kettle, first pricking 
the plums to prevent their breaking. Let them stand on the back of the 
stove for an hour or two, then put them over a moderate fire, and allow to 
come to a boil ; skim and pour at once into jars, running a silver spoon 
handle around the inside of the jar to break the air-bubbles ; cover and 
screw down the tops. 



CANNED FRUITS. 421 

CANNED MINCE MEAT. 

MINCE MEAT for pies can be preserved for years if canned the same as 
fruit while hot, and put into glass jars and sealed perfectly tight, and set in 
a cool, dark place. One glass quart jar will hold enough to make two 
ordinary-sized pies, and in this way "mince pies" can be had in the mid- 
dle of summer as well as in winter, and if the cans are sealed properly, 
the meat will be just as fine when opened as when first canned. 

CANNED BOILED CIDER. 

BOILED cider, in our grandmothers' time, was indispensable to the 
making of a good " mince pie," adding the proper flavor and richness, 
which cannot be substituted by any other ingredient, and a gill of which 
being added to a rule of " fruit cake " makes it more moist, keeps longer, 
and is far superior to fruit cake made without it. Boiled cider is an arti- 
cle rarely found in the market, now-a-days, but can be made by any one, 
with but little trouble and expense, using sweet cider, shortly after it is 
made, and before fermentation takes place. Place five quarts of sweet 
cider in a porcelain-lined kettle over the fire, boil it slowly until reduced 
to one quart, carefully watching it that it does not burn ; turn into glass 
jars while hot and seal tightly, the same as canned fruit. It is then ready 
to use any time of the year. 

CANNED PUMPKIN. 

PUMPKINS or squash canned are far more convenient for ready use than 
those dried in the old-fashioned way. 

Cut up pumpkin or squash into small pieces, first cutting off the peel ; 
stew them until tender, add no seasoning ; then mash them very fine with 
a potato masher. Have ready your cans, made hot, and then fill them 
with the hot pumpkin or squash, seal tight ; place in a dark, cool closet. 

PEACH BUTTER. 

PARE ripe peaches and put them in a preserving settle, with sufficient 
water to boil them soft ; then sift through a colander, removing the stones, 
To each quart of peaches put one and one-half pounds of sugar, and boil 
very slowly one hour. Stir often and do not let them burn. Put in stone 
or glass jars, and keep in a cool place. 



422 



CANNED FEUITS. 



PEACHES DRIED WITH SUGAR. 



PEEL yellow peaches, cut them from the stone in one piece ; allow two 
pounds of sugar to six pounds of fruit; make a syrup of three-quarters 
of a pound of sugar and a little water ; put in the peaches, a few at a time, 
and let them cook gently until quite clear. Take them up carefully on a 
dish and set them in. the sun to dry. Strew powdered sugar over them 
on all sides, a little at a time ; if any syrup is left, remove to fresh dishes. 
When they are quite dry, lay them lightly in a jar with a little sugar 
sifted between the layers. 




COLORING FOR FRUIT, ETC 

* * * 

RED OR PINK COLORING. 

TAKE two cents' worth of cochineal. Lay it on a flat plate and 
bruise it with the blade of a knife. Put it into half a teacupful 
of alcohol. Let it stand a quarter of an hour, and then filter it 
through fine muslin. Always ready for immediate use. Cork the 
bottle tight. 

Strawberry or cranberry juice makes a fine coloring for frosting 
sweet puddings and confectionery. 

DEEP RED COLORING. 

TAKE twenty grains of cochineal and fifteen grains of cream of tartar 
finely powdered ; add to them a piece of alum the size of a cherry stone 
and boil them with a gill of soft water in an earthen vessel, slowly, for 
half an hour. Then strain it through muslin, and keep it tightly corked 
in a phial. If a little alcohol is added it will keep any length of time. 

YELLOW COLORING. 

TAKE a little saffron, put it into an earthen vessel with a very small 
quantity of cold, soft water, and let it steep till the color of the infusion 
is a bright yellow. Then strain it, add half alcohol to it. To color fruit 
yellow, boil the fruit with fresh lemon skins in water to cover them until 
it is tender ; then take it up, spread it on dishes to cool and finish as may 
be directed. 

To color icing, put the grated peel of a lemon or orange in a thin 
muslin bag, squeezing a little juice through it, then mixing with the sugar. 

GREEN COLORING. 

TAKE fresh spinach or beet leaves and pound them in a marble mortar. 
If you want it for immediate use, take off the green froth as it rises, and 
mix it with the article you intend to color. If you wish to keep it a few 
days, take the juice when you have pressed out a teacupful, and adding to 

(423) 



424 COLORING FOR FRUIT, ETC. 

it a piece of alum the size of a pea, give it a boil in a saucepan. Or make 
the juice very strong and add a quart of alcohol. Bottle it air-tight. 

SUGAR GRAINS. 

THESE are made by pounding white lump sugar in a mortar and shak- 
ing it through sieves of different degrees of coarseness, thus accumulating 
grains of different sizes. They are used in ornamenting cake. 

SUGAR GRAINS, COLORED. 

STIR a little coloring as the essence of spinach, or prepared cochineal, 
or liquid carmine, or indigo, rouge, saffron, etc., into the sugar grains 
made as above, until each grain is stained, then spread them on a baking- 
sheet and dry them in a warm place. They are used in ornamenting 
cake. 

CARAMEL OR BURNT SUGAR. 

PUT one cupful of sugar and two teaspoonfuls of water in a saucepan 
on the fire ; stir constantly until it is quite a dark color, then add a half 
cupful of water and a pinch of salt ; let it boil a few minutes and when 
cold, bottle. 

For coloring soups, sauces or gravies. 

TO CLARIFY JELLY. 

THE white of egg is, perhaps, the best substance that can be employed 
in clarifying jelly, as well as some other fluids, for the reason that when 
albumen (and the white of egg is nearly pure albumen) is put into a 
liquid that is muddy, from substances suspended in it, on boiling the 
liquid the albumen coagulates in a flocculent manner, and, entangling 
with the impurities, rises with them to the surface as a scum, or sinks to 
the bottom, according to their weight. 



CONFECTIONERY. 

* * * 

IN THE making of confections, the best granulated or loaf sugar should 
be used. (Beware of glucose mixed with sugar.) Sugar is boiled 
more or less, according to the kind of candy to be made, and it is 
necessary to understand the proper degree of sugar boiling to operate 
it successfully. 

Occasionally sugar made into candies, " creams " or syrups, will need 
clarifying. The process is as follows : Beat up well the white of an egg 
with a cupful of cold water and pour it into a very clean iron or thick 
new tin saucepan, then put into the pan four cupfuls of sugar, mixed with 
a cupful of warm water, Put on the stove and heat moderately until the 
scum rises. Remove the pan, and skim off the top, then place on the fire 
again until the scum rises again. Then remove as before, and so continue 
until no scum rises. 

This recipe is good for brown or yellowish sugar; for soft, white 
sugars, half the white of an egg will do, and for refined or loaf sugar a 
quarter will do. 

The quantities of sugar and water are the same in all cases. Loaf 
sugar will generally do for all candy-making without further clarification. 
Brown or yellow sugars are used for caramels, dark-colored cocoanut, taffy, 
and pulled molasses candies generally. 

Havana is the cheapest grade of white sugar and a shade or two lighter 
than the brown. 

Confectioners' A is superior in color and grain to the Havana. It is a 
centrifugal sugar that is, it is not re-boiled to procure its white color, 
but is moistened with water and then put into rapidly-revolving cylinders. 
The uncrystallized syrup or molasses is whirled out of it, and the sugar 
comes out with a dry, white grain. 

ICING OR POWDERED SUGARS. This is powdered loaf sugar. Icing can 
only be made with powdered sugar which is produced , by grinding or 
crushing loaf sugar nearly as fine as flour. 

(425) 



426 CONFECTIONER Y. 

GRANULATED SUGAR. This is a coarse-grained sugar, generally very 
clean and sparkling, and fit for use as a colored sugar in crystallized goods, 
and other superior uses. 

This same syrup answers for most candies and should be boiled to such 
a degree, that when a fork or splinter is dipped into it the liquid will run 
off and form a thick drop on the end, and long silk-like threads hang from 
it when exposed to the air. The syrup never to be stirred while hot, 
or else it will grain, but if intended for soft, French candies, should be 
removed, and, when nearly cold, stirred to a cream. For hard, brittle 
candies, the syrup should be boiled until, when a little is dropped in cold 
water, it will crack and break when biting it. 

The hands should be buttered when handling it, or it will stick to 
them. 

The top of the inside of the dish that the sugar or molasses is to be 
cooked in should be buttered a few inches around the inside ; it prevents 
the syrup from rising and swelling any higher than where it reaches the 
buttered edge. 

For common crack candies, the sugar can be kept from graining by 
adding a teaspoonful of vinegar or cream of tartar. 

Colorings for candies should be harmless, and those used for fruit and 
confectionery, on page 423, will be most suitable. 

Essences and extracts should be bought at the druggist's, not the poor 
kind usually sold at the grocer's. 

FRENCH CREAM CANDY. 

PUT four cupfuls of white sugar and one cupful of water into a bright 
tin pan on the range and let it boil without stirring for ten minutes. If it 
looks somewhat thick, test it by letting some drop from the spoon, and if 
it threads, remove the pan to the table. Take out a small spoonful, and 
rub it against the side of a cake bowl ; if it becomes creamy, and will roll 
into a ball between the fingers, pour the whole into the bowl. When cool 
enough to bear your finger in it, take it in your lap, stir or beat it with a 
large spoon, or pudding-stick. It will soon begin to look like cream, and 
then grow stiffer until you find it necessary to take your hands and work 
it like bread dough. If it is not boiled enough to cream, set it back upon 
the range and let it remain one or two minutes, or as long as is necessary, 
taking care not to cook it too much. Add the flavoring as soon as it be- 
gins to cool. This is the foundation of all French creams. It can be made 



CONFECTIONERY. 427 

into rolls, and sliced off, or packed in plates and cut into small cubes, or 
made into any shape imitating French candies. A pretty form is made by 
coloring some of the cream pink, taking a piece about as large as a hazel 
nut, and crowding an almond meat half way into one side, till it looks like 
a bursting kernel. In working, should the cream get too cold, warm it. 

To be successful in making this cream, several points are to be remem- 
bered ; when the boiled sugar is cool enough to beat, if it looks rough and 
has turned to sugar it is because it has been boiled too much, or has been 
stirred. If, after it is beaten, it does not look like lard or thick cream, and 
is sandy or sugary instead, it is because you did not let it get cool enough 
before beating. 

It is not boiled enough if it does not harden so as to work like dough, 
and should not stick to the hands ; in this case put it back into the pan 
with an ounce of hot water, and cook over just enough, by testing in water 
as above. After it is turned into the bowl to cool, it should look clear as 
jelly. Practice and patience will make perfect. 

FRUIT CREAMS. 

ADD to " French Cream" raisins, currants, figs, a little citron, chopped 
and mixed thoroughly through the cream while quite warm. Make into 
bars or flat cakes. 

WALNUT CREAMS. 

TAKE a piece of " French Cream " the size of a walnut. Having cracked 
some English walnuts, using care not to break the meats, place one-half of 
each nut upon each side of the ball, pressing them into the ball. 

Walnut creams can be made by another method : First take a piece of 
"French Cream," put it into a cup and setting the cup into a vessel of 
boiling water, heating it until it turns like thick cream ; drop the walnut 
meats into it, one at a time, taking them out on the end of a fork and plac- 
ing on buttered paper ; continue to dip them up until all are used, then go 
over again, giving them a second coat of candy. They look nice colored 
pink and flavored with vanilla. 

CHOCOLATE CREAMS. 

USE " French Cream," and form it into small cone-shaped balls with the 
fingers. Lay them upon paper to harden until all are formed. Melt one 
cake of Baker's chocolate in an earthen dish or small basin ; by setting it 
in the oven it will soon melt ; do not let it cook, but it must be kept hot. 



428 CONFECTIONERY. 

Take the balls of cream, one at a time, on the tines of a fork, pour the 
melted chocolate over them with a teaspoon and when well covered, slip 
them from the fork upon oiled paper. 

COCOANUT CREAMS. 

TAKE two tablespoonf uls of grated cocoanut and half as much " French 
candy ; " work them both together with your hand till the cocoanut is all 
well mixed in it. If you choose, you can add a drop of vanilla. If too 
soft to work into balls, add confectioners' sugar to stiffen; make into 
balls the size of hazelnuts and dip twice, as in the foregoing recipes, flavor- 
ing the melted "French Cream" with vanilla. 

VARIEGATED CREAMS. 

MAKE the " French Cream " recipe, and divide into three parts, leaving 
one part white, color one pink with cochineal syrup, and the third part 
color brown with chocolate, which is done by just letting the cream soften 
and stirring in a little finely grated chocolate. The pink is colored by 
dropping on a few drops of cochineal syrup while the cream is warm and 
beating it in. Take the white cream, make a flat ball of it, and lay it 
upon a buttered dish, and pat it out flat until about half an inch thick. If 
it does not work easily, dip the hand in alcohol. Take the pink cream, 
work in the same way as the white and lay it upon the white ; then the 
chocolate in the same manner, and lay upon the pink, pressing all to- 
gether. Trim the edges off smooth, leaving it in a nice, square cake, then 
cut into slices or small cubes, as you prefer. It is necessary to work it 
all up as rapidly as possible. 

RASPBERRY CREAMS. 

STIR enough confectioners' sugar into a teaspoonful of raspberry jam 
to form a thick paste ; roll it into balls between the palms of your hands. 
Put a lump of " French Cream " into a teacup and set it into a basin of 
boiling water, stirring it until it has melted; then drop a few drops of 
cochineal coloring to make it a pale pink, or a few drops of raspberry 
juice, being careful not to add enough to prevent its hardening. Now 
dip these little balls into the sugar cream, giving them two coats. Lay 
aside to harden. 

Remember to keep stirring the melted cream, or if not it will turn back 
to clear syrup. 



CONFECTIONERY. 429 

NUT CREAMS. 

CHOP almonds, hickory nuts, butternuts or English walnuts quite fine. 
Make the "French Cream," and before adding all the sugar, while the 
cream is quite soft, stir into it the nuts, and then form into balls, bars or 
squares. Several kinds of nuts may be mixed together. 

MAPLE SUGAR CREAMS. 

GRATE fine maple sugar and mix, in quantity to suit the taste, with 
"French Cream;" make any shape desired. Walnut creams are some- 
times made with maple sugar and are very fine. 

STICK CANDY. 

ONE pound of granulated sugar, one cupful of water, a quarter of a cup- 
ful of vinegar, or half a teaspoonful of cream of tartar, one small table- 
spoonful of glycerine. Flavor with vanilla, rose or lemon. Boil all except 
the flavoring, without stirring, twenty minutes or half an hour, or until 
crisp when dropped in water. Just before pouring upon greased platters to 
cool, add half a teaspoonful of soda. After pouring upon platters to cool, 
pour two teaspoonfuls of flavoring over the top. When partly cool, pull 
it until very white. Draw it into sticks the size you wish, and cut off 
with shears into sticks or kiss-shaped drops. It may be colored if desired. 
(See page 423, for coloring.) 

CHOCOLATE CARAMELS. 

ONE cupful of grated chocolate, two cupfuls of brown sugar, one cupful 
of West India molasses, one cupful of milk or cream, butter the size of an 
egg, boil until thick, almost brittle, stirring constantly. Turn it out on to 
buttered plates, and when it begins to stiffen, mark it in small squares so 
that it will break easily when cold. Some like it flavored with a table- 
spoonful of vanilla. 

GRILLED ALMONDS. 

THESE are a very delicious candy seldom met with out of France. 
They are rather more trouble to make than other kinds, but well repay it 
from their novel flavor. Blanch a cupful of almonds; dry them thor- 
oughly. Boil a cupful of sugar and a quarter of a cupful of water till it 
"hairs," then throw in the almonds; let them fry, as it were, in this 
syrup, stirring them occasionally ; they will turn a faint yellow brown 



430 CONFECTIONERY. 

before the sugar changes color ; do not wait an instant once this change 
of color begins, or they will lose flavor ; remove them from the fire, and 
stir them until the syrup has turned back to sugar and clings irregularly 
to the nuts. 

These are grilled almonds. You will find them delicious, as they are 
to alternate at dinner with the salted almonds now so fashionable. 

PEPPERMINT DROPS. 

ONE cupful of sugar crushed fine, and just moistened with boiling 
water, then boiled five minutes ; then take from the fire and add cream 
of tartar the size of a pea; mix well and add four or five drops of oil 
of peppermint. Beat briskly until the mixture whitens, then drop 
quickly upon white paper. Have the cream of tartar and oil of pepper- 
mint measured while the sugar is boiling. If it sugars before it is all 
dropped, add a little water and boil a minute or two. 

CURRANT DROPS. 

USE currant juice instead of water, to moisten a quantity of sugar. 
Put it in a pan and heat, stirring constantly ; be sure not to let it boil ; 
then,imix a very little more sugar, let it warm with the rest a moment, 
then, with a smooth stick, drop on paper. 

LEMON DROPS. 

UPON a coffeecupful of -finely powdered sugar pour just enough lemon 
juice to dissolve it, and boil it to the consistency of thick syrup, and so 
that it appears brittle when dropped in cold water. Drop this on buttered 
plates in drops; set away to cool and harden. 

NUT MOLASSES CANDY. 

WHEN making molasses candy, add any kind of nuts you fancy ; put 
them in after the syrup has thickened and is ready to take from the fire ; 
pour out on buttered tins. Mark it off in squares before it gets too cool. 
Peanuts should be fresh roasted and then tossed in a sieve, to free them 
of their inner skins. 

SUGAR NUT CANDY. 

THREE pounds of white sugar, half a pint of water, half a pint of 
vinegar, a quarter of a pound of butter, one pound of hickory 



CONFECTIONERY. 431 

kernels. Put the sugar, butter, vinegar and water together into a thick 
saucepan. When it begins to thicken, add the nuts. To test it, take 
up a very small quantity as quickly as possible directly from the centre, 
taking care not to disturb it any more than is necessary. Drop it into 
cold water, and remove from the fire the moment the little particles are 
brittle. Pour into buttered plates. Use any nuts with this recipe. 

COCOANUT CANDY. 

ONE cocoanut, one and one-half pounds of granulated sugar. Put 
sugar and milk of cocoanut together, beat slowly until the sugar is melted, 
then boil five minutes ; add cocoanut (finely grated), boil ten minutes 
longer, stir constantly to keep from burning. Pour on buttered plates ; cut 
in squares. Will take about two days to harden. Use prepared cocoa- 
nut when other cannot be had. 

BUTTEE-SCOTCH. 

THREE cupfuls of white sugar, half a cupful of water, half a cupful of 
vinegar, or half a teaspoonful of cream of tartar, a tablespoonfiil of but- 
ter and eight drops of extract of lemon. Boil ivithout stirring till : it will 
snap and break. Just before taking from the fire, add ! a quarter of a tea- 
spoonful of soda; pour into well-buttered biscuit tins, a quarter of an inch 
thick. Mark off into inch squares when partly cold. 

EVERTON TAFFY, OR BUTTER-SCOTCH. 

Two CUPFULS of sugar, two cupfuls of dark molasses, one cupful of cold 
butter, grated rind of half a lemon. Boil over a slow fire until it hardens 
when dropped in cold water. Pour thinly into tins well buttered, and 
mark into inch squares before it cools. 

MAPLE WALNUTS. 

BEAT the white of one egg to a stiff froth, stir in enough powdered 
sugar to make it like hard frosting, dip the walnut meats (which you have 
taken care to remove from the shells without breaking) in a syrup made 
by boiling for two or three minutes two tablespoonfuls of maple sugar in 
one of water, or in this proportion. Press some of the hard frosting be- 
tween the two halves of the walnut and let it harden. Dates may be 
prepared in this way, and butternuts and English walnuts also. 



432 CONFECTIONERY. 

POP-CORN CANDY. No. 1. 

PUT into an iron kettle one tablespoonful of butter, three tablespoon 
Ms of water and * one cupful of white sugar; boil until ready to candy, 
then throw in three quarts nicely popped corn ; stir vigorously until the 
sugar is evenly distributed over the corn ; take the kettle from the fire and 
stir until it cools a little, and in this way you may have each kernel sep- 
arate and all coated with the sugar. Of course it must have your undi- 
vided attention from the first, to prevent scorching. Almonds, English 
walnuts, or, in fact, any nuts are delicious prepared in this way. 

POP-CORN CANDY. No. 2. 

HAVING popped your corn, salt it and' keep it warm, sprinkle over with 
a whisk broom a mixture composed of an ounce of gum arabic and a half 
pound of sugar, dissolved in two quarts of water ; boil all a few minutes. 
Stir the corn with the hands or large spoon thoroughly ; then mold into 
balls with the hands. 

POP-CORN BALLS. 

TAKE three large ears of pop-corn (rice is best). After popping, shake 
it down in pan so the unpopped corn will settle at the bottom ; put the 
nice white popped in a greased pan. For the candy, take one cup of 
molasses, one cup of light brown or white sugar, one tablespoonful of vin- 
egar. Boil until it will harden in water. Pour on the corn. Stir with a 
spoon until thoroughly mixed ; then mold into balls with the hand. 

No flavor should be added to this mixture, as the excellence of this 
commodity depends entirely upon the united flavor of the corn, salt and 
the sugar or molasses. 

HOARHOUND CANDY. 

BOIL two ounces of dried hoarhound in a pint and a half of T^ater for 
about half an hour ; strain and add three and a half pounds of brown 
sugar ; boil over a hot fire until sufficiently hard ; pour out in flat, well- 
greased tins and mark into sticks or small squares with a knife as soon 
as cool enough to retain its shape. 

JUJUBE PASTE. 

Two CUPFULS of sugar, one-quarter of a pound of gum arabic, one pint 
of water. Flavor with the essence of lemon and a grain of cochineal. 
Let the mixture stand, until the gum is dissolved, in a warm place on the 



CONFECTIONERY. 433 

back of the stove, then draw forward and cook until thick; try in cold 
water ; it should be limber and bend when cold. Pour in buttered pans, 
an eighth of an inch thick ; when cool, roll up in a scroll. 

CANDIED ORANGES. 

CANDIED orange is a great delicacy, which is easily made : Peel and 
quarter the oranges ; make a syrup in the proportion of one pound of 
sugar to one pint of water ; let it boil until it will harden in water ; then 
take it from the fire and dip the quarters of orange in the syrup ; let them 
drain on a fine sieve placed over a platter so that the syrup will not be 
wasted ; let them drain thus until cool, when the sugar will crystallize. 
These are nice served with the last course of dinner. Any fruit the 
same. 

FIG CANDY. 

ONE cup of sugar, one-third cup of water, one-fourth teaspoonful cream 
of tartar. Do not stir while boiling. Boil to amber color, stir in the 
cream of tartar just before taking from the fire. Wash the figs, open and 
lay in a tin pan and pour the candy over them. Or you may dip them in 
the syrup the same as "Candied Oranges." 

CANDY HOLEY POLEY. 

TAKE half a pint of citron, half a pint of raisins, half a pound of figs, a 
quarter of a pound of shelled almonds, one pint of peanuts before they are 
hulled ; cut up the citron, stone the raisins, blanch the almonds, and hull 
the peanuts ; cut up the figs into small bits. Take two pounds of coffee- 
sugar and moisten with vinegar ; put in a piece of butter as large as a 
walnut ; stew till it hardens, but take off before it gets to the brittle stage; 
beat it with a spoon six or eight times, then stir in the mixed fruits and 
nuts. Pour into a wet cloth and roll it up like a pudding, twisting the 
ends of the cloth to mold it. Let it get cold and slice off pieces as it may 
be wanted for eating. 

MOLASSES CANDY. 

PUT one quart of West India molasses, one cupful of brown sugar, a 
piece of butter the size of half an egg, into a 'six-quart kettle. Let it boil 
over a slack fire until it begins to look thick, stirring it often to prevent 
burning. Test it by taking some out and dropping a few drops in a cup of 
cold water. If it hardens quickly and breaks short between the teeth it is 

28 



434 CONFECTIONERY. 

boiled enough. Now put in half a teaspoonful of baking soda, and stir it 
well ; then pour it out into well-buttered flat tins. When partly cooled, 
take up the candy with your hands well buttered then pull and double, and 
so on, until the candy is a whitish yellow. It may be cut in strips and 
rolled or twisted. 

If flavoring is desired, drop the flavoring on the top as it begins to cool, 
and when it is pulled, the whole will be flavored. 

STRAWBERRY CONSERVE. 

PREPARE the fruit as for preserving, allowing half a pound of loaf sugar 
to one pound of fruit. Sprinkle the sugar over the fruit at night ; in the 
morning, put it on the fire in a kettle and boil until the berries are clear. 
Spread on dishes and put in the sun until dry; after which roll the fruit 
in sugar and pack in jars. 

PEACH CONSERVE. 

HALVE the peaches and take out the stones ; pare. Have ready some 
powdered white sugar on a plate or dish. Roll the peaches in it several 
times, until they will not take up any more. Place them singly on a plate, 
with the cup or hollow side up, that the juices may not run out. Lay 
them in the sun. The next morning roll them again. As soon as the 
juice seems set in the peaches, turn the other side to the sun. When they 
are thoroughly dry, pack them in glass jars, or, what is still nicer, fig- 
drums. They make an excellent sweetmeat just as they are ; or, if wanted 
for table use, put over the fire in porcelain, with a very little water, and 
stew a few minutes. 

PEACH LEATHER. 

STEW as many peaches as you choose, allowing a quarter of a pound of 
sugar to one of fruit ; mash it up smooth as it cooks, and when it is 
dry enough to spread in a thin sheet on a board greased with butter, set it 
out in the &un to dry ; when dry it can be rolled up like leather, wrapped 
up in a cloth, and will keep perfectly froni season to season. School- 
children regard it as a delightful addition to their lunch of biscuit or cold 
bread. Apple and quince leather are made in the same fashion, only a 
little flavoring or spice is added to them. 

COCOANUT CARAMELS. 

Two CUPFULS of grated cocoanut, one cupful of sugar, two tablespoon- 
fuls of flour, the whites of three eggs, beaten stiff. Soak the cocoanut, if 



CONFECTIONERY. 435 



desiccated, in milk enough to cover it -; then beat the whites of the eggs, add 
gradually the sugar, cocoanut and flour ; with your fingers make, by roll- 
ing the mixture, into cone shapes. Place them on buttered sheets of tin 
covered with buttered letter paper and bake in a moderate heat about fif- 
teen or twenty minutes. They should cool before removing from the tins. 

DRIED PRESERVES. 

ANY of the fruits that have been preserved in syrup may be converted 
into dry preserves, by first draining them from the syrup and then drying 
them slowly on the stove, strewing them thickly with powdered sugar. 
They should be turned every few hours, sifting over them more sugar. 

CANDIES WITHOUT COOKING. 

VERY many candies made by confectioners are made without boiling, 
which makes them very desirable, and they are equal to the best " French 
Creams." The secret lies in the sugar used, which is the XXX powdered 
or confectioners' sugar. Ordinary powdered sugar, when rubbed between 
the thumb and' finger has a decided grain, but the confectioners' sugar is 
fine as flour. The candies made after this process are better the day after. 

FRENCH VANILLA CREAM. 

BREAK into a bowl the whites of one or more eggs, as the quantity you 
wish to make will require ; add to it an equal quantity of cold water, then 
stir in XXX powdered or confectioners ' sugar until you have it stiff enough 
to mold into shape with the fingers. Flavor with vanilla to taste. After 
it is formed in balls, cubes or lozenge shapes, lay them upon plates or 
waxed paper and set them aside to dry. This cream can be worked in 
candies similar to the French cooked cream. 

CHOCOLATE CREAM DROPS. 

THESE are made or molded into cone-shape forms with the fingers, from 
the uncooked "French Cream," similar to that which is cooked. After 
forming into these little balls or cones, lay them on oiled paper until the 
next day, to harden, or make them in the morning and leave them until 
afternoon. Then melt some chocolate (the best confectioners') in a basin 
set in another basin of boiling water ; when melted, and the creams are 
hard enough to handle, take one at a time on a fork and drop into the 
melted chocolate, roll it until well covered, then slip from the fork upon 
oiled or waxed paper, and set them aside to harden. 



4 36 CONFECTIONER Y. 

FRUIT AND NUT CREAMS. 

RAISINS seeded, currants, figs and citron, chopped fine, and mixed with 
the uncooked " French Cream," while soft, before the sugar is all mixed 
in, makes a delicious variety. Nuts also may be mixed with this cream, 
stirring into it chopped almonds, hickory nuts, butternuts, or English 
walnuts, then forming them into balls, bars or squares. Several kinds of 
nuts may be mixed together. 

ORANGE DROPS. 

GRATE the rind of one orange and squeeze the juice, taking care to 
reject the seeds ; add to this a pinch of tartaric acid ; then stir in con- 
fectioners' sugar until it is stiff enough to form into balls the size of a 
small marble. This is delicious candy. 

The same process for lemon drops, using lemons in place of orange. 
Color a faint yellow. 

COCOANUT CREAMS. 

MAKE the uncooked cream as in the foregoing recipe. Take the cream 
while soft, add fresh grated cocoanut to taste ; add sufficient confectioners' 
sugar to mold into balls and then roll the balls in the fresh grated cocoa- 
nut. These may be colored pink with a few drops of cochineal syrup, also 
brown by adding a few spoonfuls of grated chocolate ; then rolling them 
in grated cocoanut ; the three colors are very pretty together. The cocoa- 
nut cream may be made into a flat cake and cut into squares or strips. 

With this uncooked cream, all the recipes given for the cooked "French 
Cream," may be used : English walnut creams, variegated creams, etc. 




COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 

* * * 

BOILING water is a very important desideratum in the making of a 
cup of good coffee or tea, but the average housewife is very apt 
to overlook this fact. Do not boil the water more than three or 
four minutes ; longer boiling ruins the water for coffee or tea 
making, as most of its natural properties escape by evaporation, leaving a 
very insipid liquid, composed mostly of lime and iron, that would ruin the 
best coffee, and give the tea a dark, dead look, which ought to be the 
reverse. 

Water left in the tea-kettle over night must never be used for preparing 
the breakfast coffee; no matter how excellent your coffee or tea may be, it 
will be ruined by the addition of water that has been boiled more than 
once. 

THE HEALING PROPERTIES OF TEA AND COFFEE. 

THE medical properties of these two beverages are considerable. Tea 
is used advantageously in inflammatory diseases and as a cure for the 
headache. Coffee is supposed to act as a preventive of gravel and gout, 
and to its influence is ascribed the rarity of those diseases in France and 
Turkey. Both tea and coffee powerfully counteract the effects of opium 
and intoxicating liquors ; though, when taken in excess, and without nour- 
ishing food, they themselves produce, temporarily at least, some of the 
more disagreeable consequences incident to the use of ardent spirits. In 
general, however, none but persons possessing great mobility of the nerv- 
ous system, or enfeebled or effeminate constitutions, are injuriously 
affected by the moderate use of tea and coffee in connection with food. 

COFFEE. 

ONE full coffeecupful of ground coffee, stirred with one egg and part of 
the shell, adding a half cupful of cold water. Put it into tha coffee boiler, 
and pour on to it a quart of boiling water ; as it rises and begins to boil, 

(437) 



438 COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 

stir it down with a silver spoon or fork. Boil hard for ten or twelve 
minutes. Remove from the fire and pour out a cupful of coffee, then 
pour back into the coffeepot. Place it on the back of the stove or range 
where it will keep hot (and not boil) ; it will settle in about five minutes. 
Send to the table hot. Serve with good cream and lump sugar. Three- 
quarters of a pound of Java and a quarter of a pound of Mocha make the 
best mixture of coffee. 

VIENNA COFFEE. 

EQUAL parts of Mocha and Java coffee ; allow one heaping tablespoonf ul 
of coffee to each person and two extra to make good strength. Mix one 
egg with grounds ; pour on coffee half as much boiling water as will be 
needed ; let it froth, then stir down grounds, and let boil five minutes ; 
then let it stand where it will keep hot, but not boil, for five or ten 
minutes, and add rest of water. To one pint of cream add the white of an 
egg, well beaten ; this is to be put in cups with sugar, and hot coffee added. 

FILTERED OR DRIP COFFEE. 

FOR each person allow a large tablespoonf ul of finely ground coffee, and 
to every tablespoonful allow a cupful of boiling water ; the coffee to be one 
part Mocha to two of Java. 

Have a small iron ring made to fit the top of the coffeepot inside, and 
to this ring sew a small muslin bag (the muslin for the purpose must not 
be too thin). Fit the bag into the pot, pour some boiling water in it, and, 
when the pot is well warmed, put the ground coffee into the bag ; pour 
over as much boiling water as is required, close the lid, and, when all 
the water has filtered through, remove the bag, and send the coffee to 
table. Making it in this manner prevents the necessity of pouring the 
coffee from one vessel to another, which cools and spoils it. The water 
should be poured on the coffee gradually so that the infusion may be 
stronger ; and the bag must be well made that none of the grounds may 
escape through the seams and so make the coffee thick and muddy. 

Patented coffeepots on this principle can be purchased at most house- 
furnishing stores. 

ICED COFFEE. 

MAKE more coffee than usual at breakfast time and stronger. When 
cold put on ice* Serve with cracked ice in each tumbler. 



COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 439 

SUBSTITUTE FOR CREAM IN COFFEE. 

BEAT the white of an egg, put to it a small lump of butter and pour the 
coffee into it gradually, stirring it so that it will not curdle. It is difficult 
to distinguish this from fresh cream. 

Many drop a tiny piece of sweet butter into their cup of hot coffee 
as a substitute for cream. 

TO MAKE TEA. 

ALLOW two teaspoonfuls of tea to one large cupful of boiling water. 
Scald the teapot, put in the tea, pour on about a cupful of boiling water, 
set it on the fire in a warm place where it will not boil, but keep very hot, 
to almost boiling ; let it steep or " draw " ten or twelve minutes. Now fill 
up with as much boiling water as is required. Send hot to the table. It 
is better to use a china or porcelain teapot, but if you do use metal let it 
be tin, new, bright and clean ; never use it when the tin is worn off and 
the iron exposed. If you do you are drinking tea-ate of iron. 

To make tea to perfection, boiling water must be poured on the leaves 
directly it boils. Water which has been boiling more than five minutes, 
or which has previously boiled, should on no account be used. If the 
water does not boil, or if it be allowed to overboil, the leaves of the tea 
will be only half-opened and the tea itself will be quite spoiled. The 
water should be allowed to remain on the leaves from ten to fifteen 
minutes. 

A Chinese being interviewed for the Cook says : Drink you* tea plain. 
Don't add milk or sugar. Tea-brokers and tea-tasters never do ; epicures 
never do ; the Chinese never do. Milk contains fibrin, albumen or some 
other stuff, and the tea a delicate amount of tannin. Mixing the two 
makes the liquid turbid. This turbidity, if I remember the cyclopaedia 
aright, is tannate of fibrin, or leather. People who put milk in tea are 
therefore drinking boots and shoes in mild disguise. 

ICED TEA 

Is NOW served to a considerable extent during the summer months. It 
is of course used without milk, and the addition of sugar serves only to 
destroy the finer tea flavor. It may be prepared some hours in advance, 
and should be made stronger than when served hot. It is bottled and 
placed in the ice chest till required. Use the black or green teas, or both, 
mixed, as fancied, 



440 COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 

CHOCOLATE. 

ALLOW half a cupful of grated chocolate to a pint of water and a pint 
of milk. Rub the chocolate smooth in a little cold water and stir into the 
boiling water. Boil twenty minutes, add the milk and boil ten minutes 
more, stirring it often. Sweeten to your taste. 

The French put two cupfuls of boiling water to each cupful of choco- 
late. They throw in the chocolate just as the water commences to boil. 
Stir it with a spoon as soon as it boils up, add two cupfuls of good milk, 
and when it has boiled sufficiently, serve a spoonful of thick whipped 
cream with each cup. 

COCOA. 

Six tablespoonfuls of cocoa to each pint of water, as much milk as 
water, sugar to taste. Rub cocoa smooth in a little cold water; have 
ready on the fire a pint of boiling water ; stir in grated cocoa paste. Boil 
twenty minutes, add milk and boil five minutes more, stiring often. 
Sweeten in cups so as to suit different tastes. 

BUTTERMILK AS A DRINK. 

BUTTERMILK, so generally regarded as a waste product, has latterly been 
coming somewhat into vogue, not only as a nutrient, but as a therapeutic 
agent, and in an editorial article the Canada Lancet, some time ago, highly 
extolled its virtues. Buttermilk may be roughly described as milk which 
has lost most of its fat and a small percentage of casein, and which has 
become sour by fermentation. Long experience has demonstrated it to be 
an agent of superior digestibility. It is, indeed, a true milk peptone 
that is, milk already partially digested, the coagulation of the coagulable 
portion being loose and flaky, and not of that firm indigestible nature 
which is the result of the action of the gastric juice upon cow's sweet 
milk. It resembles koumiss in its nature, and, with the exception of that 
article, it is the most grateful, refreshing and digestible of the products of 
milk. It is a decided laxative to the bowels, a fact which must be borne 
in mind in the treatment of typhoid fever, and which may be turned 
to advantage in the treatment of habitual constipation. It is a diuretic, 
and may be prescribed with advantage in some kidney troubles. Owing to 
its acidity, combined with its laxative properties, it is believed to exercise 
a general impression on the liver. It is well adapted to many cases where 
it is customary to recommend lime water and milk. It is invaluable in 



COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 441 

the treatment of diabetes, either exclusively, or alternating with skimmed 
milk. In some cases of gastric ulcer and cancer of the stomach, it is the 
only food that can be retained. 

Medical Journal. 
CURRANT WINE. No. 1. 

THE currants should be quite ripe. Stem, mash and strain them, 
adding a half pint of water and less than a pound of sugar to a quart of 
the mashed fruit. Stir well up together and pour into a clean cask, 
leaving the bung-hole open, or covered with a piece of lace. It should 
stand for a month to ferment, when it will be ready for bottling ; just 
before bottling you may add a small quantity of brandy or whisky. 

CURRANT WINE. No. 2. 

To EACH quart of currant juice, add two quarts of soft water and three 
pounds of brown sugar. Put into a jug or small keg, leaving the top open 
until fermentation ceases and it looks clear. Draw off and cork tightly. 

Long Island Recipe. 
BLACKBERRY WINE. No. 1. 

COVER your blackberries with cold water ; crush the berries well with a 
wooden masher ; let them stand twenty-four hours ; then strain, and to 
one gallon of juice put three pounds of common brown sugar ; put into wide- 
mouthed jars for several days, carefully skimming off the skum that will 
rise to the top ; put in several sheets of brown paper and let them remain 
in it three days ; then skim again and pour through a funnel into your 
cask. There let it remain undisturbed till March ; then strain again and 
bottle. These directions, if carefully followed out, will insure you excel- 
lent wine. 

Orange County Recipe. 
BLACKBERRY WINE. No. 2. 

BERRIES should be ripe and plump. Put into a large wood or stone 
vessel with a tap ; pour on sufficient boiling water to cover them ; when 
cool enough to bear your hand, bruise well until all the berries are broken ; 
cover up, let stand until berries begin to rise to top, which will occur 
in three or four days. Then draw off the clear juice in another vessel, 
and add one pound of sugar to every ten quarts of the liquor, and stir 
thoroughly. Let stand six to ten days in first vessel with top ; then draw 
off through a jelly bag. Steep four ounces of isinglass in a pint of wine 
for twelve hours; boil it over a slow fire till all dissolved, then place 
dissolved isinglass in a gallon of blackberry juice, give them a boil 



442 COFFEE, TEA. BEVERAGES. 

together and pour all into the vessel. Let stand a few days to ferment 
and settle ; draw off and keep in a cool place. Other berry wines may be 
made in the same manner. 

GRAPE WINE. 

MASH the grapes and strain them through a cloth ; put the skins 
in a tub, after squeezing them, with barely enough water to cover them ; 
strain the juice thus obtained into the first portion; put three pounds 
of sugar to one gallon of the mixture ; let it stand in an open tub to 
ferment, covered with a cloth, for a period of from three to seven days ; 
skim off what rises every morning. Put the juice in a cask and leave it 
open for twenty-four hours ; then bung it up, and put clay over the bung 
to keep the air out. Let your wine remain in the cask until March, when 
it should be drawn off and bottled. 

FLORIDA ORANGE WINE. 

WIPE the oranges with a wet cloth, peel off the yellow rind very thin, 
squeeze the oranges, and strain the juice through a hair-sieve ; measure the 
juice after it is strained and for each gallon allow three pounds of granu- 
lated sugar, the white and shell of one egg and one-third of a gallon of 
cold water ; put the sugar, the white and shell of the egg (crushed small) 
and the water over the fire and stir them every two minutes until the eggs 
begin to harden ; then boil the syrup until it looks clear under the froth 
of egg which will form on the surface ; strain the syrup, pour it upon the 
orange rind and let it stand over night; then next add the orange juice 
and again let it stand over night ; strain it the second day, and put it into a 
tight cask with a small cake of compressed yeast to about ten gallons of wine, 
and leave the bung out of the cask until the wine ceases to ferment ; the 
hissing noise continues as long as fermentation is in progress; when 
fermentation ceases, close the cask by driving in the bung, and let the 
wine stand about nine months before bottling it ; three months after it is 
bottled, it can be used. A glass of brandy added to each gallon of wine 
after fermentation ceases is generally considered an improvement. 

There are seasons of the year when Florida oranges by the box are very 
cheap, and this fine wine can be made at a small expense. 

METHELIN, OR HONEY WINE. 

THIS is a very ancient and popular drink in the north of Europe. To 
some new honey, strained, add spring water ; put a whole egg into it ; boil 



COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 443 

this liquor till the egg swims above the liquor ; strain, pour it in a cask. 
To every fifteen gallons add two ounces of white Jamaica ginger, bruised, 
one ounce of cloves and mace, one and a half ounces of cinnamon, all 
bruised together and tied up in a muslin bag ; accelerate the fermentation 
with yeast ; when worked sufficiently, bung up ; in six weeks draw off into 
bottles. 

Another Mead. Boil the combs, from which the honey has been drained, 
with sufficient water to make a tolerably sweet liquor ; ferment this with 
yeast and proceed as per previous formula. 

Sack Mead is made by adding a handful of hops and sufficient brandy to 

the comb liquor. 

BLACK CURRANT WINE. 

FOUR quarts of whisky, four quarts of black currants, four pounds of 
brown or white sugar, one tablespoonful of cloves, one tablespoonful of 
cinnamon. 

Crush the currants and let them stand in the whisky with the spices for 
three weeks ; then strain and add the sugar ; set away again for three 
weeks longer; then strain and bottle. 

RAISIN WINE. 

TAKE two pounds of raisins, seed and chop them, a lemon, a pound of 
white sugar and about two gallons of boiling water. Pour into a stone 
jar and stir daily for six or eight days. Strain, bottle and put in a cool 
place for ten days or so, when the wine will be ready for use. 

CHERRY BOUNCE. 

To ONE gallon of wild cherries add enough good whisky to cover the 
fruit. Let soak two or three weeks and then drain off the liquor. Mash 
the cherries without breaking the stones and strain through a jelly-bag ; 
add this liquor to that already drained off. Make a syrup with a gill of 
water and a pound of white sugar to every two quarts of liquor thus pre- 
pared; stir in well and bottle, and tightly cork. A common way of 
making cherry bounce is to put wild cherries and whisky together in a 
jug and use the liquor as wanted. 

BLACKBERRY CORDIAL. 

WARM and squeeze the berries ; add to one pint of juice one pound of 
white sugar, one-half ounce of powdered cinnamon, one-fourth ounce of 



444 COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 

mace, two teaspoonfuls of cloves. Boil all together for one-fourth of an 
hour; strain the syrup, and to each pint add a glass of French brandy. 
Two or three doses of a tablespoonful or less will check any slight diar- 
rhoea. When the attact is violent, give a tablespoonful after each 
discharge until the complaint is in subjection. It will arrest dysentery if 
given in season, and is a pleasant and safe remedy. Excellent for children 

when teething. 

HOP BEER. 

TAKE five quarts of water, six ounces of hops, boil it three hours ; then 
strain the liquor, add to it five quarts of water, four ounces of bruised 
ginger root ; boil this again twenty 'minutes, strain and add four pounds of 
sugar. When luke-warm put in a pint of yeast. Let it ferment ; in 
twenty-four hours it will be ready for bottling. 

GINGER BEER. 

PUT into a kettle two ounces of powdered ginger root (or more if it is 
not very strong), half an ounce of cream of tartar, two large lemons, cut 
in slices, two pounds of broken loaf sugar and two gallons of soft boiling 
water. Simmer them over a slow fire for half an hour. When the liquor 
is nearly cold, stir into it a large tablespoonful of the best yeast. After i* 
has fermented, which will be in about twenty-four hours, bottle for use. 

SPRUCE BEER. 

ALLOW an ounce of hops and a spoonful of ginger to a gallon of water. 
When well boiled, strain it and put in a pint of molasses, or a pound of 
brown sugar, and half an ounce or less of the essence of spruce ; when 
cool, add a teacupful of yeast, and put into a clean tight cask, and let it 
ferment for a day or two, then bottle it for use. You can boil the sprigs 
of spruce fir in place of the essence. 

ROMAN PUNCH. No. 1. 

GRATE the yellow rind of four lemons and two oranges upon two 
pounds of loaf sugar. Squeeze the juice of the lemons and oranges ; cover 
it and let it stand until next day. Strain it through a sieve, mix with 
the sugar ; add a bottle of champagne and the whites of eight eggs beaten 
to a stiff froth. It may be frozen or not, as desired. For winter use snow 

instead of ice. 

ROMAN PUNCH. No. 2. 

MAKE two quarts of lemonade, rich with pure juice lemon fruit; add 
one tablespoonful of extract of lemon. Work well and freeze ; just before 



COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 445 

serving, add for each quart of ice half a pint of brandy and half a pint of 
Jamaica rum. Mix well and serve in high glasses, as this makes what is 
called a semi or half ice. It is usually served at dinners as a coup de milieu. 

DELICIOUS JUNKET. 

TAKE two quarts of new milk, warm it on the stove to about blood 
heat, pour it into a glass or china bowl and stir into it two tablespoonfuls 
of prepared rennet, two tablespoonfuls of powdered loaf sugar, and a small 
wine-glassful of pale brandy. Let it stand till cold and eat with sugar and 
rich cream. Half the quantity can be made. 

RASPBERRY SHRUB. 

ONE quart of raspberry juice, half a pound of loaf sugar, dissolved, a 
pint of Jamaica rum, or part rum and brandy. Mix thoroughly. Bottle 

for use. 

SASSAFRAS MEAD. 

Mix gradually with two quarts of boiling water three pounds and a 
half of the best brown sugar, a pint and a half of good West India molasses, 
and a quarter of a pound of tataric acid. Stir it well and when cool, strain 
it into a large jug or pan, then mix in a teaspoonful (not more) of essence of 
sassafras. Transfer it to clean bottles (it will fill about half a dozen), cork 
it tightly and keep it in a cool place. It will be fit for use next day. Put 
into a box or boxes a quarter of a pound of carbonate of soda, to use with 
it. To prepare a glass of sassafras mead for drinking, put a large table- 
spoonful of the mead into a half tumbler full of ice-water, stir into it a 
half teaspoonful of the soda and it will immediately foam up to the top. 

Sassafras mead will be found a cheap, wholesome and pleasant beverage 
for warm weather. The essence of sassafras, tartaric acid and carbonate 
of soda, can, of course, all be obtained at the druggist's. 

CREAM SODA WITHOUT THE FOUNTAIN. 

COFFEE-SUGAR, four pounds, three pints of water, three nutmegs, grated, 
the whites of ten eggs, well beaten, gum arabic, one ounce, twenty drops 
of oil of lemon, or extract equal to that amount. By using oils of other 
fruits, you can make as many flavors from this as you desire. Mix all and 
place over a gentle fire, and stir well about thirty minutes ; remove from 
the fire and strain, and divide into two parts ; into one-half put eight 
ounces of bi-carbonate of soda, into the other half put six ounces of 
tartaric acid. Shake well, and when cold they are ready for use by pouring 



446 COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 

three or four spoonfuls from both parts into separate glasses, each 
one-third full of water. Stir each and pour together, and you have a nice 
glass of cream soda which you can drink at your leisure, as the gum and 

eggs hold the gas. 

WINE WHEY. 

SWEETEN one pint of milk to taste, and when boiling, throw in two 
wine-glasses of sherry ; when the curd forms, strain the whey through a 
muslin bag into tumblers. 

LEMON SYRUP. 

TAKE the juice of twelve lemons ; grate the rind of six in it, let it 
stand over night ; then take six pounds of white sugar and make a thick 
syrup. When it is quite cool, strain the juice into it, and squeeze as much 
oil from the grated rind as will suit the taste. Put in bottles, securely 
corked, for future use. A tablespoonful in a goblet of water will make a 
delicious drink on a hot day. 

FOE A SUMMER DRAUGHT. 

THE juice of one lemon, a tumblerful of cold water, pounded sugar to 
taste, half a small teaspoonful of carbonate of soda. Squeeze the juice 
from the lemon ; strain and add it to the water, with sufficient pounded 
sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. When well mixed, put in the soda, 
stir well and drink while the mixture is in an effervescing state. 

NOYEAU CORDIAL. 

To ONE gallon of proof spirit add three pounds of loaf sugar and a 
tablespoonful of extract of almonds. Mix well together and allow to stand 
forty-eight hours, covered closely ; now strain through thick flannel and 
bottle. This liquor will be much improved by adding half a pint of apri- 
cot or peach juice. 

EGG NOGG. 

BEAT the yolks of twelve eggs very light, stir in as much white sugar 
as they will dissolve, pour in gradually one glass of brandy to cook the 
eggs, one glass of old whisky, one grated nutmeg, and three pints of rich 
milk. Beat the whites to a froth and stir in last. 

EGG FLIP, OR MULLED ALE. 

BOIL one quart of good ale with some nutmeg ; beat up six eggs and 
mix them with a little cold ale ; then pour the hot ale to it, and pour it 



COFFEE, TEA, SEVER AGES. 447 

back and forth several times to prevent its curdling ; warm and stir it till 
sufficiently thick ; add a piece of butter or a glass of brandy and serve 

it with dry toast. 

MILK PUNCH. 

ONE pint of milk made very sweet ; a wine-glassful of brandy or rum, 
well stirred together ; grate a little nutmeg over the top of the glasses. 
Serve with a straw in each glass. 

FINE MILK PUNCH. 

PARE off the yellow rind of four large lemons and steep it for twenty- 
four hours in a quart of brandy or rum. Then mix with it the juice of the 
lemons, a pound and a half of loaf sugar, two grated nutmegs and a quart 
of water. Add a quart of rich unskimmed milk, made boiling hot, and 
strain the whole through a jelly bag. You may either use it as soon as it 
is cold, or make a larger quantity (in the above proportions) and bottle it. 
It will keep several months. 

TO MAKE HOT PUNCH. 

HALF a pint of rum, half a pint of brandy, quarter of a pound of sugar, 
one large lemon, half a teaspoonf ul of nutmeg, one pint of boiling water. 

Rub the sugar over the lemon until it has absorbed all the yellow pa*rt 
of the skin, then put the sugar into a punch bowl ; add the lemon juice 
(free from pips) and mix these two ingredients, well together. Pour over 
them the boiling water, stir well together, add the rum, brandy and nut- 
meg ; mix thoroughly and the punch will be ready to serve. It is very 
important in making good punch that all the ingredients are thoroughly 
incorporated ; and to insure success, the processes of mixing must be 
diligently attended to. (This is an old-style punch.) 

LEMONADE. 

THREE lemons to a pint of water makes strong lemonade ; sweeten to 

your taste. 

STRAWBERRY WATER. 

TAKE one cupful of ripe hulled berries; crush with a wooden spoon, 
mixing with the mass a quarter of a pound of pulverized sugar and half a 
pint of cold water. Pour the mixture into a fine sieve, rub through and 
filter till clear ; add the strained juice of one lemon and one and a half 
pints of cold water, mix thoroughly and set in ice chest till wanted. 

This makes a nice, cool drink on a warm day and easily to be made in 
strawberry season. 



448 COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 

STRAWBERRY AND RASPBERRY SYRUP. 

MASH the fresh fruit, express the juice. and to each quart add three and 
a half pounds of granulated sugar. The juice, heated to 180 Fahrenheit, 
and strained or filtered previous to dissolving the sugar, will keep for an 
indefinite time, canned hot in glass jars. 

The juice of soft fruits is best when allowed to drop therefrom by its 
own weight ; lightly mash the fruit and then suspend in a cloth, allowing 
the juice to drop in a vessel beneath. Many housekeepers, after the 
bottles and jars are thoroughly washed and dried, smoke them with sul- 
phur in this way : Take a piece of wire and bend it around a small piece 
of brimstone the size of a bean ; set the brimstone on fire, put it in the jar 
or bottle, bending the other end over the mouth of the vessel, and cover 
with a cork ; after the brimstone has burned away, fill the vessel with the 
syrup or preserves and cover tightly. There is no sulphurous taste left by 

the process. 

KOUMISS. 

KOUMISS is prepared by dissolving four ounces of white sugar in one 
gallon of skimmed milk, and placing in bottles of the capacity of one 
quart ; add two ounces of bakers' yeast, or a cake of compressed yeast to 
each bottle. Cork and tie securely, set in a warm place until fermentation 
is well under way, and lay the bottles on their sides in a cool cellar. In 
three days, fermentation will have progressed sufficiently to permit the 
koumiss to be in good condition. 

PINEAPPLE VINEGAR. 

COVER sliced pineapples with pure cider vinegar ; let them stand three 
or four days, then mash and strain through a cloth as long as it runs clear ; to 
every three quarts of juice add five pounds of sugar. 

Boil it altogether about ten minutes, skim carefully until nothing 
rises to the surface, take from the fire ; when cool, bottle it. Blackberries 
and raspberries, and, in fact, any kind of highly flavored fruit, is fine ; a 
tablespoonful in a glass of ice-cold water, to drink in warm weather. 

RASPBERRY VINEGAR. No. 1. 

PUT a quart of raspberries into a suitable dish, pour over them a quart 
of good vinegar, let it stand twenty-four hours, then strain through a flan- 
nel bag and pour this liquor on another quart of berries ; do this for three 
or four days successively and strain it ; make it very sweet with loaf sugar ; 
bottle and seal it. 



COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES. 449 

RASPBERRY VINEGAR. No. 2. 

TURN over a quart of ripe raspberries, mashed, a quart of good cider 
vinegar, add one pound of white sugar, mix well, then let stand in the sun 
four hours. Strain it, squeeze out the juice and put in a pint of good 
brandy. Seal it up in bottles, air-tight, and lay them on their sides in the 
cellar ; cover them with sawdust. When used, pour two tablespoonfuls to 
a tumblerful of ice-water. Fine. 

HOME-MADE TABLE VINEGAR. 

PUT in an open cask four gallons of warm rainwater, one gallon of 
common molasses and two quarts of yeast ; cover the top with thin muslin 
and leave it in the sun, covering it up at night and when it t rains. In 
three or four weeks it will be good vinegar. If cider can be used in place 
of rainwater the vinegar will make much sooner will not take over a 
week to make a very sharp vinegar. Excellent for pickling purposes. 

VERY STRONG TABLE VINEGAR. 

TAKE two gallons of good cider and thoroughly mix it with two pounds of 
new honey, pour into your cask or bottle and let it stand from four to six 
months, when you will have vinegar so strong that it cannot be used at 
table without diluting with water. It is the best ever procured for pick- 
ling purposes. 

PINEAPPLE-ADE. 

PARE and slice some very ripe pineapples ; then cut the slices into small 
pieces. Put them with all their juice, into a large pitcher, and sprinkle 
among them plenty of powdered white sugar. Pour on boiling water, 
allowing a small half pint to each pineapple. Cover the pitcher and let 
it stand till quite cool, occasionally pressing down the pineapple with a 
spoon. Then set the pitcher for a while in ice. Lastly, strain the infu- 
sion into another vessel and transfer it to tumblers, putting into each 
glass some more sugar and a bit of ice. This beverage will be found 

delicious. 

SEIDLITZ POWDERS. 

FOLD in a white paper a mixture of one drachm of Eochelle salts and 
twenty-five grains of carbonate of soda, in a blue paper twenty grains of 
tartaric acid. They should all be pulverized very finely. Put the contents 
of the white paper into a tumbler, not quite half full of cold water, and 
stir it till dissolved. Then put the mixture from the blue paper into 

29 



450 



COFFEE, TEA, BEVERAGES, 



another tumbler with the same quantity of water, and stir that also. 
When the powders are dissolved in both tumblers, pour the first into the 
other, and it will effervesce immediately. Drink it quickly, while 
foaming. 

INEXPENSIVE DRINK. 

A VERY nice, cheap drink which may take the place of lemonade and 
be found fully as healthful is made with one cupful of pure cider vinegar, 
half a cupful of good molasses, put into one quart pitcher of ice-water. A 
tablespoonful of ground ginger added makes a healthful beverage. 




...THEo.. 

VARIETIES OF SEASONABLE FOOD 

TO BE OBTAINED IN OUR MARKETS DURING THE YEAR. 

* * * 

JANUARY 

MEATS. Beef, mutton, pork, lamb. 

POU LTRY AN D GAM E. Rabbits, hares, partridges, woodcocks, grouse or prairie 
chickens, snipes, antelope, quails, swans, geese, chickens, capons, tame pigeons, wild 
ducks, the canvas-back duck being the most popular and highly prized ; turkeys. 

FISH. Haddock, fresh codfish, halibut, flounders, bass, fresh salmon, turbot. Frozen 
fresh mackerel is found in our large cities during this month ; also frozen salmon, red- 
snapper, shad, frozen bluefish, pickerel, smelts, green turtle, diamond-back terrapin, 
prawns, oysters, scallops, hard crabs, white bait, finnan haddie, smoked halibut, smoked 
salmon. 

VEGETABLES. Cabbage, carrots, turnips, parsnips, beets, pumpkins, chives, 
celery, winter squash, onions, white and sweet potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, chiccory, 
Brussels-sprouts, kale-sprouts, oyster plant, leeks, cress, cauliflower. Garden herbs, 
both dry and green, being chiefly used in stuffing and soups, and for flavoring and gar- 
nishing certain dishes, are always in season, such as sage, thyme, sweet basil, borage, dill, 
mint, parsley, lavender, summer savory, etc., may be procured green in the summer and 
dried in the winter. 

FEBRUARY. 

MEATS. Beef, mutton, pork, lamb, antelope. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Partridges, hares, rabbits, snipes, capons, pheasants, 
fowls, pullets, geese, ducks, turkeys, wild ducks, swan, geese and pigeons. 

FISH. Halibut, haddock, fresh codfish, striped bass, eels, fresh salmon, live lobsters, 
pompano, sheep's-head, red-snapper, white perch, a panfish, smelts green and frozen ; 
shad, herring, salmon-trout, whitefish, pickerel, green turtle, flounders, scallops, prawns, 
oysters, soft-shell crabs which are in excellent condition this month ; hard crabs, white 
bait, boneless dried codfish, finnan haddie, smoked halibut, smoked salmon. 

VEGETABLES. White potatoes, sweet potatoes, cabbage, onions, parsnips, oyster 
plant, okra, celery, chiccory, carrots, turnips, Jerusalem artichokes, French artichokes, 
Brussels-sprouts, beets, mushrooms raised in hot houses, pumpkins, winter squash, dry 
shallots and garden herbs for seasoning put up in the dried state. 

(451) 



452 SEASONABLE FOOD. 

MARCH. 

MEATS. Beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Chickens, turkeys, ducks, rabbits, snipes, wild 
pigeons, capons. 

FISH. Striped bass, halibut, salmon, live codfish, chicken halibut, live lobster, 
Spanish maokerel, flounders, sheep's-head, pompano, grouper, red-snapper. Shad are 
plentiful this month. Herring, salmon-trout, sturgeon, whitefish, pickerel, yellow perch, 
catfish, green turtle, terrapin, scallops, soft-shell clams, oysters, prawns, smoked salmon, 
smoked halibut, smoked haddock, salt codfish. 

VEGETABLES. Cabbage, turnips, carrots, parsnips, artichokes, white potatoes, 
sweet potatoes, onions, leeks, radishes, Brussels-sprouts, celery, mushrooms, salsify-chives, 
cress, parsley and other garden herbs, greens, rhubarb and cucumbers raised in hot beds. 



APRIL. 

MEATS. Beef, veal, pork, mutton, lamb. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Chickens, fowls, green geese, young ducks, capons, 
golden plover, squabs, wild ducks. 

FISH. Haddock, fresh cod, striped bass, halibut, eels, chicken halibut, live lobsters, 
salmon, white perch, flounders, fresh mackerel, sheep's-head, smelts, red-snapper, blue- 
fish, skate or ray fish, shad, whitefish, brook trout, salmon-trout, pickerel, catfish, prawns, 
crayfish, green turtle, oysters, scallops, frogs' legs, clams, hard crabs, white bait, smoked 
halibut, smoked salmon, smoked haddock, salt mackerel, salt codfish. 

VEGETABLES. Onions, white and sweet potatoes, kale-sprouts, rhubarb, arti- 
chokes, turnips, radishes, Brussels-sprouts, okra, cabbage, parsnips, mushrooms, cress, car- 
rots, beets, dandelion, egg plant, leeks, lettuce, cucumbers, asparagus, string beans, peas, 
chives. 



MAY. 

MEATS. Beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Fowls, pigeons, spring chickens, young ducks, 
chickens, green geese, young turkeys. 

FISH. Halibut, haddock, striped bass, salmon, flounders, fresh mackerel, Spanish 
mackerel, blackfish, pompano, butterfish, weakfish, kingfish, porgies, shad, bluefish, clams, 
brook-trout, whitefish, carp, crayfish, prawns, green turtle, soft crabs, frogs' legs, smoked 
fish. 

VEGETABLES. New potatoes, sweet potatoes, cabbage, young onions, asparagus, 
beets, carrots, kidney beans, string beans, lettuce, tomatoes, cauliflower, peas, turnips, 
squash, rhubarb, spinach, radishes, artichokes, sorrel, egg-plant, cucumbers, salads 
generally. 



SEASONABLE FOOD. 453 

JUNE. 

MEATS. Beef, veal, mutton, lamb. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Chickens, geese, ducks, young turkeys, plovers, 
pigeons. 

FISH. Fresh salmon, striped bass, halibut, fresh mackerel, flounders, kingfish, 
blackfish, weakfish, butterfish, pompano, Spanish mackerel, porgies, sheep's-head, sturgeon, 
sea bass, bluefish, skate or rayfish, carp, black bass, crayfish, lobsters, eels, white bait, 
frogs' legs, soft crabs, clams. 

VEGETABLES. Potatoes, spinach, cauliflower, string beans, peas, tomatoes, 
asparagus, carrots, artichokes, parsnips, onions, cucumbers, lettuce, radishes, cress, oyster 
plant, egg plant, rhubarb and all kinds of garden herbs, sorrel, horse-radish. 



JULY. 

MEATS. Beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork. 

POU LTRY AND GAM E. Fowls, chickens, pigeons, plovers, young geese, turkey- 
plouts, squabs, doe -birds, tame rabbits. 

FISH. Spanish mackerel, striped bass, fresh mackerel, blackfish, kingfish, flounders, 
salmon, cod, haddock, halibut, pompano, butterfish, a sweet panfish, sheep's-head, porgies, 
sea bass, weakfish, swordfish, tantog, bluefish, skate, brook trout, crayfish, black bass, 
moonfish a fine baking or boiling fish ; pickerel, perch, eels, green turtle, frogs' legs, 
soft crabs, white bait, prawns, lobsters, clams. 

VEGETABLES. Potatoes, asparagus, peas, green string beans, butter beans, 
artichokes, celery, lettuce, carrots, salsify, tomatoes, spinach, mushrooms, cabbage, onions, 
endive, radishes, turnips, mint, various kinds of greens and salads. 



AUGUST. 

MEATS. Beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Venison, young ducks, green geese, snipe, plover, 
turkeys, guinea-fowls, squabs, wild pigeons, woodcock, fowls. 

FISH. Striped bass, cod, halibut, haddock, salmon, flounders, fresh mackerel, 
ponito, butterfish, sea bass, kingfish, sheep's-head, porgies, bluefish, moonfish, brook-trout, 
eels, black bass, crayfish, skate or rayfish, catfish, green turtle, white bait, squid, frogs' 
legs, soft crabs, prawns, clams. 

VEGETABLES. Carrots, artichokes, onions, string beans, lima beans, cauliflower, 
Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, green corn, tomatoes, peas, summer squash, cucumbers, 
radishes, lettuce, celery, rhubarb, beets, greens, mushrooms, chives. 



454 SEASONABLE FOOD. 

SEPTEMBER. 

MEAT. Beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork, venison. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Larks, woodcock, snipe, wild pigeons, squabs, young 
geese, young turkeys, plover, wild ducks, wild geese, swans and brant fowls, reed-birds, 
grouse, doe-birds, partridges. 

FISH. Salmon, halibut, codfish, pompano, striped bass, haddock, cero, a large fish 
similar to the Spanish mackerel ; flounders, fresh mackerel, blackfish, Spanish mackerel, 
butterfish, whitefish, weakfish, smelts, porgies, squids, pickerel, crayfish, catfish, bluefish, 
wall-eyed pike, sea bass, skate, carp, prawns, white bait, frogs' legs, hard crabs, moonfish, 
soft crabs, herrings, lobsters, clams. 

VEGETABLES. Potatoes, cabbages, turnips, artichokes, peas, beans, carrots, 
onions, salsify, mushrooms, lettuce, sorrel, celery, cauliflower, Brussels-sprouts, sweet 
potatoes, squash, rhubarb, green-peppers, parsnips, beets, green corn, tomatoes, cress. 



OCTOBER. 

MEATS. Beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork, venison, antelope. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Turkeys, geese, fowls, pullets, chickens, wild ducks, 
the canvas-back duck being the most highly prized, for its delicate flavor ; woodcock, 
grouse, pheasants, pigeons, partridges, snipes, reed-birds, golden plover, gray plover, 
squabs. 

FISH. Striped bass, fresh cod, halibut, haddock, Spanish mackerel, fresh mackerel, 
cero, flounders, pompano, weakfish, white perch, grouper, sheep's head, whitefish, bluefish 
pickerel, red-snapper, yellow perch, smelts, sea bass, black bass, cisco, wall-eyed pike, 
crayfish, carp, salmon-trout, spotted bass, terrapin, frogs' legs, hard crabs, soft crabs, white 
bait, green turtle, scallops, eels, lobsters, oysters, 

VEGETABLES. Potatoes, cabbages, turnips, carrots, cauliflowers, parsnips, string 
beans, peas, lima beans, corn, tomatoes, onions, spinach, salsify, egg plant, beets, pump- 
kins, endive, celery, parsley, squash, cucumbers, mushrooms, sweet herbs of all kinds, 
salads of all kinds, garlic, shallots. 



NOVEMBER. 

MEATS. Beef, veal, mutton, pork, venison, antelope. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Rabbits, hares, pheasants, woodcock, partridges, 
quails, snipe, grouse, wild ducks, wild geese, fowls, turkeys, pigeons. 

FISH. Striped bass, fresh cod, halibut, haddock, salmon, fresh mackerel, blackfish, 
whitefish, bluefish, catfish, redfish or spotted bass, black bass, yellow perch, skate, red- 
snapper, salmon-trout, pickerel, shad, wall-eyed pike, cisco, crayfish, terrapin, green turtle, 
scallops, prawns, white bait, frogs' legs, hard crabs, oysters. 

VEGETABLES. Potatoes, carrots, parsnips, turnips, onions, dried beans, arti- 
chokes, cabbages, beets, winter squash, celery, parsley, pumpkins, shallots, mushrooms, 
ehiccory, all sorts of salads and sweet herbs. 



SEASONABLE FOOD. 455 

DECEMBER. 

MEATS. Beef, veal, mutton, pork, venison. 

POULTRY AND GAME. Rabbits, hares, grouse, pheasants, woodcock, snipe, 
partridges, turkey, fowls, chickens, pullets, geese, wild geese, ducks, wild duck, tame 
duck, canvas-back duck, quails. 

FISH. Turbot, sturgeon, haddock, halibut, eels, striped bass, flounders, salmon, 
fresh cod, blackfish, whitefish, grouper, cusk, shad, mullet, a sweet panfish, black bass, 
yellow perch, salmon-trout, pickerel, cisco, skate, wall-eyed pike, terrapin, crayfish, green 
turtle, prawns, hard crabs, soft crabs, scallops, frogs' legs, oysters. 

VEGETABLES. Potatoes, cabbages, onions, winter squash, beets, turnips, pump- 
kins, carrots, parsnips, dried beans, dried peas, mushrooms, parsley, shallots, Brussels- 
sprouts, leeks, horse-radish, garlic, mint, sage and small salads. Garden herbs which are 
mostly used for stuffings and for flavoring dishes, soups, etc., or for garnishing, may be 
found either green or dried the year round, always in season. 

Melons can be had at most of -our markets from July 1st until the 15th of October; 
they are received from the South in the early part of the season, and are not as fresh and 
good as those ripened in our own vicinity. 




MENUS 



BREAKFAST, LUNCH AND DINNER FOR THE HOLIDAYS 

And for a Week in Each Month in the Year. 
* * * 

JANUARY. 



NEW YEAR'S DAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Baked Apples 492. Oysters on Half Shell. 

Hominy 260. Julienne Soup 33. 

Broiled White Fish 67. Ham Omelet 220. . Baked Pickerel 50. 

Potatoes a la Creme 184. Parker House Rolls 240. Roast Turkey 79, Oyster Stuffing 80. 

Crullers 300. Toast 263. Mashed Potatoes 183. Boiled Onions 189. 

Coffee 437. Baked Winter Squash 202. 

Cranberry Sauce 155. Chicken Pie 86. 

Ci IDDCB Plain Celery 167. Lobster Salad 163. 

PER> Olives. Spiced Currants 180. 

Cold Roast Turkey 79. English Plum Pudding 377, Wine Sauce 397. 

Boston Oyster Pie 74. Celery Salad 166. Mince Pie 320. Orange-water Ice 361. 

Baked Sweet Potatoes 189. Fancy Cakes 294. Cheese. Fruits. 

Rusks 243. Fruit Cake 276. Nuts. Raisins. Confectionery. 

Sliced Oranges. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 

SUNDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Oranges. Oatmeal, with Cream 260. Oysters on Half Shell. 

Broiled Mutton Chops 133. Tomato Sauce 152. Mock Turtle Soup 39. 

Favorite Warmed Potatoes 186. Boiled Halibut 55, Sauce Maitre d'Hotel 153. 
Eggs on Toast 265. Graham Gems 246. Roast Haunch of Venison 100, Currant Jelly 411. 
Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Potato Croquettes No. 1 187. 
Creamed Parsnips 194. 

Celery - 

Pickled White Cabbage 174. 

Potted Ham 146. Chicken Patties 85. 

Cheese Cream Toast 212. Celery Salad 166. Baked Lemon Pudding 380. 

Cold Raised Biscuit 239. Jelly Kisses 352. 

Gooseberry Jam 415. Citron Cake 280. Raisins. Nuts. Fruit. 

Tea 489. Coffee 437. 

MONDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Boiled Rice Si 6 " ^rfcutlets ML * *^ 

Waffles 247, with Maple Syrup. Potato Fillets 187. Bolled Le of Mutton 131 ' Caper Sauce 1B1 ' 

Toast 263. Coffee 437. Potatoes a la Delmonico 187. 

Steamed Cabbage 191. Cheese Fondu 211. 

LUNCHEON. Cucumber Pickles 172. 

Cold Roast Venison 100. Broiled Oysters 71. Boston Cream Pie 313. Sliced Oranges. 

Potato Salad 167. Rye Drop-cakes 248. Crackers. Cheese. 

Canned Peaches 417. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 
(456) 



MENUS. 457 

TUESDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Raspberry Jam 415. Oyster Soup 45. 

Hominy 260. Saratoga Chips 184 Roast Loin of Pork 139. Apple Sauce 154. 
Porterhouse Steak 106. French Griddle-cakes 252. 

_ , __ .v, . Boiled Sweet Potatoes 189. 
Brown Bread 232. Coffee 437. 

Scalloped Onions 190. Stewed Carrots 203. 

LUNCHEON. Pickled Green Peppers 174. 

Scrambled Mutton 135. R y al Sa S Pudding 881, Sweet Sauce 401. 
Welsh Rarebit 212. Olives. Hominy Croquettes 261. Crullers 300. 

Currant Jelly 411. Molasses Cup Cake 293. Fruit. Cheese. 

Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



WEDNESDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Old-fashioned Apple Sauce 155. Fried Mush 260. Beef Sou 31 
Pork Tenderloins 140. Fried Sweet Potatoes 189. 

Parker House Rolls 240. Omelet 217. R aSt Flllet f Veal 121 ' 

Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Tomato Sauce 152. Browned Potatoes 183. 

Macaroni a la Cr6me 207. 

LUNCHEON. Parsnip Fritters 194. Piccalili 177. 

Cold Roast Pork 139. Stewed Codfish 62. Lemon Pie 311. 

Green Tomato Pickles 173. Rusks 243. Cocoanut Tarts 323. Cheese. 

Strawberry Jam 415. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



THURSDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Stewed Peaches. 

Corn Meal Mush 259. Stewed Beef Kidney 119. Chicken Cream Soup 33. 

Egg Muffins 245. Crisp Potatoes 186. Boiled Corned Beef 113. 

Ham Toast 265. Coffee 437. Boiled Potatoes 182. Boiled Turnips 204. 

Boiled Cabbage 191. 

LUNCHEON. Beets Boiled 200. 

Veal Croquettes 124. Sardines. Charlotte Russe 342. 

Cold Slaw 165. Cheese Toast 264. Preserved Strawberries 405. 

Canned Plums 420. Soft Ginger Cake 290. Fruit Jumbles 299. Fruit. 

Cocoa 440. Coffee 437. 



FRIDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Orange Marmalade 414. r -, . 
Oat Flakes 262. Codfish Balls 62. 

Baked Eggs on Toast 265. Lyonnaise Potatoes 186. Baked Hallbut 56 ' Hollandaise Sauce 153. 

Sally Lunn 242 Browned Potatoes 183. 

Raised Doughnuts 301. Coffee 437. Scalloped Oysters 73. 

Stewed Tomatoes 194. 

LUNCHEON. Fried Salsify 199. 

Cold Corned Beef 113., Suet Plum Pudding 392, Brandy Sauce 397. 

Vegetable Hash 202. Deviled Lobster 67. Sponge Drops 2%. 

Graham Bread 231. Peach Butter 421. Fruit. 

Golden Spice Cake 287. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



458 MENUS 

SATURDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Apple Sauce 154. Cracked Wheat 262. Tomato Soup 37. 

Beef Hash 118. Fried Raw Potatoes 184. Fricassee Chicken 84. 

Buckwheat Cakes with Maple Syrup 252. Mashed Potatoes 183. Ladies' Cabbage 192 

heat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Boiled Kice 193. 

Cold Slaw 163. 

LUNCHEON. Apple Pie 309. 

Scalloped Fish 61. Head Cheese 147. Mock Ice 335. 

Celery 167. Grafton Milk Biscuits 242. Cookies 299. 

Grape Jelly 413. Cream Cake 285. Cheese. 

Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



FEBRUARY. 



WASHINGTON'S BIRTHDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Oranges. Oatmeal with Cream 260. Oysters on Half Shell. 

Country Sausage 146. Baked Omelet-222. Mock Turtle Soup 39. 

Lyonnaise Potatoes 186. Clam Fritters 75. Baked White Fish 55, Bechamel Sauce 153. 

Egg Muffins 245. Wheat Bread 228. Boiled Turkey 81, Oyster Sauce 350. 

Coffee 437. Boiled Sweet Potatoes 189. 

Steamed Potatoes 185. Stewed Tomatoes 194. 

ci IDDE7D Scalloped Onions 190. 

SUPPER. Salmi of Game 99. 

Cold Boiled Turkey 81. Olives. Chicken Salad 163. 

Potato Croquettes 187. Lobster Salad 163. Washington Pie 346. Bavarian Cream 331. 

Soda Biscuit 238. Variegated Jelly 355. Marble Cake 282. 

English Pound Cake 279. Pineapple Preserves 407. Candied Fruits. Raisins and Nuts. 

Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



SUNDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Old-fashioned Apple Sauce 155. Graham Mush 260. Ox-tail Soup 34 

Broiled Ham 145. Potato Croquettes 187. Baked whlte Flsh (Bordeaux Sauce) 55. 

Fried Eggs 215. Braised Ducks with Turnips 93. 

Virginia Corn Bread 235. German Doughnuts 302. Mashed Potatoes 183. 

Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. stewed Tomat oes 194. 

Timbale of Macaroni 207. Celery Salad 166. 

SUPPER. Fried Sweetbreads 130. 

Boston Oyster Pie 74. Sago Apple Pudding 381. 

Cold Boiled Tongue 119. Sliced Cucumber Pickle 172. - Lemon Jelly 353. Fruit. 

Orange Short-cake 257. Ginger Snaps 293. Almond Macaroons 353. 

Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



MENUS. 459 



MONDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Stewed Apricots. Steamed Oatmeal 262. Vermicelli Soup 41. 

Fried Chicken 86. Stewed Brisket of Beef 115. 

Potato Puffs 184. Flannel Cakes 249. Scalloped Potatoes 185. 

Milk Toast 363. Coffee 437. Stewed Parsnips 193. 

French Cabbage 192. 

LUNCHEON. Mixed Pickles 178. 

Warmed-up Duck 94. Cranberry Pie 318. 

Sliced Bologna Sausage 146. Celery 167. Spanish Cream 331. 

Potato Biscuit 241. Canned Grapes 418. Fruit. Cheese. 

Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



TUESDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Sliced Oranges. Hominy 260. Scotch Mutton Broth 32. 

Hamburger Steak 118. Grilled Pork 143. Baked Ham 144. 

Saratoga Chips 184. Tennessee Muffins 245. Potato Snow 185. 

Puff Ball Doughnuts 302. Scalloped Tomatoes 195. 

Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Veal Croquettes 124. Stewed Beets 200. 

Sunderland Pudding 394. 

LUNCHEON. Custard Sauce 400. 

Cold Sliced Beef 115. Potato Puffs 184. Lemon Cookies 300. 

Tomato Catsup 168. Light Biscuit 239. Fruit. 

Jelly Fritters 350. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



WEDNESDAY, 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Fried Apples 141. Mullagatawny Soup 38. 

Corn Meal Mush 259. Fried Pork Chops 141. Boned Leg of Mutton, Roasted 131. 

Newport Waffles 247. Favorite Warmed Potatoes 186. Boiled Potatoes 182. 

Brown Bread 232. Coffee 437. Stewed Onions 189. Mashed Turnips 204. 

Hot Slaw 165. 

LUNCHEON. Tapioca Blanc Mange 340, with Raspberry Jam 416. 

Sliced Ham 144. Scalloped Oysters 73. Neapolitaines 397. 

Fried Sweet Potatoes 189. Sweet Pickle 180. Fruit. 

Lemon Toast 348. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



THURSDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Bananas. Samp 261. Tapioca Cream Soup 40. 

Broiled Veal Cutlets 124. Tomato Sauce 152. Curry Chicken with Rice 89. 

Fried Potatoes 184. French Rolls 241. Steamed Sweet Potatoes 189. 

Wonders 301. Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Stewed Salsify 199. 

Boiled Squash 202. Pickled Onions 176, 

LUNCHEON. Delicate Indian Pudding 375. 

Hashed Mutton on Toast 132. Orange Jelly 345. 

Potato Croquettes 187. Pickled Oysters 177. Crackers. 

Preserved Cherries 404. Feather Cake 284. Cheese. 

Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



460 MENUS. 



FRIDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Oranges. Lobster Soup 45. 

Oatmeal with Cream 260. Boiled Cod with Oyster gauce 63 

Boiled Salt Mackerel 58. Veal Hash on Toast 266. potatQ puflg m Fried Cabbft 
Fried Sweet Potatoes 189. 

Corn Meal Griddle-cakes 250. Coffee 437. 

_ Olives. 

LUNCHEON. Cocoanut Pudding 376. 

Lobster Croquettes 67. Banana Cream 334. 

French Stew 115. Cold Slaw 165. Rusks 243. Cup Cakes 295. 

Sweet Omelet 348. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



SATURDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Apple Jelly 412. Boiled Rice 261. ^^le Bean s ^ 

Pried Pickled Pigs' Feet 144. Baked Potatoes 188. 

Fish Omelet 221. English Crumpets 258. Beef 4 la Mode 108 ' 

Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Baked Potatoes 188. Sourcrout 193. 



Macaroni a la Italienne 206. 



LUNCHEON. Chowchow 175. 

Dried Beef with Cream 116. Chocolate Custard Pie 311. 

Little Plum Cakes 297. 



Cheese Fondu 211. 
Potato Salad 166. Grafton Milk Biscuits 242. 

Corn Meal Puffs 379. Fruit. 

Lemon Sauce 398. Cocoa 440. Coffee 437. 



MARCH. 



SUNDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Sliced Oranges. Swiss white Soup 41- 

Oat Flakes 262. Porterhouse Steak 106. Boile d Fresh Mackerel 59, Egg Sauce 149. 

Lyonnaise Potatoes 186. Roast Beef 105 . 

Oyster Omelet 221. Raised Biscuit 239. Yorkshire Pudding 106. 

Sour Milk Griddle-cakes 249. Browned Potatoes 183. 

Spinach with Eggs 202. Boiled Parsnips 198. 

Scalloped Cheese 211. 

SUPPER. Chicken Croquettes 86. 

Calf's Head Cheese 127. Tapioca Cream Custard 334. 

Lobster Patties 67. Potato Salad 166. Rhubarb Pie 316. 

Warm Soda Biscuits 238. Sponge Drops 29G. Cheese. 

Honey. Lemon Cookies 300. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



MENUS. 461 

MONDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Baked Apples 492. Hominy 260. Split Pea Soup 35 

Pried Ham and Eggs 143. Crisp Potatoes 186. Braised Veal 126. 

Plain Muffins 245. Brown Bread 232. Steamed Potatoes 185. 

Coffee 437. Cabbage with Cream 19L 

Stewed Beets 200. 

LUNCHEON. Mixed Pickles 178. 

Cold Roast Beef 105. Fish Fritters 63. Superior Bread Pudding 370, 

Baked Potatoes 188. Plain Sauce 400. 

Indian Loaf Cake 235. Plum Preserves 405. Orange Tarts 322. Fruit. 

Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



TUESDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Bananas. Fried Mush 260. Consomme 1 Soup 83. 

Fried Veal Chops 123. Hasty Cooked Potatoes 186. Roast Chicken 83. 

Egg Biscuit 240. Wheat Bread 228. Mashed Potatoes 183. 

Coffee 437. Stewed Carrots 203. 

Tomato Toast 265. 

LUNCHEON. Spiced Currants 180. 

Oyster Stew 70. Almond Pudding 367. 

Spiced Beef Relish 114. Hominy Croquettes 261. Lemon Trifle ?38. 

Rusks 243. Canned Peaches 417. Angel Cake 287. Fruit. 

Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



WEDNESDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Lemon Marmalade 414. Cracked Wheat 262. Vegetable Soup 41. 

Country Sausages 146. Potato Puffs 184. Baked Calf's Head 127. 

Bread Griddle-cakes 251. Boiled Potatoes 182. 

Cream Toast 263. Coffee 437. Stewed Onions 189. 

Macaroni and Tomato Sauce 207. Cold Slaw 166. 

LUNCHEON. Apple Custard Pie 309. 

Chicken Patties 85. Baked Omelet 222. Wine Jelly 354. 

Potato Croquettes 187. Cocoanut Cookies 300. 

East India Pickle 178. Beaten Biscuit 241. Cheese. 

Apple Pudding 383. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



THURSDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Stewed Prunes. Steamed Oatmeal 262. Oyster Soup 45. 

Pork Cutlets 141. Baked Potatoes 188. Spiced Beef 108. 

Scrambled Eggs 215. Corn Meal Fritters 253. Potato Croquettes 187. 

Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Spinach with Eggs 202. 

Scalloped Tomatoes 195. 

LUNCHEON. Olives. 

Fricasseed Tripe 120. Plain Charlotte Russe 343. 

Hashed Beef on Toast 266. Chicken Salad 168. Jam Tarts 325. 

Cream Toast 263. Crullers 301. Fruit. 

Grape Jelly 413. Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



462 MENUS. 



FRIDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Peach Jelly 413. Boiled Rice 261. Tomato Soup No. 2 88. 

Fried Pan Fish 50. Veal Hash on Toast 266. Boiled White Fish 57, 

Saratoga Chips 184. Feather Griddle-cakes 249. Maitre d'Hotel Sauce 153. 

Coffee 437. Potato Snow 185. Fried Parsnips 19J, 

Boiled Cabbage 191, and Ham 145. 

Cucumber Pickle 172. 

LUNCHEON. Cracker Pudding 374, Fruit Sauce 401. 

Cold Spiced Beef 108. Stewed Codfish 62. Lemon Jelly 854. 

Fried Potatoes 184. Brown Bread 232. Delicate Cake 281. Fruit. 

Apple Fritters 254. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



SATURDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Cider Apple Sauce 155. Hominy 262. Philadelphia Pepper Pot 37. 

Calf's Liver and Bacon 128. Baked Mutton Cutlets 134. 

Potatoes & la Creme 184. Egg Muffins 245. Roast Sweet Potatoes 189. 

Brown Bread 232. Coffee 437. Mashed Turnips 204. Stewed Celery 199. 

Lobster Salad 163. 

i i iNirwrnw Ap P le i> um P lin gs 364, 

UUNUHtUIN. Sweet Sauce 401. 

Ham Omelet 220. Pan Oysters 71. Baked Custard 327. 

Rice Croquettes 260. Cream Short-cake 256. Kaisins. Nuts 

Strawberry Preserves 405. Chocolate 440. ' Coffee 437. 



APRIL 



SUNDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Stewed Apples 350. Oatmeal with Cream 260. Cream of Spinach Soup 33. 

Veal Cutlets Broiled 124. Shirred Eggs 215. Boiled Shad 53, Sauce Tartare 149. 

Warmed Potatoes 186. French Rolls 241. Leg of Mutton a la Venison 132. 

Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Steamed Potatoes 185. 

Creamed Parsnips 1M 

SUPPER. Oyster Patties 72. 

Cold Roast Chicken 83. Mayonnaise Fish 61. Currant Jelly 411. 

Welsh Rarebit 212. Baking Powder Biscuit 239. Lettuce Salad 166. 

Layer Cake 269, with Banana Filling 274. Delmonico Pudding 385, Pineapple Sherbet 360. 

Chocolate 440. Rolled Jelly Cake 289. Fruit. Coffee 437. 



MENUS. 463 

MONDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Sliced Oranges. Hominy 262. 

Broiled Halibut 57. Omelet of Herbs 219. _ . MoC * S Up 39 ' 



_ . f 

Saratoga Chips 184. Raised Muffins 244. Tenderloin of Beef 

Brown Bread 232. Coffee 437. * lled Potatoes 183 ' 

_ Steamed Cabbage 191. 

I i iKioucrvM Stewed Onions 189, 

LUIN^HtUN. Radishes. 

Mutton Pudding 135. Oyster Roast 71. Snow Pudding 385. 

Lettuce with Cream Dressing 162. French Rolls 241. Peach Meringue Pie 810. 

Cup Custard 327. Tea 439. Crisp Cookies 291. Fruit. Coffee 437, 



TUESDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Stewed Prunes. Oat Flakes 262. Celery Soup 42 

Frizzled Beef 113. Grilled Salt Pork 143. French Stew 115 

Potato Puffs 184. Sally Lunn 242. Potato Puffs 184> Mashed Turnips 204 

Toast263 - Coffee 437. Brain Cutlets 127. 

Pickled Cabbage 174. 

LUNCHEON. Golden Cream Cake 285. 

Roast Beef Pie with Potato Crust 112. Orange Cocoanut Salad 349. 

Fried Tripe 120. Hominy Croquettes 261. Nuts. 

Olives. Light Biscuit 239. Raisins. 

Jelly Puddings 395. Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



WEDNESDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Baked Apples 492. Boiled Rice 261. Mullagatawny Soup 38. 

Mutton Chops Fried 133. Lyonnaise Potatoes 186. Boiled Fillet of Veal 1^2 
Parker House Rolls 240. 

Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Bolled Sweet Potatoes 189 - 
Stewed Tomatoes 194. 

LUNCHEON. Baked Sweetbreads 130. Chowchow 175. 

Chicken Omelet 220. Mock Cream Ple 314 - 

Fried Eels 54. Radishes 167. Lemon Jelly 853. Almond Jumbles 298. 

Steamed Brown Bread 233. Fruit. 

Sponge Cake 278. Quince Preserves 406. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



THURSDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Oranges. Cracked Wheat 262. Beet Soup 81 

Dried Beef with Cream 116. Chicken a la Terrapin 91. 

Veal Collops 123. Baked Potatoes 188. Browned Potatoes 183. 

Grafton Milk Biscuits 242. Fried Parsnips 198 . 

Dipped Toast 263. Coffee 437. Macaroni and Cheese 206. 

Lettuce 168, with French Dressing 162. 

LUNCHEON. Banana Pudding 392. 

Pressed Beef 114. Stewed Kidneys 119. Jam Tarts 325. 

Baked Potatoes 188. Pickled Peppers 174. Nuts. 

Fried Dinner Rolls 257. Raisins. 

Canned Peaches 417. Cocoa 440. Coffee 437. 



464 MENUS. 



FRIDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Bananas. Vermicelli Soup 41. 

Steamed Oatmeal 262. Stewed Codfish 62. Baked Shad with Dressing 53. 

Bread Omelet 221. Boiled Potatoes 182. Scalloped Potatoes 185. 

Hot Cross Buns 242. Spinach with Eggs 202 

Brown Bread 232. Coffee 437. Veal Croquettes 124. 

Olives. 

LUNCHEON. Fig Pudding 384. 

Rissoles of Chicken 84. Chocolate Eclairs 292. 

Potted Fish 60. Nun's Toast 263. Potato Biscuit 241. Fruit. 

Lemon Cake 280. Peach Jelly 413. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



SATURDAY. 



BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Stewed Apricots. Samp 261. Onion Soup 41. 

Broiled Ham 145. Fried Eggs 215. Pot Roast 108. 

Sweet Potatoes Fried 189. Newport Waffles 247. Mashed Potatoes 183. 

Flannel Cakes 249. Coffee 437. Boiled Onions 189. 

Lobster Patties 67. 

LUNCHEON. Lettuce 168, with Mayonnaise 161. 

Veal Stew 125. Scalloped Cheese 211. Pineapple Charlotte Russe 345. 

Potato Croquettes 187. Radishes 167. Lady Fingers 296. 

Boston Brown Bread 232. Ginger Snaps 293. Nuts. Raisins. 

Canned Grapes 418. Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



MAY. 



SUNDAY. 

BREAKFAST. , DINNER. 

Sliced Pineapple. Oat Flakes 262. Cream of Asparagus Soup 35. 

Fried Chicken 86. Mushroom Omelet 220. Boiled Bass 54. Sauce Tartare 149, 

Saratoga Chips 184. Roast Lamb 136, with Mint Sauce 152. 

Sally Lunn 242. Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Boiled New Potatoes 182. 

Green Peas 201. Rice Croquettes 260. 

SUPPER. Lobster Salad 163. 

Veal Loaf Sliced 126. Cabinet Pudding 378. 

Scalloped Clams 76. Ham Salad 165. Rusks 243. Custard Ice-cream 358. 

Preserved Pears 407. Almond Cake 288. Jelly Kisses 352. Fruit. 

Tea 439. Coffee 437. 



MENUS. 465 



MONDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Oranges. Boiled Rice 261. Macaroni Soup 40. 

Broiled Lamb Chops 133. Lyonnaise Potatoes 186. Beefsteak Pie 112. 

Egg Muffins 245. Milk Toast 263. Mashed Potatoes 183. 

Coffee 437. String Beans 198. 

Ladies' Cabbage 192. 

LUNCHEON. Horse-radish 168. 

Cold Roast Lamb 136. Chicken Turnovers 91. Rhubarb Pie 316. 

Lettuce 168, with Mayonnaise 161. Rice Meringue 387. 

French Bread 234. Layer Cake with Fig Filling 275. Nuts. Cheese. Raisins. 

Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



TUESDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Stewed Rhubard. Oatmeal with Cream 360. Swiss White Soup 41. 

Broiled Shad 53. Scrambled Eggs 215. Roast Loin of Veal 121. 

Browned Potatoes 183. Brown Bread 233. New Potatoes a la Creme 184. 

Parker House Rolls 240. Coffee 437. Baked Onions 189. 

Cheese Fondu 211. 

LUNCHEON. Spinach with Egg 202. 

Hamburger Steak 118. Transparent Pudding 389, 

Potato Croquettes 187. Bean Salad 167. Cold Cream Sauce 390. 

Sour Milk Biscuits 239. Election Cake 286. Cookies 299. Fruit. 

Peach Butter 421. Tea 489. Coffee 437. 



WEDNESDAY. 



BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Stewed Peaches. Fried Mush 260. Julienne Soup 33. 

Frogs' Legs Fried 76, Tomato Sauce 152. Boiled Beef Tongue 119. 

New Boiled Potatoes 182. Potato Snow 186. 

French Rolls 241. Wheat Bread 228. Coffee 437. Boiled Turnips 204. 

Macaroni & la Italienne 206. 

LUNCHEON. Lettuce Salad 166. 

Veal Pie 125. Broiled Ham 145. Chocolate Pudding 882, Whipped Cream 880. 

String Beans 198. Corn Bread 236. Nuts. Raiains. 

Pineapple Fritters 254. Chocolate 440. Coffee 487. 



THURSDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Sliced Pineapple. Split Pea Soup 35. 

Hominy 262. Tripe Lyonnaise 121. Plain Omelet 218. Chicken Pot-pie 90. 

New Potatoes a la Creme 184. Boiled Potatoes 188. 

Plain Crumpets 259. Wheat Griddle-cakes 249. Stewed Tomatoes 194. 

Coffee 437. Fried Sweetbreads 180. 

Bean Salad 167. 

LUNCHEON. Burnt Almond Charlotte 845. 

Cold Tongue 119. Beefsteak 106. Walnut Catsup 169. Orange Jelly 854. 

Light Biscuit 239. Cheap Cream Cake 290. Cornstarch Cakes 295. Fruit. 

Preserved Apples 406. Tea 439. Coffee 437. 
30 



466 MENUS. 



FRIDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

ranges. Steamed Oatmeal 262. Irish Potato Soup 42. 

Fresh Salmon Fried 51. Boiled Eggs 214. Steamed Halibut 52, 

Warmed Potatoes 186. Egg Sauce 149. 

Cream Waffles 247. Brown Bread 232. Coffee 437. Steamed Sweet Potatoes 189. 

Green Peas 201. 

LUNCHEON. Veal Olives 123. 

Lamb Stew 137. Asparagus Omelet 219. Dandelion Greens 203. 

Lettuce Salad 166. Cold Lemon Pudding 380. 

German Bread 234. Canned Peaches 417. Jelly Fritters 350. 

Molasses Cup Cakes 293. Chocolate 440. Fruit. Coffee 437. 



BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Stewed Rhubarb. Cracked Wheat 262. Ox-tail Soup 34. 

Baked Mutton Chops with Potatoes 134. Spiced Beef 108. 

Eggs aux Fines Herbes 216. Graham Gems 246. Boiled New Potatoes 188. 

Dipped Toast 263. Coffee 437. String Beans 198. 

Spinach with Eggs 202. 

LUNCHEON. Kadishes 168. 

Fried Spring Chicken 86. Pineapple Pie 816 

Clam Fritters 75. Sliced Tomatoes. Dessert Puffs 346. 

Wheat Drop Cakes 248. Coffee Cake 284. Fruit. 

Crab Apple Jelly 413. Chocolate 440. Coffee 437. 



JUNE 



SUNDAY. 

BREAKFAST. DINNER. 

Strawberries and Cream. Hominy 262. Green Pea Soup 36. 

Fried Brook Trout 57. Poached Eggs 216. Boiled Salmon 51, Bechamel Sauce 153. 

Potatoes a la Creme 184. Stewed Whole Spring Chicken 84. 

Corn Meal Muffins 245. Mushrooms on Toast 264. Steamed New Potatoes 185. Beet Greens 366. 

Coffee 437. Summer Squash 201. 

Raw Cucumbers 167. 

SUPPER. Sweetbread Croquettes 129. 
Scalloped Crabs 60. Cold Pressed Lamb 137. Chocolate Bla